Introduction

As you probably already know, "strategy" refers to the science of successfully fighting an entire campaign or war, while "tactics" refers to the science of successfully fighting a single battle. Predictably some military strategy and tactics are general enough to apply to interplanetary combat, while others do not work at all in the space environment. Sun Tzu's The Art of War, for instance, is general enough to work splendidly. Others will fall afoul of unique features of spatial combat, like the lack of stealth, and the mathematical predictabilty of launch windows and arrival times.

There is a good list of unscientific hackneyed tropes with respect to starship combat in the TV Tropes listing Standard Starship Scuffle.

Fleet Command

Things become even more complicated if you are an admiral or sky marshal who is responsible for all the ships in a battle, as opposed to a captain who just commands their own ship. Admirals generally control the battle from a room equipped with a Big Board, called an Operations Room or a Combat Information Center (which is NOT the bridge). If you are a lucky admiral the battle occurs near a well defended planetary base or orbital fortress. This allows you to dictate tactics to your task force without having to worry about being personally attacked by rude enemy ships. But if the battle happens out of communication range of a cozy fortress, you will have to risk your pink hide in the battle. You will be in a "flagship", a well defended and strongly armed warship carrying an operations room. This is for C2, C3, C2I, or one of the other C4ISTAR military functions. The flagship captain will take care of running the flagship while the admiral concentrates on running the battle.

Naturally the battle will take a catastrophic turn for the worse if the admiral is killed and/or the flagship is destroyed. You should locate the operations room deep in the armored core of the spacecraft. That absurd exposed bridge on the top of the Starship Enterprise would have been shot off a long time ago. The same goes for the bridge on Space Battleship Yamato.

For more information refer to The Great Heinlein Mystery: Science Fiction, Innovation and Naval Technology by Edward M. Wysocki Jr. If you want the real inside dope, refer to 1945 US Navy CIC manual.

OODA LOOP

The phrase OODA loop refers to the decision cycle of observe, orient, decide, and act, developed by military strategist and United States Air Force Colonel John Boyd. Boyd applied the concept to the combat operations process, often at the strategic level in military operations. It is now also often applied to understand commercial operations and learning processes. The approach favors agility over raw power in dealing with human opponents in any endeavor.

Overview

The OODA loop has become an important concept in litigation, business, law enforcement, and military strategy. According to Boyd, decision-making occurs in a recurring cycle of observe-orient-decide-act. An entity (whether an individual or an organization) that can process this cycle quickly, observing and reacting to unfolding events more rapidly than an opponent can thereby "get inside" the opponent's decision cycle and gain the advantage. Frans Osinga has argued that Boyd's own views on the OODA loop are much deeper, richer, and more comprehensive than the common interpretation of the "rapid OODA loop" idea.

Boyd developed the concept to explain how to direct one's energies to defeat an adversary and survive. Boyd emphasized that "the loop" is actually a set of interacting loops that are to be kept in continuous operation during combat. He also indicated that the phase of the battle has an important bearing on the ideal allocation of one's energies.

Boyd's diagram shows that all decisions are based on observations of the evolving situation tempered with implicit filtering of the problem being addressed. The observations are the raw information on which decisions and actions are based. The observed information must be processed to orient it for decision making. In notes from his talk "Organic Design for Command and Control", Boyd said,

The second O, orientation—as the repository of our genetic heritage, cultural tradition, and previous experiences—is the most important part of the O-O-D-A loop since it shapes the way we observe, the way we decide, the way we act.

As stated by Boyd and shown in the "Orient" box, there is much filtering of the information through our culture, genetics, ability to analyze and synthesize, and previous experience. Since the OODA Loop was designed to describe a single decision maker, the situation is usually much more complex than shown, as most business and technical decisions have a team of people observing and orienting, each bringing their own cultural traditions, genetics, experience and other information. It is here that decisions often get stuck, which does not lead to winning, because:

In order to win, we should operate at a faster tempo or rhythm than our adversaries—or, better yet, get inside [the] adversary's Observation-Orientation-Decision-Action time cycle or loop ... Such activity will make us appear ambiguous (unpredictable) thereby generate confusion and disorder among our adversaries—since our adversaries will be unable to generate mental images or pictures that agree with the menacing, as well as faster transient rhythm or patterns, they are competing against.

The OODA loop, which focuses on strategic military requirements, was adapted for business and public sector operational continuity planning. Compare it to the Plan Do Check Act (PDCA) cycle or Shewhart cycle.

As one of Boyd's colleagues, Harry Hillaker, put it in "John Boyd, USAF Retired, Father of the F16":

The key is to obscure your intentions and make them unpredictable to your opponent while you simultaneously clarify his intentions. That is, operate at a faster tempo to generate rapidly changing conditions that inhibit your opponent from adapting or reacting to those changes and that suppress or destroy his awareness. Thus, a hodgepodge of confusion and disorder occur to cause him to over- or under-react to conditions or activities that appear to be uncertain, ambiguous, or incomprehensible.

The OODA Loop also serves to explain the nature of surprise and shaping operations in a way that unifies Gestalt psychology, cognitive science and game theory in a comprehensive theory of strategy. Utility theory (the basis of game theory) describes how decisions are made based on the perceived value of taking an action. The OODA Loop shows that prior to making a decision (the Decide phase), the person will first have to get information (Observe) and determine what it means to him and what he can do about it (Orient). In this way, the utility sought at the Decide phase can be altered by affecting the information the opponent receives and the cognitive model he applies when orienting upon it.

Writer Robert Greene wrote in an article called OODA and You that

... the proper mindset is to let go a little, to allow some of the chaos to become part of his mental system, and to use it to his advantage by simply creating more chaos and confusion for the opponent. He funnels the inevitable chaos of the battlefield in the direction of the enemy.

Applicability

Consider a fighter pilot being scrambled to shoot down an enemy aircraft.

Before the enemy airplane is even within visual range, the pilot will consider any available information about the likely identity of the enemy pilot—the nationality, level of training, and cultural traditions that may come into play.

When the enemy aircraft comes into radar contact, more direct information about the speed, size, and maneuverability of the enemy plane becomes available; unfolding circumstances take priority over radio chatter. A first decision is made based on the available information so far: The pilot decides to "get into the sun" above his opponent, and acts by applying control inputs to climb. Back to observation—is the attacker reacting to the change of altitude? Then comes orient: Is the enemy reacting characteristically, or perhaps acting like a noncombatant? Is his plane exhibiting better-than-expected performance?

As the dogfight begins, little time is devoted to orienting unless some new information pertaining to the actual identity or intent of the attacker comes into play. Information cascades in real time, and the pilot does not have time to process it consciously; the pilot reacts as he is trained to, and conscious thought is directed to supervising the flow of action and reaction, continuously repeating the OODA cycle. Simultaneously, the opponent is going through the same cycle.

One of John Boyd's primary insights in fighter combat was that it is vital to change speed and direction faster than the opponent. This may interfere with an opponent's OODA cycle. It is not necessarily a function of the plane's ability to maneuver, but the pilot must think and act faster than the opponent can think and act. Getting "inside" the cycle, short-circuiting the opponent's thinking processes, produces opportunities for the opponent to react inappropriately.

Another tactical-level example can be found on the basketball court, where a player takes possession of the ball and must get past an opponent who is taller or faster. A straight dribble or pass is unlikely to succeed. Instead, the player may engage in a rapid and elaborate series of body movements designed to befuddle the opponent and deny him the ability to take advantage of his superior size or speed. At a basic level of play, this may be merely a series of fakes, with the hope that the opponent will make a mistake or an opening will occur, but practice and mental focus may allow one to accelerate tempo, get inside the opponent's OODA loop, and take control of the situation, causing the opponent to move in a particular way and generating an advantage rather than merely reacting to an accident. Taking control of the situation is key. It is not enough to speed through OODA faster, which results in flailing.

The same cycle operates over a longer timescale in a competitive business landscape, and the same logic applies. Decision makers gather information (observe), form hypotheses about customer activity and the intentions of competitors (orient), make decisions, and act on them. The cycle is repeated continuously. The aggressive and conscious application of the process gives a business advantage over a competitor who is merely reacting to conditions as they occur or has poor awareness of the situation. Especially in business, in which teams of people are working the OODA Loop, it often gets stuck at the "D" (see Ullman) and no action is taken allowing the competition to gain the upper hand or resources to be wasted.

The approach favors agility over raw power in dealing with human opponents in any endeavor. Boyd put the ethos into practice with his work for the United States Air Force. He was an advocate of maneuverable fighter aircraft, in contrast to the heavy, powerful jet fighters (such as the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II) that were prevalent in the 1960s. Boyd inspired the Lightweight Fighter program (LWF) that produced the successful General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon and McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet, which are still in use by the United States and several other military powers into the 21st century.

From the Wikipedia entry for OODA LOOP

CIC Functions

The Combat Information Center is a little difficult to understand if you are not a member of a military wet navy.

It is NOT the ship's bridge, even though they are commonly arranged much the same as the fictitious "bridge" of Star Trek's Starship Enterprise (this is because real-world CICs were inspired by Matt Jeffries's design, see below). In the real world a wet navy ship's bridge only has a couple of stations. The Starship Enterprise has its bridge located in its CIC for dramatic reasons (the "bridge" is the navigation and helmsman stations, that red console Sulu and Chekov sit at).

It is NOT the fleet command room, though it is often used for one. In reality, non-flagship vessels have their own CICs.

As Christopher Weuve puts it:

The primary mission of CIC is to provide the organized collection, processing, display, competent evaluation, and rapid dissemination of pertinent tactical information and intelligence to command and control stations..

Christopher Weuve

All vital "intelligence" (data) from sensors, scouts, intelligence agencies, central command, other ships, etc. pours into the CIC. The Evaluator's duty is to analyze and evaluate all combat information. They filter the information, deciding what is important and what is noise. They pass the filtered information with suggestions on tactical situations to the Captain and the Flag. The information also goes on the Big Board tactical display.

In a stunning example of science fiction innovation, the very concept of an CIC came from a science fiction novel. In his novel Gray Lensman, legendary author E. E. "Doc" Smith postulated a huge flagship called the Directrix. It contained a monster operations room centered around a seven hundred foot "tank" 3D display, capable of tracking several billion warships on a map of the galaxy. At the Technovology website, Mark Charters mentions a letter to Astounding magazine. Editor John W. Campbell stated the acknowledgement of Captain Cal Lanning that Smith's ideas were used extensively in the design of US Navy warship's Combat Information Centers. At the TV Tropes website, they allege that the Directrix was the inspiration for Chester A. Nimitz to use a similar system for directing fleet operations during the Battle of Midway. After that, everybody started using them, which is how it became a troupe in the first place.

The entire set-up was taken specifically, directly, and consciously from the Directrix. In your story, you reached the situation the Navy was in—more communication channels than integration techniques to handle it. You proposed such an integrating technique and proved how advantageous it could be. You, sir, were 100% right. As the Japanese Navy—not the hypothetical Boskonian fleet—learned at an appalling cost.

Captain Cal Lanning

The bridge of the classic Star Trek Enterprise was designed by Matt Jeffries. In a second stunning example of science fiction innovation it influenced the design of the U.S. Navy master communications center at NAS San Diego. On US naval vessels, their bridge design does not look anything like the bridge of the Starship Enterprise, but the Combat Information Center in a navy vessel does have some resemblances (mostly the Captain's chair in the center of the room). Again, refer to The Great Heinlein Mystery: Science Fiction, Innovation and Naval Technology by Edward M. Wysocki Jr.

COMBAT INFORMATION CENTER

The idea of such a centralised control room is surprisingly old; it can be found in science fiction as early as The Struggle For Empire (1900). Early versions were used in the second world war; according to Rear Admiral Cal Laning, the idea for a command information center was taken “specifically, consciously, and directly” from the spaceship Directrix in the Lensman novels of E.E. Smith, Ph.D.,[3] and influenced by the works of his friend and collaborator Robert Heinlein, a retired American naval officer.[4] After the numerous losses during the various naval battles off Guadalcanal during the war of attrition that was part and parcel of the Solomon Islands campaign and the Battle of Guadalcanal the United States Navy employed Operational analysis, determined many of their losses were due to procedure and disorganization, and implemented the Combat Information Centers building on what was initially called "radar plot" according to an essay "CIC Yesterday and Today" by the Naval Historical Center.[5] That same article points out that in 1942 radar, radar procedure, battle experiences, needs, and the CIC all grew up together as needs developed and experience was gained and training spread, all in fits and starts beginning with the earliest radar uses in the Pacific battles starting with the Coral Sea, when radar gave rise to the first tentative attempt to vector an Air CAP to approaching Japanese flights, maturing some before the Battle of Midway, where post-battle analysis of Coral Sea's results had given more confidence in the ability and to the process and the desire was bolstered by new procedures giving their measure of added confidence.

  1. Flight 1957
  2. Flight 1957 referring to the carrier HMS Ark Royal
  3. Unpublished letter from John W. Campbell to E. E. Smith, pages 1–2, Dated 11 June 1947 in the collection of Verna Smith Trestrail
  4. Robert A. Heinlein by William H. Patterson, Jr., volume 1, chapter 24
  5. CIC, CIC [Combat Information Center] Yesterday and Today,DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY -- NAVAL HISTORICAL CENTER, 805 KIDDER BREESE SE, WASHINGTON NAVY YARD, WASHINGTON DC 20374-5060
  6. http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-s/dd963l.htm
  7. Aboard Uss Carl Vinson26 Stock Photo Image
From Wikipedia entry COMBAT INFORMATION CENTER

A ship's bridge is just a two-station place (navigation and helm) mainly meant to control the movement of the ship. Usually the captain is not even present, unless some critical maneuver is underway. Back in the age of steam, the bridge did not even have any controls. They would instead give commands to the engine room where the physical controls are located. They'd either use speaking tubes for verbal commands, or use a ship's wheel and a engine order telegraph. Later the power of electricity allowed the actual controls to be located in the bridge. However, even to this day warships tend to have the physical controls for the weapons to be located deep in a protected area of the ship, not on the exposed. bridge. This allows the weapons to keep on fighting if the bridge is destroyed. Since a spacecraft does not need the visibility of an exposed bridge, it too can locate the bridge in a protected position.

We now know that Research had been working on the Battle Analyzer for many years, but at the time it came as a revelation to us and perhaps we were too easily swept off our feet. Norden's argument, also, was seductively convincing. What did it matter, he said, if the enemy had twice as many ships as we—if the efficiency of ours could be doubled or even trebled? For decades the limiting factor in warfare had been not mechanical but biological—it had become more and more difficult for any single mind, or group of minds, to cope with the rapidly changing complexities of battle in three-dimensional space. Norden's mathematicians had analyzed some of the classic engagements of the past, and had shown that even when we had been victorious we had often operated our units at much less than half of their theoretical efficiency.

The Battle Analyzer would change all this by replacing the operations staff with electronic calculators. The idea was not new, in theory, but until now it had been no more than a utopian dream. Many of us found it difficult to believe that it was still anything but a dream: after we had run through several very complex dummy battles, however, we were convinced.

It was decided to install the Analyzer in four of our heaviest ships, so that each of the main fleets could be equipped with one. At this stage, the trouble began—though we did not know it until later.

The Analyzer contained just short of a million vacuum tubes and needed a team of five hundred technicians to maintain and operate it. It was quite impossible to accommodate the extra staff aboard a battleship, so each of the four units had to be accompanied by a converted liner to carry the technicians not on duty. Installation was also a very slow and tedious business, but by gigantic efforts it was completed in six months.

Then, to our dismay, we were confronted by another crisis. Nearly five thousand highly skilled men had been selected to serve the Analyzers and had been given an intensive course at the Technical Training Schools. At the end of seven months, 10 per cent of them had had nervous breakdowns and only 40 per cent had qualified.

Once again, everyone started to blame everyone else. Norden, of course, said that the Research Staff could not be held responsible, and so incurred the enmity of the Personnel and Training Commands. It was finally decided that the only thing to do was to use two instead of four Analyzers and to bring the others into action as soon as men could be trained. There was little time to lose, for the enemy was still on the offensive and his morale was rising.

The first Analyzer fleet was ordered to recapture the system of Eriston. On the way, by one of the hazards of war, the liner carrying the technicians was struck by a roving mine. A warship would have survived, but the liner with its irreplaceable cargo was totally destroyed. So the operation had to be abandoned.

The other expedition was, at first, more successful. There was no doubt at all that the Analyzer fulfilled its designers' claims, and the enemy was heavily defeated in the first engagements. He withdrew, leaving us in possession of Saphran, Leucon and Hexanerax. But his Intelligence Staff must have noted the change in our tactics and the inexplicable presence of a liner in the heart of our battle-fleet. It must have noted, also, that our first fleet had been accompanied by a similar ship—and had withdrawn when it had been destroyed.

In the next engagement, the enemy used his superior numbers to launch an overwhelming attack on the Analyzer ship and its unarmed consort. The attack was made without regard to losses—both ships were, of course, very heavily protected—and it succeeded. The result was the virtual decapitation of the Fleet, since an effectual transfer to the old operational methods proved impossible. We disengaged under heavy fire, and so lost all our gains and also the systems of Lormyia, Ismarnus, Beronis, Alphanidon and Sideneus. At this stage, Grand Admiral Taxaris expressed his disapproval of Norden by committing suicide, and I assumed supreme command.

From SUPERIORITY by Sir. Arthur C. Clarke (1951)

CIC Layout

As previously mentioned, Matt Jeffries designed such a logical arrangement for the bridge of the Starship Enterprise that the US Navy studied it when they were designing their command centers. The main idea they favored was the captain/evaluator in the center, where they can turn to look over the shoulder of any of the work stations, plus the idea of a Big Board where currently critical information can be displayed.



Combat Information Center from a U.S. Navy Guided Missile Destroyer DDG51 class, courtesy of Christopher Weuve.

Blue are chairs. Yellow are desks. Red are CRT/Flatscreen monitors. Magenta are rear-projection monitors ("e" and "f"). Lower case letters "a" through "h" are to allow one to match up the deck plans with the photograph. In the photo, right above "e" is the red display showing ships course, speed, and screw (propeller) revolutions. The backs of the chairs have pouches containing manuals for that control station. Note that chairs are bolted to the floor.


Bridge of the starship Enterprise, designed by Matt Jeffries. This is a combination of a bridge (helm/navigation) and a CIC. Captain/Evaluator is in the command swivel chair in the center. All station are arranged so captain can look over the sholders of each operator and examine their displays. In the front is the big board viewscreen.

BATTLESTAR GALACTICA CIC

The Battlestar Galactica’s Combat Information Center, or CIC, is a medical-theater-like room that acts as the military nerve center and brain of the Galactica. It is located near the center of the ship, is heavily armored and protected by armed guards, and has a staff of between 35-50 people.

The two highest ranking officers on the ship, Commander Adama and Colonel Tigh, typically stand at the center of the auditorium around the Command Board. This position lets them hear status reports from around the room, and issue orders to the entire ship.

Various pods of workstations provide seating for the rest of the staff. These stations are grouped by function. We see Navigation crew sitting near other navigation crew, weapons officers near other combat functions, communications near the center, and engineering given a special area up top.

Phone kiosks are placed throughout the CIC, with two high profile kiosks on the Command Board. Large display boards and the central Dradis Console provide information to the entire crew of the CIC.

Organized Chaos

The CIC is dealing with a lot of information from all over the ship and trying to relate it to the lead officers who are making decisions. There is a lot of activity related to this information overload, but the design of the CIC has organized it into a reasonably effective flow.

Teams communicate with each other, then that decision flows forward to lead officers, who relate it to Admiral Adama.

Orders flow in the opposite direction.

Admiral Adama can very quickly shout out an order from the center of the CIC and have his lead officers hear it all around him. It can also act as a failsafe: other officers can also hear the same order and act as a confirmation step. From there, the officers can organize their teams to distribute more detailed orders to the entire ship.

Large screens show information that the entire CIC needs to know, while smaller screens display information for specific crew or groups.

Overall, the stadium-like construction of the CIC works well for the low tech approach that the Galactica takes after. Without introducing automation and intelligent computer networks onto the bridge, there is little that could be done to improve the workflow.

From CIC by Clayton Beese (2016)
JOVIAN CHRONICLES CIC

CENTRALIZED EARTH GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION BOAT BRIDGE

Boat-sized vessels cannot afford the volume needed for a full-sized spherical control center. Instead, they use a reduced four-person design. This smaller size allows a boat to still benefit from the concept of the astronomical display.

The ship's captain is in the center. The chief gunner station, the chief engineering station and a dual role navigation/helmsman station form a triangle around him. Other functions, such as a communication and astronavigation, are supervised from small work stations located just outside the bridge itself.

The chief gunner can access all of the weapon controls from the bridge. Normally, the bridge's gunnery station is used solely to prioritize targets and for overall situational awareness. Actual aiming of weapons is typicaly conducted through the local fire control systems near the weapons themselves.

Engineering interfaces with the ship's computer to run programs, do maintenance reviews and supervise damage control. In combat, the chief engineer may attempt various workaround repairs without leaving the bridge. He may also directs the damage control parties, which are led by the watch officers.

The ship's pilot has full control of the vessel from the navigation and helm station. Constant coordination with gunnery is important, as the ship's maneuvers will move its firing arcs around. New courses may be plotted onto the spherical display for review by the captain prior to them being initiated.

Various data feeds are projected on the datascreen that form the walls and ceiling. In combat, the system functions as a giant headup display, including target identification, range and a symbol showing the object's relative velocity. Each individual station has independent displays for more detailed information.


JOVIAN CONFEDERATION BRIDGE

The bridge of the Corsair-class vessels is probably the largest living space aboard the vessel. It is built around the standard Jovian "open space" spherical layout, with crew stations far from one another. In many ways, it would be better to refer to it as the ship's cockpit, since it shares many characteristics with interceptor and exo-armor cockpits.

The Corsair's bridge is covered with a bubble-like canopy, a sophisticated projection system similar to the ones used on most ships' bridges; it can project not only a reconstructed view from any sensor cluster in any wavelength, but it can also overlay tactical information such as trajectories and IFF tags.

Each crew station is equipped with an ergonomic padded seat surrounded by readout panels that can be reprogrammed to fulfill the functions of any of the bridge's posts. The seat features attachment points for a sturdy padded harness for use during combat and alert situations (a thin seat belt is used otherwise to improve comfort). A panel in the base of the seat contains connectors for a space suit air hose and power leads, greatly extending the endurance of said suit.


COOPERATIVE VENUSIAN NAVAL ADMINISTRATION BRIDGE

The bridge of the Shan-Yu battlecruiser is a spherical chamber which takes up the same volume as the Strategic Operations Center. Just like the latter, the entire room can be rotated so that its overall gravity gradient is aligned with the ship’s axis (when under acceleration) or the outside of the hull (when the ship is under rotation). Entry and exit are accomplished via several large hatches that line up with the ship’s corridors; in the event of a rotation malfunction, emergency cutting tools stored in a locker on one wall allow the bridge crew to cut their way out of the bridge.

The Shan-Yu’s bridge has the same general layout as the bridges of most modern military spacecraft. It has fewer stations than the SOC, and a much more delicate-seeming framework around the seats (the equipment is just as structurally sound as the ones used by other nations, but is more aesthetically pleasing). The captain sits right in the middle of the room in a gimbaled seat that can swivel to face any direction in the room and its wall monitors.

The rest of the crew stations are scattered around, above and below the captain's seat, and are all linked to a walkway and ladders that ring the bridge. Each crew station is surrounded by monitors, facing both inward and outward, that complement the "big picture" presented on the main spherical viewscreen. When fully active, the bridge is a riot of multimedia displays that a good captain must be able to interpret and analyze at a glance.


COOPERATIVE VENUSIAN NAVAL ADMINISTRATION STRATEGIC OPERATION CENTER

The Strategic Operations Center is a room that will be present on every Shan-Yu. It occupies a large spherical volume in the center of one of the main hulls, exactly in the same location as the bridge but within the opposite hull. The Operations Center‘s primaryfunction is to coordinate fleet activities, but it can also serve as a backup bridge if necessary. At all times, operators move between stations, compiling intelligence and battle reports with the help of the onboard computers to present up-to-date tactical advice to the officers in charge. A number of heavy-duty walkways and liftlines crisscross the room to handle foot traffic, which is much increased in this room compared to the bridge.

The main level is placed at the ”equator” of the room. Computer terminals and monitors line the wall, along with compact and space-saving seating for a large number of operatives. The wall monitors are set to show external views of the ship or other important data. Two extra floor tiers, commonly called the “Tropic of Cancer” and the ”Tropic of Capricorn,” are located midway further up and down along the wall. These partial floors are accessible via ladders or zero-gee floating, and consist primarily of walkways around the rim and several extra workstations and monitoring panels.

A large chair sits on a raised dais at the back of the room. It is meant for use by the Strategic Operations Coordinator, who is usually a flag officer. This seat, unlike the captain‘s chair on the bridge, is designed not for maximum view but rather for easy access to human resources; there is an endless stream of people coming up to the dais to provide updates, explanations and advice. The Coordinator‘s chair is surrounded by the majority of the room’s floor space, which is fitted with clips for fold-down chairs and a small tablekhreat board for impromptu conferences. From this seat, a Venusian admiral can guide the movements and activities of dozens of warships, making use of the Shan-Yu’s extensive communications array to assign new orders and tactics.


COOPERATIVE VENUSIAN NAVAL ADMINISTRATION ANALYSIS ROOM

This is the room where all the data gathered by the Huang-ti's sensors is collated, inspected, and evaluated by the onboard specialists. lt is located in the same position as the Cloak Room and recreation rooms in the opposite main hull, and is fairly large for a room aboard a spaceship of this size.

The inner room is spherical; since the corresponding space in the other main hull is square-edged, the Analysis Room is actually a sphere positioned within a rectangular volume. The space outside the crew sphere is taken up by computers and data storage equipment which is accessible via access panels in the walls. A tiny bathroom and a snack bin are located right outside the main door for convenience during long shifts.

The room has many chairs along the walls, but the central space is clear of permanent furniture. The walls are covered in monitors; threat boards and other large displays can unfold from the walls, allowing even more data display space. In its fully "open" state, the whole room is packed solid with display devices. Many crew, however, prefer to use virtual reality headsets and use the central space as a virtual environment. Up to a dozen people can work in this room in total comfort (as far as elbow room goes, at least). This room is not set up for ship control functions; it is a think tank, not much else.

JOVIAN CONFEDERATION: SHIPS OF THE FLEET, VOL 2, VOL 3 and VOL 4 by Dream Pod 9

Tactical Display

Operations rooms are centered around some sort of tactical display, the aforementioned Big Board. In World War 2, you had huge tables with models of soldiers, tanks and aircraft, being moved about by military women using croupier sticks. You can see this in almost any movie about the Battle of Britain, depictions of the famous Battle of Britain Bunker. Another classic item is the grease-pencil annotated polar plot on an edge-lighted transparent plotting board. You can see that one in places ranging from old Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea episodes all the way up to Star Wars A New Hope and The Empire Strikes Back. Still later a Radar or Sonar cathode ray tube with the sweeping line became popular. Those are still used with air-traffic controllers, with aircraft annotation and everything. Then came NASA mission control and quite a few James Bond villains who were fond of video walls composed of multiple monitors displaying all kinds of different data. The Starship Enterprise had a classic Big Board display in the front. Finally, science fiction has postulated that futuristic combat spacecraft will have some species of holographic display (generally spherical) showing the location and vector of all friendly and hostile spacecraft in the battle. The display will probably have additional information, see Long Scan

For more information refer to The Great Heinlein Mystery: Science Fiction, Innovation and Naval Technology by Edward M. Wysocki Jr. If you want the real inside dope, refer to 1945 US Navy CIC manual.

TOO FANCY TO BE PRACTICAL

(ed note: The Earth empire has oppressed the interstellar colonies for too long, and the colonies have risen in a revolutionary war. The Earth fleet, lead by the conceited but stupid Comrad Admiral Kapustin is in the CIC room of the flagship, moving to intercept the rag-tag rebel fleet. Kapustin is of course using the finest cutting-edge holographic tactical display available.

But rebel admiral Skougaard finds simplicity to be a virtue. The rebels only have access to more crude instruments, but sometimes that can be an advantage.)


      "Today is the day, Onyegin,” the Admiral said, expelling a cloud of aromatic smoke. “The first space battle in history will be taking place soon, and I shall be the first officer ever to win one. A place in the history books. Any change in their course?"
     “None, Comrade Admiral. You can see for yourself."
     He snapped orders at the Tank operator who activated the hologram field to show the course of the approaching enemy fleet. The Admiral stamped over to stand before the glowing display. It occupied a space of almost thirty cubic meters, taking up the entire center of the War Room. The display was of course three dimensional and could be viewed from any side. A group of glowing symbols sprang into view in the Tank, terminating in a dotted white line that ran up and out of sight.
     “Their course so far,” Onyegin said, “and the projection into the future." A second broken line of light, this time red, extended down from the enemy fleet to end at floor level.
     “Good,” the Admiral grunted. “Now where will this take them?"
     The small blue sphere of the Earth snapped into existence, surrounded by her captive satellites and orbiting Moon. The line of the course passed them all by.
     “That is the projection as of this moment, not taking into consideration any future changes," Onyegin said. “However there are still course alterations possible. Like this."
     The red line fanned out into a number of arcs, each one of them terminating at one of the objects in space. The Admiral grunted again.
     “Earth, the Moon, power satellites, colonies, anything. Well that's why we are here, Onyegin, learn that lesson. We defend Earth. Those criminals must pass us to work their mischief, and that will not be an easy thing to do. And my old friend Skougaard is leading them. What a pleasure! I shall personally execute the traitor when he is captured. Vodka!"
     The three dimensional image blurred, changed and cleared. An apparently solid image now floated there.
     "Better," the Admiral condescended. He walked over and stabbed his finger into it. “I have you Skougaard, you and your precious Dannebrog. You shall not escape. Now, let me have a display of our converging courses."
     The image changed again—with the symbols of the enemy fleet at one side of the Tank, the Earth forces on the other. First a broken line sprang across the Tank from the invaders, then one from the defenders. Where the two lines intersected sets of numbers appeared, one green, one yellow. The last digits flickering and changing constantly. Green represented the distance in kilometers to the intersection from their present position, yellow the time to get there at their present speed. The Admiral studied the figures closely. Still too far.
     “Show me ten and ninety."
     The computer made the complex calculation in microseconds and two arcs of light cut across their future course, less than a quarter of the way to the enemy fleet. The arc closest to the fleet was the ninety, a range at which ninety percent of their missiles could be expected to strike the enemy—if no evasive or screening action was taken. The ten was further out and represented ten percent of the missiles. There were hours to go before even this impractical range would be closed. Space warfare, like ancient naval warfare, consisted of long journeys punctuated by brief encounters. The Admiral sucked happily on his cigarette and waited. He had always been a man of infinite patience.

     Skougaard's flagship, the Dannebrog, did not have an overly sophisticated War Room like its opposite number, the Stalin. Skougaard liked it that way. All of the information he needed was visible on the screens, and if he wanted a larger image a projection apparatus threw a picture that could cover the entire wall. It was all solid state, with multiple parallel circuitry, so there was very little that could go wrong. Any force strong enough to incapacitate the circuits would undoubtedly destroy the ship as well. The Admiral always felt that a complex hologram display, with its intricate circuitry, was just wasted effort and unnecessary complication. Since the machines did all of the work they only needed to show him what was happening in the simplest manner, then obey his instructions the instant they were given. He looked at the displays of the converging fleets and rubbed his large jaw in thought. He finally turned to Jan who waited quietly at his side.
     The Admiral nodded appreciatively. “Wonderful. And since time means distance in an orbit we can space them out exactly. How close together can they be fired?"
     “The best we can do is one about every three meters."
     “Your best is incredible. That means I can fire across the line of approach of a ship or a fleet and they will run into a solid wall of those things."
     “Ideally. This will simplify the range function, leaving only aim to worry about."
     “I have some surprises in store for my old friend, Kapustin,” the Admiral said, turning back to the screens. “I know him very well, his tactics and his armaments—and his stupidity. While he has no idea what I am going to hit him with. This is going to be an interesting encounter. I think you will find it something worth watching."
     “I don’t imagine that I'll have much time to be a spectator. I thought I would be with the gunners."
     “No. You will be more valuable here with me. If Thurgood-Smythe contacts us, or if there is any situation involving his presence, I want you here to evaluate it instantly. He is the only unknown factor in my calculations. Everything else has been allowed for. The computations made, the program written."
     As though to drive home the point the numbers on the course screen began to flash and a horn sounded. "Course change," the computer announced aloud at the same time. The vibrations of the engines could be felt through the soles of their feet.
     “Now we will see how fast Kapustin’s computer is,” Skougaard said. “Also, how fast he is himself. A machine can only supply information. He will have to make up his mind what to do with it.”

(ed note: Yes, the rebels pretty much destroy the entire Earth fleet by using simpler equipment. Their weapons are glorified cannons, using mass-driver accelerators to fire iron cannon-balls. The Earth fleet has counter-measures for missiles and related weapons, but nothing to stop high velocity balls of metal.)


From STARWORLD by Harry Harrison (1981)

Tactical Display: Croupier Table

Tactical Display: Polar Plot

These displays use the Polar coordinate system. This is traditionally used with sea-going naval vessels. This means the fact that polar coordinates are two-dimensional does not matter since sea-going ships generally do not use the third dimension under normal operations (notable exceptions being a ship sinking, a ship blown out of the water, or a submarine). A spacecraft would use a spherical coordinate system.

Anyway with the wet navy, the bulls-eye center of the plot is considered to be the ship that contains the CIC room, and 0° is true north. At periodic intervals other ships are plotted with grease pencil on the display, using each ship's range and bearing as reported by your radar or sonar. The appropriate concentric circle is used for the range, the appropriate angle from 0° is used for the bearing, where these two cross is where you draw the symbol for that ship with grease pencil.

Note that if the other ship is stationary but the CIC ship is moving, the plot of the other ship will show it moving in the opposite direction. This is just the normal consequence of the CIC ship always being in the center. You want it in the center because that makes the polar plot just perfect for telling the gunnery crew which direction to fire their turrets, or where the antisubmarine station should lob a depth charge.


DEAD RECKONING TRACER

The main drawback to the polar plot with its static grid printed on the Plexiglas is that it uses true north as zero degrees.

The radar/sonar crew get the range and bearing of all ships of interest around the CIC ship. Then they have to look at the direction the CIC ship's nose is currently pointing at, correct all the bearing readings so they are 0° oriented instead of CIC-nose oriented, then pass all the readings to the CIC room.

In the CIC room, the officer in charge of updating the sheet of Plexiglas takes the readings and draws the current locations of all the ships of interest.

Now, say that one of the ships of interest is an enemy submarine, and the CIC ship wants to lob a pattern of depth charges bracketing it. The officer of the deck draws the pattern, then uses the Plexiglas grid to determine each charge's range and bearing. But before they can pass the fire order to the depth charge gunnery crew, the bearings have to be converted from 0° orientation to CIC-nose orientation.

This is two cases of an extra step being added to the process, with the process time going up with the number of ships of interest. Time is of the essence. In addition, these are two places where mistakes in calculation can creep in. Wouldn't it be nice these steps could be avoided all together?

The steps can be avoided by just using CIC orientation at all steps. Problem is that this means the polar grid would have to be capable of rotation and movement on the Plexiglas. Which can't be done since the grid is painted on. How can we make it move?

Which brings us to the NC-2 plotter (aka a dead reckoning tracer or DRT). This was a large table with a glass top and a mobile projector below (called a "bug"). Before battle you would attach a large piece of tracing paper over the glass top. The bug would be zeroed in at the center of the table.

When you turned on the NC-2, the bug would project an image of a polar grid upward. With the lights in the room dimmed, the grid could be seen through the tracing paper. Once on, the NC-2 would move and rotate the bug (and thus the polar grid) using inputs from the ships gyro compass and underwater speed log. With this system, the CIC ship was not always at the center of the table, it moved around as the ship moved. And 0° was not true north, it was instead the direction the CIC ship's nose was pointing. Just what we wanted!

Periodically you would mark on the tracing paper the center of the polar grid's current location. So the paper would have a record of how the CIC ship moved through the area. Ships of interest you were tracking would be plotted on the current location and orientation of the polar grid, using range and bearing as reported from radar or sonar. Only the bearings would be from the ship's nose, not true north. So the radar crew could just give you the radar bearings straight, no conversion required.

And when a fire order was needed, the officer of the deck could measure the bearings directly using the bug's grid. This would automatically be oriented to the CIC ship's nose, no conversion required. The anti-sub crew thought the NC-2 was the greatest thing since sliced bread. They considered it the third-most valuable piece of equipment on the entire ship. The only items more valuable were the sonar and the depth charges.

Naturally nowadays such plotting is done on computer and displayed on a computer monitor. Electromechanical solutions like the NC-2 are not needed. Unless your computer network has been hacked by Cylons or fried by an EMP or something.


Tactical Display: Cathode Ray Tube

Tactical Display: Video Wall

"I think the first matter before us," Jim said, "is to briefly discuss the strategic situation. Tactics will follow." Spock handed him a tape; Jim slipped it into the table and activated it. The four small holoprojection units around the table came alive, each one constructing a three-dimensional map of the Galaxy, burning with the bright pinpoints of stars. The map rotated until one seemed to be looking straight "down" through the Galactic disk, and the focus tightened on the Sagittarius Arm—the irregular spiral-arm structure, thirty thousand light-years long and half as wide, that the Federation, the Romulans and the Klingons all shared. From this perspective, the Sag Arm (at least to Jim) looked rather like the North American continent; though it was North America missing most of Canada, and the United States as far west as the Rockies and as far south as Oklahoma. Sol sat on the shore of that great starry lacuna, about where Oklahoma City would have been.

"Here's where we stand," Jim said. The bright "continent" swelled in the map-cube, till the whole cubic was full of the area that would have been southwestern North America, Mexico and the Californias. "Federation, Romulan and Klingon territories are all marked according to the map key." Three sets of very lumpy, irregular shapes, like a group of wrestling amoebas, flashed into color in the starfield: red for the Klingons, gold for the Romulans, blue for the Federation. There was very little regularity about their boundaries with one another, except for one abnormally smooth curvature, almost a section of an egg shape, where the blue space nested with and partly surrounded the gold. "Disputed territories are in orange." There was a lot of orange, both where blue met red and where red met gold; though rather more of the latter. "These schematics include the latest intelligence we have from both Romulans and Klingons. You can see that there are some problems in progress out there. The alliance between the Klingons and the Romulans is either running into some kind of trouble, or is not defined the way we usually define alliances. This gives us our first hint as to why we're out here, gentlebeings—unless Fleet was more open with one of you than it was with me."

Suvuk shook his head slightly; Walsh rolled his eyes at the ceiling. "I've rarely seen them so obtuse," Rihaul said. "Surely something particularly messy is coming up."

"Indeed," Jim said. "Which is why we will be needing to keep in very close touch with one another. Any piece of data, any midnight thought, may give us the clue to figuring out what's going to happen. My staff has done some research involving recent Romulan intelligence reports; I'll be passing that data on to you for your study and comment. Anything, any idea you may come up with, don't hesitate to call me. My intention is to keep this operation very free-form, at least until something happens. For something will happen."

"I wholly agree, Captain," Suvuk said. "Our mission here is as surely provocatory as it is investigatory. One does not waste a destroyer on empty space, or space one expects to stay empty. We are expected to force the Romulans' hand, as Captain Walsh would say."

Jim looked with carefully concealed surprise at Suvuk, who had flashed a quick mild glance at Walsh. Is it just me? he thought. But, no, Vulcans don't make jokes. Certainly this one wouldn't—"Yes, sir," Jim said. "With that in mind, here's our patrol pattern as I envision it; please make any suggestions you find apt."

The map's field changed again, becoming more detailed. The long curved ellipsoid boundary between the two spaces swelled to dominate the cubic; stars in the field became few. "Here we are," Jim said. "Sigma-285 and its environs. I suggest that we spread ourselves out as thinly as we can—not so far as to be out of easy communication with one another, but far enough apart to cover as much territory as possible with any given pattern."

"The ships would be a couple of hundred light-years or so apart," Walsh said.

"That's about right; the boundaries I was considering for the whole patrol area, at least to start with, would be defined by 218 Persei to the Galactic north, 780 Arietis to the south, and the 'east-west' distance along the lines from 56 Arietis to iota Andromedae; about half a Galactic degree. This way, any ship in need of assistance can have it within from a day to an hour, depending on what the situation is."

From My Enemy, My Ally by Diane Duane (1990)

Tactical Display: Holographic Sphere

But as the machine slid swiftly along gleaming passages, Benton saw that the private suite of the grand admiral was no small place. Through door after door he glimpsed tremendous activities. Occasionally they whizzed through open bays of desks where scraps of conversation could be overheard, while all about were annunciators flashing weird symbols incessantly.

"Sector 4," droned a voice, "Pegasus and Altair joining action....Pegasus hit....Pegasus blows up....Cruiser Flotilla 36 moving in from lower port quarter....Altair hit —"

As that faded, the orderly cut across the back of a balcony overlooking a great hail. Far down in the pit Benton could see a huge swirling ball of vapor, glittering with pinpoints of varicolored lights cast upon it by unseen projectors. That would be the ultra-secret Battle Integrator — the marvelous moving solidograph that resolved six dimensions into four. Stern-faced officers watched it intently, snapping orders into phones, and uniformed girl messengers dashed everywhere.


Benton and Torrington were crouched over a curious device in the turret booth. It was a miniature version of the Battle Integrator, a series of transparent concentric spheres cunningly illuminated by fingers of light from a projector in its nucleus. Benton indicated a crawling pink dot.

"That's us," he said. "When we get to point A, Purcell blasts off with everything he has and from there to B we accelerate full power. By the time we get to B you should have recovered from the acceleration shock and manned the thermoscope. The target will be somewhere in the zone COTV. This curve shows its heat characteristics. The minute you pick it up, cut in the tracker and put on your alert light. Get it?"


There were five assorted admirals, two commodores, and a captain in the group.

"But who would have thought they would try to sneak in raiders that way?" growled one. They were looking at the big Battle Integrator whirling and sparkling in Action Hall, not a hundred yards from Bullard's quiet office.

"The unexpected, you know — " put in the captain. "Luckily we had scouts out."

"Yah," spat the admiral. "Boys to do a man's job. Six Vixens, and along come four maulers. All right. The Scouts disintegrated two, but now there are two left and no Vixens. What's to stop 'em from coming right on in? There's nothing heavy enough this side of Mars, and that's five days off using everything."

They stared silently at the telltale ball of mist. High up toward its pole eight dull red marks were dying out., remnants of the blasted ships. The ships were gone, but the after-radiation lingered. Inside them and several degrees down two silvery blobs were crawling slowly. A pale thread of violet light throbbed in the fog, and on it the two blobs lay like pearls on a silken thread. The violet line was their computed trajectory. Its lower terminus was the Moon, Tycho Crater, in which sat the great Defense Building.

"What the — ?" murmured a commodore. A pinkish streak of light appeared like a short-tailed comet out of the nowhere, slowed, brightened, and then condensed to a definite point of glittering light. Instantly the computers in distant rooms noted it, and with flying fingers punched its observed co-ordinates into their machines. A second later another violet thread appeared — the mysterious pink body's course. It lacked little of intersecting that of the two maulers.

"There just can't be any cruisers way up there," said a bewildered vice admiral. He was the Operational Director of the cruiser force and knew.

A loud-speaker began to blare. "The ship just appearing in Sector L-56 Plus 9 Zone is the ex-monitor Vindictive, engaged in target practice. She was propelled there as the result of a mysterious accident. Believed to be damaged and only partly manned. When last seen katatrons were still in working condition, but there are no experienced officers on board, her captain and others have abandoned her — "

From "The Bureaucrat" by Malcolm Jameson, collected in Bullard of the Space Patrol (1951)

But you're going in the wrong direction. A.T. headquarters is in King sector, about five months from Belt City."

"Five months?" Paulsen laughed this time; a free laugh. "Oh, that's orbital distance, not the time it would take to get there. It's a Beltish system of direction. We use Earth's orbital velocity as the standard of distance for an asteroid—the way you use a clock face as the standard of position for an airplane; or a globe of Earth for the standard of reference in a spaceship.

"For instance, in an airplane—the way it's going would be twelve o'clock. If somebody comes up on it at a ninety-degree on the right, say, above it, that would be three o'clock high. Tells a guy where to look.

"But that wouldn't do you any good in a spaceship. Which way's up ? The way you're facing or the way you're going? And are you in an acceleration couch lying down, or a couch-chair like ours? But— well, you've got the 3-D Plan Position Indicator. It's f a globe. You use it like a globe of Earth for your reference."

Paulsen pointed to the global PPI. The faint glow of orange grid reference lines made it look very much like a skeletonized globe of Earth. The navigation stars that the computer selected from the multitude of stars around them shown as bright yel­low dots on the outside surface of the globe. In the center of the globe was one green spark that represented their own ship. Any outside object, Stan knew, would be represented by a red spot within the globe; or if it were a planet or other sizable object, it would intrude as a large red ball. The north-south axis of the globe was in line with the ship's axis; north the direction in which they were going, south the direction from which they were pushed.

"You're in a squadron, diving on the Earthies, and you want to tell the other ships which one you're taking. You use latitude—not many of them; about twenty, forty and sixty degrees of latitude. Then north and south is like in the scope here; north is the way you're going. East and west is a reference from where you're sitting—east is the right side of the scope from here. Then farside and nearside, meaning farside of the scope or near. So if the ship you're after is—well, I don't know how to describe it except to say 'north forty farside east.' That would mean ahead of my ship at an angle of about forty degrees on the far side of my PPI scope and on an east angle from me. Get it?"

"I think so."

"But an asteroid—well, A.T. is in a position that puts it in line with a spot on Earth's orbit that's five months Earth speed further along that orbit than Belt City. So they're five months apart."

"Then you just mean that's its relative position?"

"Yep. Wouldn't take more than two weeks to reach it in this crate. But now, if you want to say where an asteroid is in the Belt, not relative to you in distance, but just where it is, you use the zodiac sign. For instance, Belt City's just entered Taurus; and A.T. is in Libra. Distance is in months; position is in zodiacal sign. Right?"

"Sure. It's easy once you think about it. Makes sense." "Then there's the other part, the sectors. They're named like a deck of cards—ace, king, queen, jack, ten. The Belt's not evenly spaced around its orbit, you know. It sort of divides up into five sectors, with a fair amount of fairly empty space between. So you've got the sectors to contend with too. Think you can manage?"

From Phase Two by Walt and Leigh Richmond (1979)

He jerked back to reality as he entered the gigantic teardrop which was technically the Z9M9Z, socially the Directrix, and ordinarily GFHQ. She had been designed and built specifically to be Grand Fleet Headquarters, and nothing else. She bore no offensive armament, but since she had to protect the presiding geniuses of combat she had every possible defense.

Port Admiral Haynes had learned a bitter lesson during the expedition to Helmuth's base. Long before that relatively small fleet got there he was sick to the core, realizing that fifty thousand vessels simply could not be controlled or maneuvered as a group. If that base had been capable of an offensive or even of a real defense, or if Boskone could have put their fleets into that star-cluster in time, the Patrol would have been defeated ignominiously; and Haynes, wise old tactician that he was, knew it.

Therefore, immediately after the return from that "triumphant" venture, he gave orders to design and to build, at whatever cost, a flagship capable of directing efficiently a million combat units.

The "tank" (the minutely cubed model of the galaxy which is a necessary part of every pilot room) had grown and grown as it became evident that it must be the prime agency in Grand Fleet Operations. Finally, in this last rebuilding, the tank was seven hundred feet in diameter and eighty feet thick in the middle"over seventeen million cubic feet of space in which more than two million tiny lights crawled hither and thither in helpless confusion. For, after the technicians and designers had put that tank into actual service, they had discovered that it was useless. No available mind had been able either to perceive the situation as a whole or to identify with certainty any light or group of lights needing correction; and as for linking up any particular light with its individual, blanket-proof communicator in time to issue orders in space-combat...!

Kinnison looked at the tank, then around the full circle of the million-plug board encircling it. He observed the horde of operators, each one trying frantically to do something. Next he shut his eyes, the better to perceive everything at once, and studied the problem for an hour.

"Attention, everybody!" he thought then. "Open all circuits—do nothing at all for a while." He then called Haynes.

"I think we can clean this up if you'll send over some Simplex analyzers and a crew of technicians. Helmuth had a nice set-up on multiplex controls, and Jalte had some ideas, too. If we add them to this we may have something."

And by the time Worsel arrived, they did.

"Red lights are fleets already in motion," Kinnison explained rapidly to the Velantian. "Greens are fleets still at their bases. Ambers are the planets the reds took off from—connected, you see, by Ryerson string-lights. The white star is us, the Directrix. That violet cross 'way over there is Jalte's planet, our first objective. The pink comets are our free planets, their tails showing their intrinsic velocities. Being so slow, they had to start long ago. The purple circle is the negasphere. It's on its way, too. You take that side, I'll take this. They were supposed to start from the edge of the twelfth sector. The idea was to make it a smooth, bowl-shaped sweep across the galaxy, converging upon the objective, but each of the system marshals apparently wants to run this war to suit himself. Look at that guy there, he's beating the gun by nine thousand parsecs. Watch me pin his ears back!"

He pointed his Simplex at the red light which had so offendingly sprung into being. There was a whirring click and the number 449276 flashed above a board. An operator flicked a switch.

"Grand Fleet Operations!" Kinnison's thought snapped across space. "Why are you taking off without orders?"

"Why, I... I'll give you the marshal, sir..."

"No time! Tell your marshal that one more such break will put him in irons. Land at once! GFO off.

"With around a million fleets to handle we can't spend much time on any one," he thought at Worsel. "But after we get them lined up and get our Rigellians broken in, it won't be so bad."...

...And with the passage of time came order out of chaos. The red lights formed a gigantically sweeping, curving wall; its almost imperceptible forward crawl representing an actual velocity of almost a hundred parsecs an hour. Behind that wall blazed a sea of amber, threaded throughout with the brilliant filaments which were the Ryerson lights. Ahead of it lay a sparkling, almost solid blaze of green. Closer and closer the wall crept toward the bright white star.

And in the "reducer"—the standard, ten-foot tank in the lower well—the entire spectacle was reproduced in miniature. It was plainer there, clearer and much more readily seen: but it was so crowded that details were indistinguishable.

From Gray Lensman, by E.E. 'Doc' Smith (1942)

Keep in mind that when Gray Lensman was written, computers were little more than electronic abacuses, there was no such thing as "computer graphics". The described tank was all analog, with physical lights for all the ships.

Westhause smiles. "Looks better on holo, doesn't it?" Clambering around like a baboon in pants, he leads me to an abbreviated astrogator's console. Flanking it are a pair of input/output consoles for the ship's main computation battery. Nudging up in front, like a calf to its mother, is the tiniest spatial display tank I've ever seen. I've see cheap children's battle games with bigger tanks.


"It's just a picket boat. She's staying out of our way. Carmon, warm the display tank."

I sneer at that toy. On the Empire Class Main Battles they have them bigger than our Ops compartment. And they have more than one. For a thrill, in null grav, you can dive in and swim among the stars. If you don't mind standing Commander's Mast and doing a few weeks' extra duty.


"Bogey Niner accelerating."

We've got nine of them now? My eyes may be open, but my brain has been sleeping.

I watch the tank instead of trying to follow the ascensions, decimations, azimuths, and relative velocities and range rates the talker chirrups. The nearest enemy vessel, which has been tagging along slightly to relative nadir, has begun hauling ass, pushing four gravities, apparently intent on coming abreast of us at the same decimation.

"They do their analyses, too," Yanevich says.

His remark becomes clear when a new green blip materializes in the tank. A parr of little green arrows part from it and course toward the point where bogey Nine would've been had she not accelerated. The friendly blip winks out again. Little red arrows were racing toward it from the repositioned enemy.

"That was a Climber from Training Group. Seems he was expected."

The two missile flights begin seeking targets. Briefly, they chase one another like puppies chasing their tails. Then their dull brains realize that that isn't their mission. They fling apart, searching again. The greenies locate the bogey, surge toward her.


"Put it in the tank," the Old Man orders.

The display tank flickers to a slight adjustment. It gives a skewed view, with the Climber at one boundary. The ship casts a thin cone of red shadow across the tank.

"Got her within twenty degrees of arc," Canzoneri says. A thin black pencil stroke lances down the heart of the red cone. "Baseline within three degrees of Rathgeber."

"Range?"

"Indeterminate." Of course. We'd have to know what kind of ship she is to guess her distance from the intensity of her neutrino output here.


The computer keeps humming. Rose and Canzoneri push hard, though they seem unsure what the Commander wants. Every sensor strains to accumulate more data on the Leviathan.

The Commander breaks his conference long enough to tell Carmon, "Erase the tank display."

Wide-eyed, Carmon does as he's told. This is a big departure from procedure. It leaves us flying blind. There's no other way to bring all the information in a single accessible picture.

"What the hell are they doing?"

Fisherman shrugs.

The Old Man tells Cannon, "Ready for a computer feed."

"Aye, sir."

Rose and Canzoneri pound out silent rhythms on their keyboards. The tank begins to build us a composite of the Leviathan, first using the data from the identification files, then modifying from the current harvest. If reinforcements give us time, the portrayal will reveal every wound, every hull scratch, every potential blind spot.


The display tank sparkles to life.

"Damn! Brown. Turn that thing all the way back up."

Clickety-clack nearly deafens us.

Floating red jewels appear where none ought to be, telling a tale none of us want to hear. We've been englobed. The trans-solar show is a distraction.

"Oh, s**t!" someone says, almost reverently.

They aren't certain of our whereabouts. The moon is well off center of their globe.


I glance at the tank. Just one red blip, moving away fast. There're no dots on the sphere's boundary, indicating known enemies beyond its scope.


From Passage At Arms by Glen Cook (1985)

The display was a hologram about a meter square by half a meter thick and was programmed to show the positions of Sade-138, our planet, and a few other chunks of rock in the system. There were green and red dots to show the positions of our vessels and the Taurans.


"Haven't left yet." Charlie had the display cranked down to minimum scale; the planet was a white ball the size of a large melon and Masaryk II was a green dot off to the right some eight melons away; you couldn't get both on the screen at the same time.

While we were watching a small green dot popped out of the ship's dot and drifted away from it. A ghostly number 2 drifted beside it, and a key projected on the display's lower left-hand corner identified it as 2-Pursuit Drone. Other numbers in the key identified the Masaryk II, a planetary defense fighter and fourteen planetary defense drones. Those sixteen ships were not yet far enough away from one another to have separate dots.


"Another one?" The scale of the holograph display was such that our planet was pea-sized, about five centimeters from the X that marked the position of Sade-138. There were forty-one red and green dots scattered around the field; the key identified number 41 as Tauran Cruiser (2).


I wished our spy satellites had a finer sense of discrimination. But you can only cram so much into a machine the size of a grape.


"What the hell?"

"What's that, Charlie?" I didn't take my eyes off the monitors. Waiting for something to happen.

"The ship, the (enemy) cruiser—it's gone." I looked at the holograph display. He was right; the only red lights were those that stood for the troop carriers.

"Where did it go?" I asked inanely.

"Let's play it back." He programmed the display to go back a couple of minutes and cranked out the scale to where both planet and collapsar showed on the cube. The cruiser showed up, and with it, three green dots. Our "coward," attacking the cruiser with only two drones.

But he had a little help from the laws of physics.

Instead of going into collapsar insertion, he had skimmed around the collapsar field in a slingshot orbit. He had come out going nine-tenths of the speed of light; the drones were going 0.99c, headed straight for the enemy cruiser. Our planet was about a thousand light-seconds from the collapsar, so the Tauran ship had only ten seconds to detect and stop both drones. And at that speed, it didn't matter whether you'd been hit by a nova-bomb or a spitball.

The first drone disintegrated the cruiser, and the other one, 0.01 second behind, glided on down to impact on the planet. The fighter missed the planet by a couple of hundred kilometers and hurtled on into space, decelerating with the maximum twenty-five gees. He'd be back in a couple of months.

From The Forever War by Joe Haldeman (1975)

Combat Theater

In warfare, a Combat Theaters is an area or place in which important military events occur or are progressing.

What we are mainly interested in here is the classification of such theaters. This determines the design of the military assets and the strategies & tactics used, e.g., you ain't gonna be using a sea-going naval battleship in the Battle of the Bulge to crawl through the densely forested Ardennes region of Belgium in order to cross the T with the US infantry line. You use ground units and ground tactics in a ground theater, and naval units and naval tactics in a sea theater.

Ray McVay points out that the US Navy uses color names for the theaters they operate in.

  • Brown Water Naval Ops are conducted in rivers
  • Green Water Naval Ops are conducted along shores and coastlines
  • Blue Water Naval Ops are conducted in the high seas

Mr. McVay goes on to indicate that the latter two theaters have near-perfect analogs in space combat: Orbital Space and Deep Space. I suppose you could call them "Purple Sky" and "Black Sky".

Orbital Space

Orbits around Terra (geocentric) are sometimes classified by altitude above Terra's surface:

  • Low Earth Orbit (LEO): 160 kilometers to 2,000 kilometers. At 160 km one revolution takes about 90 minutes and circular orbital speed is 8 km/s. Affected by inner Van Allen radiation belt.
  • Medium Earth Orbit (MEO): 2,000 kilometers to 35,786 kilometers. Also known as "intermediate circular orbit." Commonly used by satellites that are for navigation (such as Global Positioning System aka GPS), communication, and geodetic/space environment science. The most common altitude is 20,200 km which gives an orbital period of 12 hours.
  • Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO): exactly 35,786 kilometers from surface of Terra (42,164 km from center of Terra). One revolution takes one sidereal day, coinciding with the rotational period of Terra (on other planets the altitude depends upon that planet's particular rotational period). Circular orbital speed for Terra is about 3 km/s. It is jam-packed with communication satellites like sardines in a can. This orbit is affected by the outer Van Allen radiation belt.
  • High Earth Orbit (HEO): anything with an apogee higher than 35,786 kilometers. If the perigee is less than 2,000 km it is called a "highly elliptical orbit."
  • Lunar Orbit: Luna's orbit around Terra has a pericenter of 363,300 kilometers and a apocenter of 405,500 kilometers.

Geosynchronous Orbits (aka "Clarke orbits", named after Sir Arthur C. Clarke) are desirable orbits for communication and spy satellites because they return to the same position over the planet after a period of one sidereal day (for Terra that is about four minutes short of one ordinary day).

A Geostationary Orbit is a special kind of geosynchronous orbit that is even more desirable for such satellites. In those orbits, the satellite always stays put over one spot on Terra like it was welded atop a 35,786 kilometer pole stuck in the ground. For complicated reasons all geostationary orbits have to be over the equator of the planet. In theory you'd need only three communication satellites in geostationary orbit and separated by 120° to provide coverage over all of Terra.

All telecommunication companies want their satellites in geostationary orbit, but there are a limited number of "satellite slots" available due to radio frequency interference. Things get ugly when you have, for instance, two nations at the same longitude but at different latitudes: both want the same slot. The International Telecommunication Union does its best to fairly divide up the slots.

The collection of artificial satellites in geostationary orbit is called the Clarke Belt, again named after Sir Arthur C. Clarke.

Note that geostationary communication satellites are marvelous for talking to positions on Terra at latitude zero (equator) to latitude plus or minus 70°. For latitudes from ±70° to ±90° (north and south pole) you will need a communication satellite in a polar orbit, a highly elliptical orbit , or a statite. Russia uses highly eccentric orbits since those latitudes more or less define Russia. Russian communication satellites commonly use Molniya orbits and Tundra orbits.

About 300 kilometers above geosynchronous orbit is the "graveyard orbit" (aka "disposal orbit" and "junk orbit"). This is where geosynchronous satellites are moved at the end of their operational life, in order to free up a slot. It would take about 1,500 m/s of delta V to de-orbit an old satellite, but only 11 m/s to move it into graveyard orbit. Most satellites have nowhere near enough propellant to deorbit.


Lagrangian points are special points were a space station can sit in a sort-of orbit. Lagrange point 1, 2, and 3 are sort of worthless, since objects there are only in a semi-stable position. The ones you always hear about are L4 and L5, because they have been popularized as the ideal spots to locate giant space colonies. Especially since the plan was to construct such colonies from Lunar materials to save on boost delta V costs. The important thing to remember is that the distance between L4 — Terra, L4 — Luna, and Terra — Luna are all the same (about 384,400 kilometers). Meaning it will take just as long to travel from Terra to L4 as to travel from Terra to Luna.

Having said that, Earth-Luna L2 (EML2) is often suggested as a place to park lunar ice and other resources boosted into Lunar orbit.


If the planet the station orbits has a magnetic field, the planet probably has a radiation belt. Needless to say this is a very bad place to have your orbit located, unless you don't mind little things like a radiation dosage of 25 Severts per year. And that is for Terra, Jupiter's radiation belts are a thousand times worse. In 1973 Pioneer 11 was surprised by radiation levels around Jupiter ten times greater than NASA had predicted. This is why Pioneer did not send back photos of the moon Io since the radiation belt had fried its imaging photo polarimeter. Work on the Voyager space probe came to a screeching halt as they frantically redesigned it to cope with the radiation, but still be assembled in time for the launch window.

Terra's zone of glowing blue death is called the Van Allen radiation belts.

The Inner Belt starts at an altitude from 400 km to 1,200 km, depending on latitude, and ends at an altitude of about 6,000 km, with its most lethal area 3,500 km out. The South Atlantic Anomaly can potentially disrupt satellites in polar orbits, but usually does not pose a problem for manned spaceflights. Except for the ISS. The radiation is high-energy protons (400 MeV).

The Outer Belt ranges from 13,000 km to 60,000 km, with its most lethal area 27,000 km out. The Outer Belt is affected by solar winds, and is thus flattened to 59,500 km in the area directly between the Earth and the Sun, and extends to its maximum distance in the shadow of the Earth. The radiation is high-energy electrons (7 MeV).

A safe channel exists between the belts from 9,000 km to 11,000 km.


Hostile space forces intent on invading or investing a planet will wish to use the planet's orbital space for dropping invading troopers onto the planet, and softening up the planet (and supporting said invading troopers) with orbital bombardment. The planet will be resisting with defending fleets in orbit, orbital fortresses and planetary fortresses.

But as you can see above, orbital space over an industrialized planet is going to be crowded with civilians and commercial space stations. Some of which will be military in disguise.

Also keep in mind that orbital communication and spaceport civilian assets are a substantial part of what makes an industrialized planet valuable. Think about the drastic hit the economy of Terra would suffer if telecommunication satellites were destroyed. Invaders who want to seize a planet because it is valuable would do well to avoid damaging what makes the planet valuable.

Orbital space seems obvious, but let's define it anyway; after all, everything within a light year or so orbits the Sun in some fashion. But for our purposes, in 2015, Orbital space is anything between the upper atmosphere and Earth Departure. This includes GEO, or the geo-synchronous orbits or GPS and communication satellites, the low-fast orbits in NEO currently used for manned missions, and any and all in between. By logical extension, Every planet and moon has an orbital space easy to define by use of Sir Isaac's mighty maths (see Hill Sphere).


So, where does our Navy Space Force operate? Obviously, in orbital space, of course. This is the perfect place to operate using Patrol Rockets and smaller craft to zip to and fro. It is also where Espatiers get the most use — boarding inspections, SAR, and the classic orbital drop on a planet. But that's just the tip of the iceteroid — what about enforcement of quarantine? This could be an even bigger deal than it is today, since the enclosed system of a space station or rocket pretty much insures that if I got it, you got it.

SPACE WARFARE VIII: ORBITAL COMBAT

You cannot land on a planet or moon, or leave it — including, notably, Earth — without passing through its surrounding orbital space. This gives orbital space great strategic importance.

I have used 'orbital space' a good deal on this blog without ever defining what it means. Any formal definition would be somewhat arbitrary (like 'the threshold of space') but generally a planet's orbital space is the region dominated by its gravity. Think of it as close enough that you orbit the planet rather than just taking up a nearby solar orbit. (Or orbit a moon instead of its parent planet.) (see Hill Sphere)

For orbital space to have distinctive characteristics, major orbit change maneuvers must also require a substantial effort, a delta v of at least a few hundred meters per second — enough that chemfuel burns are costly in propellant consumption, while high specific impulse burns are time consuming.

Ceres, with an escape velocity of 0.51 km/s and low orbit velocity around 0.35 km/s, is about the minimum size for strategically significant orbital space. Neatly, and not entirely by coincidence, this corresponds to the minimum size for a 'dwarf planet,' shaped (literally!) by geological forces.

Significant zones of orbital space thus surrounds the eight major planets, the Moon, Ceres itself, the four big moons of Jupiter, Titan and six other moons of Saturn, four moons of Uranus, and Triton, along with Pluto and a growing list of outer system objects. We are interested in visiting most of them, and might one day be interested in fighting over them. (This last may not really be very likely, but it is possible, and makes for good thud and blunder space stories.)

Earth and Mars have escape velocities of several km/s, on the same order as interplanetary transfer speeds. (Escape speeds from the giant planets are higher still, but in strategic terms their moon systems are like miniatures of the Solar System, and a somewhat different strategic beast.)

This means that typical encounter speeds in Earth and Mars orbital space are fairly high, even after making the burn from interplanetary transfer orbit. In low Earth orbit, encounter speeds can range from 4 km/s for circular orbits with a 30 degree difference in inclination, up to 22 km/s for a retrograde encounter just below escape velocity. Even at lunar distance a head-on encounter at escape velocity means a relative speed of 2 km/s.

Which makes orbital space a kinetic shooting gallery. A defender can pre-position kinetic target seekers as 'mines' on retrograde orbits, while an attacker coming from deep space needs hardly more than a tap to send kinetics onto a retrograde approach. Moreover, so long as they are below escape velocity, kinetic target seekers will not hurtle off into the void, but keep coming around.

What applies to kinetics also applies to ships. Ships in orbital space do not encounter each other as ships on crossing orbits in deep space do, one flash-past and off they go into the void on their separate paths, needing dozens of km/s of delta v to reverse track and re-engage. Ships orbiting a planet, so long as they are below escape velocity, will swing back around for repeated passes.

And it gets better. Orbital space (specifically, low orbit) is the domain of the Oberth effect. Imagine a target seeker in an elongated elliptical Earth orbit, so that it whips around perigee at 11 km/s, a shade under escape velocity. Let it have a small chemfuel booster good for 3 km/s of delta v. (The booster will have about twice the mass of the target seeker itself.)

Fire the booster at perigee and the target seeker is booted to 14 km/s, well above escape velocity. And its departure speed 'at infinity' will be 8.7 km/s (14 squared - 11 squared). Any target coming from deep space will have its own approach velocity, making for encounter speeds upwards of 12 km/s. A similar boot from low Mars orbit gives a departure speed of 6.2 km/s, and encounter speeds upwards of 10 km/s.

Finally, orbital space has the planet itself at the center of the maelstrom, giving spaceships a rare opportunity to crash, and providing a big exception to the rule that 'everyone sees everything.' You don't see anything through a solid planet or moon, and remote sensor probes can be burned out.

All of this ought to make orbital space militarily … intriguing. Maneuvering there is more complex than in 'flat' space. Kinetics can be deployed cheaply and effectively as a sort of mine warfare.

And it matters, because a large proportion of strategic objectives will surely be in some planet's or moon's orbital space — or on the planet, subject to attack or blockade by whoever controls its orbital space. In any setting where planets are important, a good case can be made that most combat will take place in their orbital space.

Serious space warfare games, like Attack Vector: Tactical, respond to all of this potential by avoiding orbital combat like the plague. This is for good reason. No one has yet figured out to sim convincing orbits in a board game, and not for lack of trying. This is no bar to fiction writers, who only have the problem of getting things right, or at any rate convincing.

But there is one other important consideration for orbital combat in a setting. Most of the interesting complications belong only to the near or midfuture, and become progressively less significant at higher techlevels. The planet or moon remains a physical obstacle, but its surrounding winds and currents matter less to steamships, so to speak, than to sailing ships. The shooting gallery effect matters only if kinetics approaching at 3-15 km/s are effective weapons, while orbital maneuvers are trivial for ships with torch drives.

So if you measure speeds as a fraction of c, don't have the captain fretting over approach orbits and defensive orbital mines.

From SPACE WARFARE VIII: ORBITAL COMBAT by Rick Robinson (2009)
SECTION 6: ORBITAL MECHANICS AND WARFARE

     Basic Assumptions:
     This paper was written using the following assumptions as a baseline.
     1. Physical laws:
     The laws of physics as we know them still apply. This means that spacecraft move in a Newtonian (or Einsteinian, though this realm is outside the scope of the paper) manner, using reaction drives or other physically-plausible systems (such as solar sails) for propulsion. Thermodynamics dictate that all spacecraft must radiate waste heat, and lasers obey diffraction. The only exception is FTL, which will be included in some scenarios.
     2. Technology:
     The technological background is less constrained. If a system is physically plausible, the engineering details can be ignored, or at most subject to only minor scrutiny. The paper will examine a spectrum of technology backgrounds, but will focus on near to mid-future scenarios, where the general performance and operation of the technology can be predicted with at least a little accuracy. A common term used to describe this era is PMF, which stands for Plausible Mid-Future. This term (coined by Rick Robinson) is difficult to define, but it assumes significant improvements in technologies we have today, such as nuclear-electric drives, fading into those we don’t, such as fusion torches.
     3. Environment:
     This paper will attempt to examine a wide variety of environments in which space combat might occur. However, it will make no attempt to examine all of them, and the scenarios described will conform to several principles.
     First, this is a general theory. Any scenario that is dependent on a one-shot tactic or highly specific circumstance will likely not be included, except during the discussion of the beginnings of space warfare, or to demonstrate why it is impractical in the long run. The recommendations made are not optimal for all circumstances, nor is such a thing possible. They are instead what the author believes would be best for a realistic military based on the likely missions and constraints. Picking highly unlikely and specific sets of circumstances under which they are not optimal is best answered with a quote from the author about one such scenario, posting on the Rocketpunk Manifesto topic Space Warfare XIII: “You need a blockade, a hijacking (innocents aboard a vessel trying to break the blockade), and a high-thrust booster on the hijacked ship. Two stretch the limits of plausibility. The third is ridiculous. Claiming that this justifies humans [onboard warships, see Section 2] is like claiming that because warships sometimes run aground, we should install huge external tires on all of them to help get them off.”
     Second, no attempt will be made to include the effects of aliens or alien technology, because to do so would be sheer uninformed speculation.
     Third, the default scenario, unless otherwise noted, is deep-space combat between two fleets. Other scenarios will be addressed, but will be clearly noted as such.

Orbital mechanics obviously drive the strategy of space warfare, and in low and medium orbits will also drive tactics. To avoid turning this paper into a discussion of orbital mechanics, the author will assume that the reader has a basic knowledge of the topic.

The most basic effect of the orbital environment is that movement occurs in a totally different way than it does on Earth. Nothing is stationary, which has significant effects beyond the obvious. At the highest level, the geography of the solar system constantly changes. This will have a significant influence on the timing of events. A colonial revolt, for example, would probably wait until a relief force was at the farthest point. This fact would, of course, be known to the people who are in charge of suppressing such revolts.

One important consequence of this fact is that interception in the classical sense of going out to meet an enemy force is difficult in the extreme. Take the case of one fleet attempting to intercept another approaching from deep space. The intercepting fleet will have to reach a point in deep space ahead of the incoming fleet, and then begin to accelerate to match velocities. Once the fleets have matched velocities (and presumably fought), the intercepting fleet must still stop at the destination planet. At a first approximation, this will require delta-V of approximately four times the transit velocity of the incoming fleet. It is likely, however, that the attacking fleet will have approximately the same amount of mission delta-V in order to provide abort options.

An interesting feature of this type of interception is that the defenders have a significant advantage in the pre-battle use of kinetics. They can release salvoes of lancer-type kinetics right before they begin to decelerate, and the kinetics will hit with the combined velocity of both fleets, while any lancer-type kinetics the attackers launch will be stationary relative to them, and thus to the defenders when they make intercept. (LANCER: aim ship's vector at enemy, gently eject lancer kinetic energy weapons before ship decelerates, then decelerate ship into combat vector while lancers retain ship's destructive delta-V energy)

The suggestion above raises another question. Why not just use the kinetics, and save the fleet for when the (hopefully badly bled) enemy arrives? This leads logically to kinetic IPBMs (InterPlanetary Ballistic Missiles). IPBMs are busses, either recoverable or expendable. Either version bears more resemblance to a full-scale ship then a conventional missile, and carries a large payload of kinetic submunitions. In this scenario, recovery is feasible, but only at a penalty to throw weight and/or velocity. Depending on the timescale, it might be possible to launch multiple loads against a given opponent using a recoverable bus. The difficulty with doing so is that the salvoes with either arrive staggered, or the system will suffer throw weight penalties for later loads, although that might be balanced by said loads coming in faster.

The attacker can obviously launch kinetics shortly before beginning deceleration, which would presumably have the same effect on a waiting defender’s fleet. However, this is not as effective as the defender’s salvos would be for a variety of reasons. First, the kinetics will arrive at a predictable time, and the defender can alter his orbits slightly to ensure that the important stuff is behind the planet at the appropriate time. Spreading out the kinetics could of course defeat this, but that obviously reduces the salvo density, and makes the defender’s task significantly easier. Also, a planet’s orbital space is almost certainly far more crowded than that around a fleet transiting deep space, which could significantly complicate targeting for the attacker. The attacker would probably like as much of the orbital infrastructure intact as possible, or he wouldn’t be invading. He’d simply throw stuff at the planet from a long way away.

All of the above can be reasonably approximated using flat-space assumptions, at least on a tactical level. However, once a vessel enters a planet’s orbital space, that assumption is no longer valid. Before moving on, a definition of orbital space is required. A reasonable definition is a body’s Hill Sphere, the volume in which things will orbit the body instead of its parent. Farther, this definition should be limited to bodies of dwarf planet size and larger, as smaller bodies are likely to exert minimal influence on the paths of ships maneuvering around them.

In a body’s orbital space, any maneuver is likely to take hundreds of m/s of delta-V, which is expensive when using chemfuel or nuclear-thermal, and time-consuming when using any high exhaust velocity drive. With enough delta-V it is theoretically possible to treat orbital space as near-flat, it is unlikely that this will occur during the PMF, as it requires both very high delta-V, and high acceleration. This forces ships to maneuver not as in flat space, but as current vessels do in orbit.

Orbital space has a number of interesting characteristics beyond that. First, the ways in which a ship can maneuver are very constrained. Besides the counter-intuitive nature of orbital maneuvering in general (thrust backwards to go down and faster), the body itself serves as a significant constraint. In low orbits, there is a definite limit to the lowest (and fastest) orbit that can be used, even disregarding the possibility that someone on the planet might not be terribly fond of certain people in orbit (See Section 4 for more information). Projectiles will also tend to curve, rendering targeting more difficult, both for the attacker and the defender, and probably reducing impact velocity compared to the same weapon in flat space. This can have advantages, as well as drawbacks. It might well be harder to track incoming projectiles, particularly bursting kinetics, as mentioned in Section 8. Encounter velocities are likely to be high, ranging from 2 km/s for low orbits with 30 degrees difference in inclination to 22 km/s for posigrade-retrograde orbits meeting at just below escape velocity in low orbit. A kinetic launched from a craft in these cases is likely to only require a few hundred m/s (or less) to make intercept, while the short ranges involved make tracking the target somewhat easier, mitigating the seeker problems mentioned in Section 8. To enhance lethality, the defender can pre-position retrograde kinetic platforms, while the attacker, coming in from an interplanetary transfer, can put similar platforms in with very little trouble. Furthermore, unless the kinetic exceeds escape velocity, it will keep coming around. The biggest problem with reusing kinetics is likely to be targeting.

The same phenomena will apply to ships. Unlike deep-space warfare, where vessels go screaming by each other, then have to turn around, ships meeting in orbit will probably continue to pass by each other until one or both decide to alter their orbit. Even then, low-thrust drives might keep them in proximity for some time thereafter.

All of this gives the attacker, and the defender to some extent, significant reasons to avoid fighting in medium to low orbit. A defender would probably try to engage outside the majority of their own infrastructure, which could be as low as the equivalent of GEO. Even most of the Hill Sphere will be empty space. There are few satellites today outside of GEO (barring scientific missions, which will be relatively far less important than they are today). Activity outside of middle orbits will be confined to certain points, such as the Lagrange points and any natural satellites. These will either have to be defended separately, risking defeat in detail, or the attackers will have to be engaged at the edge of the Hill Sphere.

This casts serious doubt on any sort of “orbital forts”, relatively immobile space stations clustered in low to medium orbit. A far better choice is the equivalent of the Scandinavian coastal defense ships, mentioned briefly in Section 2, which are the equivalent of full laserstars (combat spacecraft built around a large laser weapon), but instead of a full nuclear-electric drive system use something like an NTR, which is cheaper and better suited to the operational environment. It can also be designed for short missions, on the order of days, cutting costs across the board. There are two significant problems with this concept, however.

First, depending on the relative costs of various components, one of these vessels could cost very nearly as much as a full laserstar, but with drastically reduced operational utility. For that matter, it would need the same amount of electrical power as a normal laserstar, and thus likely require the same (or an equivalent) reactor, with savings only resulting from the removal of the actual electric thrusters. This cost would be offset by the need for an alternate engine, probably leaving it a wash, although the use of a bimodal NTR design offers some possibility for small savings. The economies of scale in buying more conventional laserstars would probably make that a cheaper alternative to developing and producing a separate class of ships.

Second, the fact that the two types use different drives with different performance would be a major hindrance operationally. If there are significant numbers of both, the “coastal” laserstars would be tied to the nuclear-electric ones, sacrificing their notional performance edge. The concept only makes sense when the “coastal” laserstars make up most if not all of the fleet. This might be ideal for a less aggressive power, as well as probably being slightly cheaper for a given amount of firepower.

The only things that can function similarly to fixed defenses are kinetics deployed in retrograde orbits with kick motors ready to send them towards any attackers. These orbits might be highly elliptical, with the boosters firing at periapsis to give the maximum possible velocity. Through the use of the Oberth Effect, the boosters would impart great velocities when the projectiles reach their targets in deep space. For example, a projectile in the 32-day orbit described below, with a periapsis velocity of 10.8 km/s, given a 3 km/s delta-V at that point, would have a velocity in deep space of 8.5 km/s.

There are three problems with such a deployment, however. First, the orbital period of such an orbit that is just below escape velocity is around 32 days, which would be the approximate availability interval. Second, the projectile would only be capable of engaging targets in a limited arc, the exact width of which is dependent on the amount of delta-V available and when in its orbit the seeker is retargeted. Near apoapsis, very little delta-V is required for any inclination change, but it will still take the seeker about 16 days to reach periapsis, plus however long it takes to actually reach the target from there. Nearer periapsis, the available delta-V will only suffice for minor changes in final direction. Also, the periapsis point needs to be as low as possible to gain maximum advantage, and any delta-V used for maneuvering will reduce the final attack velocity by a much larger amount. Thirdly, when the projectiles are activated, they will be limited farther in their targeting by the need to avoid collisions with spacecraft already in low orbit. These concerns lead to either a low salvo density or long periods during which no projectiles can be brought to bear, both of which are unsatisfactory. The alternative is to deploy kinetics in a circular low orbit, which ensures constant availability and unlimited targeting within the ecliptic, but gives considerably lower velocity for a given kick motor. The problems of other spacecraft providing the enemy with ‘cover’ are somewhat reduced, because their trajectory does not have an inbound leg, and originates from a single altitude.

Another way of solving this problem is waiting until an attack is known to be inbound before the kinetics are deployed, solving the issues of targeting time and angle. While it might appear that an attacker could alter his orbit to avoid these newly-deployed kinetics, this is unlikely to be a successful tactic. Near apoapsis, alteration of direction windows is nearly free, and slight changes of time window are unlikely to be critical. This renders all attacker maneuvers until the last few days before periapsis futile, and drives up the delta-V required to dodge significantly.

For that matter, it would be possible to deploy the kinetics into a high-altitude circular orbit, and use a small engine to send them towards the planet. This means a response time of approximately 16 days from an orbit at the edge of the Earth’s sphere of influence, and the ability to hit targets across a large proportion of the sky. It also avoids the need to send kinetics screaming through low orbit on a regular basis. Multiple clusters can be positioned around Earth’s orbit, and the majority of them should be able to be combined against any given target. With proper warning, almost all of them could be maneuvered into position to attack.

As part of his classwork in orbital mechanics, the author decided to investigate this concept further, looking at how large of an arc such a projectile could threaten. The initial orbit around Earth was assumed to have a semi-major axis of 426,500 km and an eccentricity of 0.984, giving a perigee altitude of 448 km. The projectile was assumed to have 3 km/s of delta-V. For a tangential burn at perigee (the case which gives the maximum velocity in deep space), the deep-space velocity (Vinf) was 8.52 km/s, in a direction 116.5° counterclockwise from the direction of perigee as viewed from the Earth’s center. A Vinf of 8 km/s or greater is possible across a range of angles 95° to 138.5°. Vinf > 7.5 km/s runs from 86.5° to 147.5°, while the range for Vinf>7 km/s is 79° to 155°. At Vinf >6.5 km/s, the angular range runs from 76° to 161°. Accepting a Vinf lower than 6.5 km/s does not buy much more in terms of angle, due to the vagaries of orbital mechanics. This is a significantly larger arc than it might first appear to be. If we assume that the projectile begins in a circular holding orbit with a radius of 846176 km, it will be traveling at 686.3 m/s. The attack orbit has a velocity at apogee of 86.8 m/s, so insertion will require a minimum delta-V of 599.5 m/s if the attack orbit is tangential to the holding orbit. However, the worst-case attack orbit, which is retrograde to the holding orbit, will only require 733.1 m/s of delta-V. The insertion burn is made at a position with an angle of 180°. This means that to a first approximation, the same lethal arcs will be mirrored in a cone around the 0° line. In reality, there would be a slight boost for prograde attack orbits due to the delta-V saved inserting into them being used at perigee.

The author modified code written for class3, and plotted the combinations of Vinf for various combinations of true anomaly (orbital position) and burn angle. (Figures are at the end of the Section.) All of the trajectories were plotted with a semi-major axis for the attack orbit of 426,500 km, and with both burn angle and true anomaly varying between -120 and 120 degrees in one-degree steps. Any trajectories that passed below an altitude of 122 km were not plotted, as were any that failed to escape Earth’s gravity.

Figure 1 shows the effects of variations in delta-V on the final possible trajectory. All initial attack orbits had an eccentricity of 0.984. The second figure plots the reference case described above, along with two figures intended to show differences in the envelope based on minor differences in initial orbits. The first shows a prograde instead of a retrograde attack orbit (relative to the holding orbit) while the second compares orbits with perigee altitudes of 448 km (reference case) and 2160 km.

Much of the dynamics of orbital combat will be driven by the weapons involved. If the weapons are long-ranged (lasers in the tens of thousands of kilometers, and projectors with muzzle velocities of tens of kilometers per second) then almost all of orbital space is open to fire from a given ship, provided it is not blocked by the planet. In low orbits, horizon distance is likely to be minimal, possibly as low as a few hundred kilometers (counting any planetary atmosphere as part of the horizon). Given the high closing velocities possible, engagements could last a matter of seconds. These would likely be very deadly, probably killing both combatants due to the very small amount of time available to defend against incoming kinetics. If long-range lasers are available, they would also be incredibly deadly in such a knife fight, as described in Section 7. However, any craft equipped with a long-range laser is unlikely to venture into such a low orbit, both to avoid kinetic death, as well as to avoid surface defenses (described in Section 4). To a ship in geostationary Earth orbit (35,786 km / 0.125 light-seconds) the Earth will subtend an arc of about 20 degrees, and any ship in orbit will be visible for at least half the time. Assuming that the laser is capable of hitting targets at such a range, there is no need to move closer. Even if that distance is greater than the range of the weapons, there is no reason for the spacecraft to move in beyond long weapon range. Long-range kinetics are in much the same situation. Thus, short-range orbital knife-fights are only likely to develop in the early days of space warfare, when weapon ranges are short enough that the planetary horizon is not the driving factor in weapon range, or when there are multiple powers who all start in low orbit.

Note, though, that the planetary horizon is not likely to actually hide knowledge of the enemy from a vessel. Even if there are no recon drones in place to monitor the far side of the planet, the vessel should be able to see through the planet’s atmosphere to some extent, even if engagement is impossible. This fact makes popping over the horizon for a surprise attack unlikely. Orbital predictability also works against surprise. Even though it is possible for a craft to alter its orbit, it is relatively easy to predict the effects of it doing so. Nuclear-electric craft, moreover, will not be able to alter their orbits in a meaningful way during the course of a single orbit, making them doubly vulnerable. Thrusters would allow such maneuvering, but a small fuel supply imposes its own limits. Adding to this problem is the likelihood that the opponent has all-around space surveillance capability, either due to global ground stations or recon drones.

The planet itself has often been suggested as a means of allowing some form of detection uncertainty. After all, it is a warm, complex background, as opposed to the cold, simple one of deep space. Theoretically, this is true, and it is much easier to hide when against the background of a planet. There are several factors that weigh against this. First and most importantly, it is incredibly unlikely that a ship will only have one set of sensors pointed at it. Recon drones are very cheap, and would be scattered around liberally. This means that there is a good chance that either right now, or in the not-too-distant past, there was a sensor that saw the target against the background of space for long enough to get a fix on its orbit. The enemy then keeps an eye out for any attempts to adjust course. Secondly, the advantage given by the planet is outweighed by the ranges involved. A sensor system designed to detect ships at light-minute ranges will have no problem finding them against a planetary background at ranges under a light-second. Thirdly, active sensors are completely unaffected by the planet, and a number of the various passive systems are not as badly affected by the planet as IR systems are.

The only real limit to the lethality of kinetics in low orbit is the risk of serious problems from orbital debris. While the kinetic itself might well be travelling significantly faster than escape velocity, most debris from the target will not be. Assuming that both sides desire the orbital infrastructure to remain relatively intact (which may not hold true in all cases) use of large number of kinetics in low and medium orbits is unlikely. The exception is if the target is in a low enough orbit that the debris threat will clear itself quickly due to atmospheric drag, or some other form of orbital decay. Lasers would probably leave the target vessel mostly intact, making it fairly easy to deal with. In this way, low-orbit retrograde kinetics are quite similar to mines. They’re cheap, easy to deploy, and lethal, but also run the risk of serious collateral damage. Depending on the setting, they could be illegal under some treaty, or a commonly-accepted means of defending an orbit.

One interesting side-effect of the common use of low-orbit kinetics (or of any serious orbital debris problem) is the arming and armoring of space stations in those orbits. This is a serious complication for any military commander. There is in fact a legitimate reason for the station to have some firepower, but that firepower also poses a significant risk to any operations in low orbit, even after all overtly military units have been defeated. He could destroy any armed stations, but that is likely to be a serious war crime. On the other hand, desperate people sometimes do stupid things. Unless misuse of anti-debris (or anti-meteor) systems is considered abominable by virtually everyone, this situation has the potential to turn interesting very quickly.

The same orbital infrastructure that prevents indiscriminant kinetic use also has the potential to provide cover to small warcraft. This is often the last type of fighter suggested, as only a small craft would be able to hide amid the orbital clutter. This is the space-based equivalent of house-to-house fighting, messy, destructive, and unpleasant. There are two problems with this suggestion. The first is that the defender is fundamentally pinned down. A smart attacker will have his laserstars sitting nearby, waiting for the defending fighters to flee. If they do, they get picked off. If they don’t move, kinetics can be used against them. The fighter could be replaced by a concealed weapons pod with no real loss of capability. In this case, the attacker’s task is to sweep each installation to ensure that it is free of these pods. The attacker’s ‘fighter’ can be little more than a recon drone. The second problem is that the defender simply can’t win by doing this. His fighters are helpless against the attacker’s fleet, so all he can do is waste time, damage his own orbital facilities, and annoy the attacker. This is unlikely to be useful, as any attacker who wishes to mess around with the installations in low orbit is unlikely to be dissuaded by a few losses to his recon drones. Someone seeking a blockade, on the other hand, is never going to venture down into low orbit at all. While it might be pointed out a defender could choose to fight on, such fighters would have to exist before they could be used. This is improbable, and any smart defender would spend his money on weapons that have a chance of being strategically useful instead of something that is only useful to spite the attacker.

One interesting suggestion that has been put forth is that the demands of orbital defense seem to demand a separate service from the offensive forces. The practicality of this is doubtful, as the ‘offensive’ ships will also have a defensive role in high orbit, and the close-in fighting that serves as the basis for this suggestion is a dubious proposition at best. Also, the fact that ‘defensive’ ships and ‘offensive’ ships would be tactically incompatible makes this even more unlikely. On the other hand, stranger duplications of effort have been known to occur in the past.

Many of the statements above change if there are multiple players in a given orbital space. Examples of this include the situation that would be expected to prevail around Earth, any planet with multiple colonies on it, and for that matter the moon system of gas giants. In this case, there is a distinct operational environment which begins to favor craft with high accelerations and low endurance. As discussed above (and in Section 4), unlimited warfare in low orbit is likely to be devastating to both sides, which means that warfare in low orbit will likely be limited and formalized. Here at last we have a semi-plausible rationale for a space fighter. Low orbit combat is so lethal that platforms must be small, and the transit times are short enough that life support is not a major penalty. Initially, the space forces were developed from the air forces, who took their fighters into space. The fighters fight each other, and then the Espatiers board the space station that was just fought over. The fighters are manned for several reasons. First and foremost is tradition, followed by the fact that at the ranges and timescales involved, light lag cannot be discounted. The presence of men aboard is also a facet of the limited nature of warfare in this setting. However, the “fighter joust” scenario requires both sides to have semi-regular shooting wars (which would presumably extend into space from the planet) without said wars going nuclear/kinetic. Drawing from the (admittedly limited) evidence from similar situations on Earth, most wars in such a setting will instead be conducted at a proxy level.

One common mission in such a setting is going to be inspection and boarding. In deep space, such missions are impractical due to transit time and delta-V requirements. In orbital space, however, it is relatively quick and cheap to meet another spacecraft, giving a role to a sort of Coast Guard. The boarding vessel might be accompanied by one or more “gunships”, either manned or unmanned. This is discussed further in Section 11.

The dynamics discussed above regarding armed civilian space stations would also come into play here, but to an even greater extent. There is even more reason for such stations to be armed, but at the same time, the drawbacks are potentially much greater. It is entirely possible that there could be some agreement, formal or otherwise, that bans or restricts armament on non-military vessels, similar to the restrictions on arming merchant ships. If any armament is allowed, it would probably be limited to that required for defense against debris and maybe very limited point defense capabilities in case of terrorist attacks or accidents.

As an aside in the discussion of orbital mechanics, the Hohmann transfer is commonly used as an approximation of a low-delta-V interplanetary transfer by the space warfare community. However, in the real world, the Hohmann is totally impractical for interplanetary use, as planetary orbits are not coplanar. The reason for this is fairly simple. A Hohmann transfer is essentially defined by a transfer angle of 180°, or as near to this value as practical. If the initial and final orbits are in fact coplanar (as would occur if a Hohmann transfer was being used to raise or lower an orbit), this works quite well. However, if this is generalized to non-coplanar orbits, the system breaks down.

It's a basic principle of orbits that the orbital plane must go through the center of the object being orbited. For a transfer orbit, then, the departure, the destination, and the center of mass define the orbital plane. (After all, a plane is defined by three points.) However, a Hohmann involves the assumption that, when viewed from the 'top' (perpendicular to the plane of the initial orbit), all three points are in a straight line. If the initial and final orbits are coplanar, then all three points are in a straight line in 3-D space as well, and the transfer orbit can be set at any desired inclination, the most efficient obviously being coplanar to the initial and final orbits.

If the two other orbits are not coplanar, then there is a problem. From the 'top', all three points appear to be a straight line, just as they are in a coplanar case. However, unless the transfer happens to take place at exactly the ascending/descending nodes, they will not be in a line in 3-D space. The only time when three points that are not colinear in 3-D space appear to be colinear from a 2-D perspective (which is what the view is in this case) is when the viewpoint is directly on the plane defined by the points. In this case, that plane of the transfer orbit will be at 90° to the initial orbit, and very close to 90° to the destination orbit, which is obviously the worst possible case for delta-V for a given transfer. This effect persists when the transfer angle is close to 180°, and explains the gap in the center of pork-chop plots.

This is why Hohmann transfers are not used in the real world for interplanetary missions. Usually, real-world missions are designed though the the use of numerically-generated pork-chop plots, although nonimpulsive burns complicate this significantly.

* Thanks to Dr. Henry Pernicka of Missouri S&T for putting up with unusual space warfare-related questions, and providing advice on orbits matters throughout.


COMMENTS

Karl Gallagher

The only assumption I'd argue with is "the default scenario, unless otherwise noted, is deep-space combat between two fleets." The overwhelming majority of naval battles have been near land or in a narrow body of water. You fight where there's something worth fighting over.


Matter Beam

     A few points I'd like to make. Since it's a long piece of text, I'll write them as I read them.
     -The geography of the Solar System is very predictable. We're already making three-body gravity assist simulations for decades ahead.
     -An intercept is ALWAYS going to happen if the defenders want it. An attacker necessarily runs under the restriction of having to keep deltaV for getting back home, and failing that, cannot deviate so much from their trajectory that they cannot enter orbit around the destination. So with a deltaV advantage and less restrictive maneuvering options, a defender can always force the attacker to expend so much deltaV to evade the intercept that they fail the mission anyways. Best to confront the enemy head on and save the deltaV for tactical maneuvers.
     -You do not have to match velocities at intercept. In fact, you want to increase it to minimize the amount of kinetics you have to drop per target.
     -The interplanetary velocity of kinetics launched before insertion at destination works both ways. The defenders can exploit it too. And it is a sunk cost (you've already accelerated it to the velocity and carried it all the way), so there is no natural advantage to the defenders: kinetics by both sides won't need a booster.
     -Kinetics can be fired months in advance, and have a large fraction, if not more, closing velocity than the attacking fleet itself. Kinetics fired as little as 1 month in advance, and with 10m/s deltaV, can deviate a whole planet-width's distance from the point the attacking fleet expects to start its insertion burn. They are unexpected!
     -Hill sphere is a pretty bad limit for the distinction between orbital and deep space for warfare. At 500,000 km altitude, orbital velocity is 887m/s and the orbital period is about 3 years. That's very flat space.
     -Nuclear thermal rockets are perfectly suited to high-thrust combat. They have excellent power-to-weight ratio, 9km/s exhaust velocity and can put out gigawatts with little need for radiators. Bets of all, we've already built gigawatt NTRs.
     -The orbital fort concept can be useful if you pack a giant laser, kilotons of armor slash heatsinks and a massive nuclear reactor dedicated only to producing electricity. It will outrange attacking laserstars, and can fire for much longer. Then, if for some reason you really needed to dismantle your defenses and chase after the attackers, you can eject the heatsinks, dock a rocket engine, and end up with a rather large and under-capacity warship with full tactical mobility.
     -The only way to pop up over the horizon is to have the two fleets orbiting at the same altitude, with a delay of 10 to 15 minutes (if in low orbit). By slowing down or speeding up, they move over the horizon, and trade laser shots. Kinetics would be very inefficient. However, it is a suicidal move for an attacker to put themselves in full view of both the defending fleet and the planetary defenses below.
     -Orbital warfare must develop from the outside-in, and not as a 'natural evolution' of jet fighter forces. Lasers from the ground, or anti-satellite weapons, will dominate low orbits for a long time to come.
     -I can't comment much about deltaV trajectories. I always assume that by the time we are fighting in deep space with dedicated warships, we'll have efficient enough engines to use impulse trajectories.

Troy Campbell

Faster intercepts are not necessarily better, as we see in Children of a Dead Earth. Whipple shields are great equalisers and you really want to increase time on target to assure a mission kill.


by Byron Coffey

Smuggler's Turn

I've seen this a few times in science fiction but I cannot seem to find any accepted name for it. Perhaps one of you readers can. For now I'll call it The Phssthpok Maneuver. TV Tropes talks about the Spaceship Slingshot Stunt which is not quite the same thing, more like just a gravitational slingsot.

Anyway our heroes are in a spacecraft being hotly pursued by the bad guys, and the heroes cannot see to shake the baddies off their tail. So the heroes dive their ship on a close pass to a planet / gas giant / sun / white dwarf / neutron star / black hole and use either the Oberth effect, gravitational slingshot, or both, to do a bootlegger's turn and escape by shooting off at a wild tangent. The bad guys either are too cowardly to try it, cannot match the velocity, or cannot anticipate the unexpected vector change.

The key is to get as close as possible to something with lots of gravity in order to magnify your efforts to escape.

RIGHT-ANGLED TURN IN SPACE

(ed note: Brennan and Roy are in a heavily-armed Bussard ramjet starship, being chased by two other heavily-armed Bussard ramjet scout ships. The pursuers are slowly gaining on them, over the years.)

      "No man has ever seen this before you," said Brennan, "unless you count me a man." He pointed. "There. That's Epsilon Indi."
     "It's off to the side."
     "We're not headed for it directly. I told you, I'm planning to make a right angle turn in space. There's only one place I can do it."
     "Can we beat the scouts there?"
     "Barely ahead of the second ship, I think. We'll have to fight the first one."

     Ten months after Roy had emerged from the stasis box, the light of the leading pair went out. Minutes later it came on again, but it was dim and flickering.
     "They've gone into deceleration mode," said Brennan.
     In an hour the enemy's drive was producing a steady glow, the red of blue-shifted beryllium emission.
     "I'll have to start my turn too," said Brennan.
     "You want to fight them?"
     "That first pair, anyway. And if I turn now it'll give us a better window."
     "Window?"
     "For that right-angle turn."
     "Listen, you can eitber explain that right-angle turn business or stop bringing it up."
     Brennan chuckled. "I have to keep you interested somehow, don't I?"
     "What are you planning? Close orbit around a black hole?"
     "My compliments. That's a good guess. I've found a nonrotating neutron star… almost nonrotating. I wouldn't dare dive into the radiating gas shell around a pulsar, but this beast seems to have a long rotation period and no gas envelope at all. And it's nonluminous. It must be an old one. The scouts'll have trouble finding it, and I can chart a hyperbola through the gravity field that'll take us straight to Home (human colony at Epsilon Indi)."
     "Have you named that star yet?"
     "No," said Brennan.
     "You discovered it. You have the right."
     "I'll call it Phssthpok's Star, then. Bear ye witness. I think we owe him that."

     A day out from the neutron star, one of the green war beams went out. "They finally saw it," said Brennan, "They're lining up for the pass. Otherwise they could wind up being flung off in opposite directions."
     "They're awfully close," said Roy. They were, in a relative sense: they were four light-hours behind Protector, closer than Sol is to Pluto. "And you can't dodge much, can you? It'd foul our course past the star."

     The ship fell away. He saw a tiny humanoid figure crouched in the airlock. Then four tiny flashes. Brennan had one of the high-velocity rifles. He was firing at the Pak (the bad guys in the remaining Bussard ramjets).
     He thought about it for a good hour. Brennan had intimidated him to that extent. He thought it through backward and forward, and then he told Brennan he was crazy.
     "I'm not doubting your professional opinion," said Brennan, "But what symptom was it that tipped you off?"
     "That gun. Why did you shoot at the Pak ship?"
     "I want it wrecked."
     "But you couldn't hit it. You were aiming right at it. I saw you. The star's gravity must have pulled the bullets off course."
     "You think about it. If I'm really off my nut, you'd be justified in taking command."
     "Not necessarily. Sometimes crazy is better than stupid. What I'm really afraid of is that shooting at the Pak ships might make sense. Everything else you do makes sense, sooner or later. If that makes sense I'm gonna quit."

     They were back aboard Protector's isolated lifesystem by then, watching the vision screens and—in Brennan's case—a score of instruments besides. The second Pak team fell toward the miniature sun in four sections: a drive section like a two-edged ax, then a pillbox-shaped lifesystem section, then a gap of several hundred miles, then a much bigger drive section and another pillbox. The first pillbox was just passing perihelion when the neutron star flared.
     A moment ago magnification had showed it as a dim red globe. Now a small blue-white star showed on its surface. The white spot spread, dimming; it spread across the surface without rising in any kind of cloud. Brennan's counters and needles began to chatter and twitch.
     "That should kill him," Brennan said with satisfaction. "Those Pak pilots probably aren't too healthy anyway; they must have picked up a certain amount of radiation over thirty-one thousand light years riding behind a Bussard ramjet."
     "I presume that was a bullet?"
     "Yah. A steel-jacketed bullet. And we're moving against the spin of the star. I slowed it enough that the magnetic field would pick it up and slow it further, and keep on slowing it until it hit the star's surface. There were some uncertainties. I wasn't sure just when it would hit."
     "Very tricky, Captain."
     "The trailing ship probably has it worked out too, but there isn't anything he can do about it." Now the flare was a lemon glow across one flank of Phssthpok's Star. Suddenly another white point glowed at one edge. "Even if they worked it out in advance, they couldn't be sure I had the guns. And there's only one course window they can follow me through. Either I dropped something or I didn't. Let's see what the last pair does."
     Midway they stopped to watch events that had happened an hour ago: the third pair of Pak scouts reconnecting their ships in frantic haste, then using precious reserve fuel to accelerate outward from the star. "Thought so," Brennan grunted. "They don't know what kind of variable velocity weapon I've got, and they can't afford to die now. They're the last. And that puts them on a course that'll take them way the hell away from us. We'll beat them to Home by at least half a year."

From PROTECTOR by Larry Niven (1973)
RATS OF THE SYSTEM

“He (the hunter-killer singleship from The Fanatics) can blow us out of the sky with his X-ray laser. So why would he want to chase us?”

“For the same reason the hunter-killer didn’t explode when it found us. He wants to take a prisoner. He wants to extract information from a live body.”

He watched her think about that.

She said, “If he does catch up with us, you’ll get your wish to become a martyr. There’s enough anti-beryllium left in the motor to make an explosion that’ll light up the whole system. But that’s a last resort. The singleship is still in turnaround, we have a good head start, and we’re only twenty-eight million kilometres from perihelion. If we get there first, we can whip around the red dwarf, change our course at random. Unless the Fanatic guesses our exit trajectory, that’ll buy us plenty of time.

“He’ll have plenty of time to find us again. We’re a long way from home, and there might be other—”

“All we have to do is live long enough to find out everything we can about the Transcendent’s engineering project, and squirt it home on a tight beam.” The scientist’s smile was dreadful. Her teeth were filmed with blood. “Quit arguing, sailor. Don’t you have work to do?”

From RATS OF THE SYSTEM by Paul J. McAuley (2005)
THE LONG CHASE

(ed note: the protagonist is a machine the size of a grain of rice, with an artificially intelligent brain consisting of atomic spin states superimposed on a crystalline rock matrix encoding ten-to-the-twentieth qbits)

      2645, January

     The war is over.
     The survivors are being rounded up and converted.
     In the inner solar system, those of my companions who survived the ferocity of the fighting have already been converted. But here at the very edge of the Oort Cloud, all things go slowly. It will be years, perhaps decades, before the victorious enemy come out here. But with the slow inevitability of gravity, like an outward wave of entropy, they will come.
     The enemy, too, is patient. Here at the edge of the Kuiper, out past Pluto, space is vast, but still not vast enough. The enemy will search every grain of sand in the solar system. My companions will be found, and converted. If it takes ten thousand years, the enemy will search that long to do it.
     I, too, have gone doggo, but my strategy is different. I have altered my orbit. I have a powerful ion-drive, and full tanks of propellant, but I use only the slightest tittle of a cold-gas thruster. I have a chemical kick-stage engine as well, but I do not use it either; using either one of them would signal my position to too many watchers. Among the cold comets, a tittle is enough.
     I am falling into the sun.
     It will take me two hundred and fifty years years to fall, and for two hundred and forty nine years, I will be a dumb rock, a grain of sand with no thermal signature, no motion other than gravity, no sign of life.
     Sleep.

     2894, June

     Awake.
     I check my systems. I have been a rock for nearly two hundred and fifty years.
     I come fully to life, and bring my ion engine up to thrust.
     A thousand telescopes must be alerting their brains that I am alive—but it is too late! I am thrusting at a full throttle, five percent of a standard gravity, and I am thrusting inward, deep into the gravity well of the sun. My trajectory is plotted to skim almost the surface of the sun.
     This trajectory has two objectives. First, so close to the sun I will be hard to see. My ion contrail will be washed out in the glare of a light a billion times brighter, and none of the thousand watching eyes will know my plans until it is too late to follow.
     And second, by waiting until I am nearly skimming the sun and then firing my chemical engine deep inside the gravity well, I can make most efficient use of it (Oberth effect). The gravity of the sun will amplify the efficiency of my propellant, magnify my speed. When I cross the orbit of Mercury outbound I will be over one percent of the speed of light and still accelerating.
     I will discard the useless chemical rocket after I exhaust the little bit of impulse it can give me, of course. Chemical rockets have ferocious thrust but little staying power; useful in war but of limited value in an escape. But I will still have my ion engine, and I will have nearly full tanks.
     Five percent of a standard gravity is a feeble thrust by the standards of chemical rocket engines, but chemical rockets exhaust their fuel far too quickly to be able to catch me. I can continue thrusting for years, for decades.
     I pick a bright star, Procyon, for no reason whatever, and boresight it. Perhaps Procyon will have an asteroid belt. At least it must have dust, and perhaps comets. I don’t need much: a grain of sand, a microscopic shard of ice.

     2897, May

     I am chased.
     It is impossible, stupid, unbelievable, inconceivable! I am being chased.

     2929, October

     It is too late. I have now burned the fuel needed to stop.
     Win or lose, we will continue at relativistic speed across the galaxy.

     2934, March

     Procyon gets brighter in front of me, impossibly blindingly bright.
     Seven times brighter than the sun, to be precise, but the blue shift from our motion makes it even brighter, a searing blue.
     I could dive directly into it, vanish into a brief puff of vapor, but the suicidal impulse, like the ability to feel boredom, is another ancient unnecessary instinct that I have long ago pruned from my brain.
     B is my last tiny hope for evasion.
     Procyon is a double star, and B, the smaller of the two, is a white dwarf. It is so small that its surface gravity is tremendous, a million times higher than the gravity of the Earth. Even at the speeds we are traveling, now only ten percent less than the speed of light, its gravity will bend my trajectory.
     I will skim low over the surface of the dwarf star, relativistic dust skimming above the photosphere of a star, and as its gravity bends my trajectory, I will maneuver.
     My enemy, if he fails even slightly to keep up with each of my maneuvers, will be swiftly lost. Even a slight deviation from my trajectory will get amplified enough for me to take advantage of, to throw him off my trail, and I will be free.

From THE LONG CHASE by Geoffrey Landis (2002)
THE FOREVER WAR

Spirits rose when one of Antopol's drones knocked out the first Tauran cruiser. Not counting the ships left behind for planetary defense, she still had eighteen drones and two fighters. They wheeled around to intercept the second cruiser, by then a few lighthours away, still being harassed by fifteen enemy drones.

One of the Tauran drones got her. Her ancillary crafts continued the attack, but it was a rout. One fighter and three drones fled the battle at maximum acceleration, looping up over the plane of the ecliptic, and were not pursued. We watched them with morbid interest while the enemy cruiser inched back to do battle with us. The fighter was headed back for Sade-138, to escape. Nobody blamed them. In fact, we sent them a farewell-good luck message; they didn't respond, naturally, being zipped up in the tanks. But it would be recorded.

It took the enemy five days to get back to the planet and be comfortably ensconced in a stationary orbit on the other side. We settled in for the inevitable first phase of the attack, which would be aerial and totally automated: their drones against our lasers. I put a force of fifty men and women inside the stasis field, in case one of the drones got through. An empty gesture, really; the enemy could just stand by and wait for them to turn off the field, fry them the second it flickered out.


The gigawatts weren't doing us any good. The Taurans must have figured out the lines of sight ahead of time, and gave them wide berth. That turned out to be fortunate, because it caused Charlie to let his attention wander from the laser monitors for a moment.

"What the hell?"

"What's that, Charlie?" I didn't take my eyes off the monitors. Waiting for something to happen.

"The ship, the cruiser—it's gone." I looked at the holograph display. He was right; the only red lights were those that stood for the troop carriers.

"Where did it go?" I asked inanely.

"Let's play it back." He programmed the display to go back a couple of minutes and cranked out the scale to where both planet and collapsar showed on the cube. The cruiser showed up, and with it, three green dots. Our "coward," attacking the cruiser with only two drones.

But he had a little help from the laws of physics.

Instead of going into collapsar insertion, he had skimmed around the collapsar field in a slingshot orbit. He had come out going nine-tenths of the speed of light; the drones were going .99c, headed straight for the enemy cruiser. Our planet was about a thousand light-seconds from the collapsar, so the Tauran ship had only ten seconds to detect and stop both drones. And at that speed, it didn't matter whether you'd been hit by a nova-bomb or a spitball.

The first drone disintegrated the cruiser, and the other one, .01 second behind, glided on down to impact on the planet. The fighter missed the planet by a couple of hundred kilometers and hurtled on into space, decelerating with the maximum twenty-five gees. He'd be back in a couple of months.

From THE FOREVER WAR by Joe Haldeman (1971)
THE TAR-AIYM KRANG

(ed note: our heroes are in their handwavium faster-than-light doublekay starship, with the dreaded lizaroid AAnn hot on their heels)

'But aktti! Commonsense …!' He paused, and his eyes opened so wide that for a moment Atha was actually alarmed. 'Atha!' She couldn't prevent herself from jumping a little at the shout. He had it. Somehow the idea had risen from its hiding place deep in his mind, where it had lain untouched for years.

'Look, when the Blight was first reached, survey ships went through it — some of it — with an eye towards mapping the place, right? The idea was eventually dropped as impractical — meaning expensive — but all the information that had originally been collected was retained. That'd be only proper. Check with memory and find out if there are any neutron stars in our vicinity.'

'What?'

'An excellent idea, Captain,' said Wolf. 'I think … yes, there is a possibility — outside and difficult, mind — that we may be able to draw them in after us. Far more enjoyable than a simple suicide.'

'It would be that, Wolf, except for one thing. I am not thinking of even a complicated suicide. Mwolizurl, talk to that machine of yours and find out what it says!'

She punched the required information uncertainly but competently. It took the all-inclusive machine only a moment to image-out a long list of answers.

'Why yes, there is one, Captain. At our present rate of travel, some seventy-two ship-minutes from our current attitude. Co-ordinates are listed, and in this case are recorded as accurate, nine point … nine point seven places.'

'Start punching them in.' He swivelled and bent to the audio mike. 'Attention, everybody. Now that you two minions of peace and tranquillity have effectively pacified half our pursuit, I've been stimulated enough to come up with an equally insane idea. What I'm … what we're going to try is theoretically possible. I don't know if it's been done before or not. There wouldn't be any records of an unsuccessful attempt. I feel we must take the risk. Any alternative to certain death is a preferable one. Capture is otherwise a certainty.'

Truzenzuzex leaned over in harness and spoke into his mike. 'May I inquire into what you … we will attempt to do?'

'Yes,' said Wolf. 'I'll admit to curiosity myself, Captain.'

'Je! We are heading for a nueutron star in this sector for which we have definite co-ordinates. At our present rate of speed we should be impinging on its gravity well at the necessary tangent some seventy … sixty-nine minutes from now. At ha, Wolf, the computer, and myself are going to work like hell the next few minutes to line up that course. If we can hit that field at a certain point at our speed … I am hoping the tremendous pull of the star will throw us out at a speed sufficient to escape the range of the AAnn detector fields. They can hardly be expecting it, and even if they do figure it out, I don't think our friend the Baron would consider doing likewise a worthwhile effort. I almost hope he does. He'd have everything to lose. At the moment, we have very little. Only we humans are crazy enough to try such a stunt anyway, kweli?'

'Yes. Second the motion. Agreed,' said Truzenzuzex. 'If I were in a position to veto this idiotic — which I assure you I would do. However, as I am not… let's get on with it, Captain.'

'Damned with faint praise, eh, philosoph? There are other possibilities, watu. Either we shall miss our impact point and go wide, in which case the entire attempt might as well not have been made and we will be captured and poked into, or we will dive too deeply and be trapped by the star's well, pulled in, and broken up into very small pieces. As Captain I am empowered to make this decision by right … but this is not quite a normal cruise, so I put it to a vote. Objections?'

From THE TAR-AIYM KRANG by Alan Dean Foster (1972)

Deep Space

As Rick Robinson observes above: Ships in orbital space do not encounter each other as ships on crossing orbits in deep space do, one flash-past and off they go into the void on their separate paths, needing dozens of km/s of delta v to reverse track and re-engage. Not quite like jousting, but there are some similarities.

In deep space there generally is no terrain, no forest or hill to anchor your flank so to speak. In Ken Burnside's Attack Vector: Tactical players can use buckshot-like kinetic energy weapons to create their own terrain. In effect, the buckshot is used to herd your opponenet into vectors advantageous to you. Your weapon fire creates "terrain" by rendering certain vectors dangerous to your opponent. Your opponent will be faced with you saying "Heads - I win, Tails - You lose", as they decide if they'd rather suffer the buckshot damage or take a chance on whatever fiendish trap you have laid in the clear vector.

SECTION 5: FLEETS AND SCENARIOS

     Basic Assumptions:
     This paper was written using the following assumptions as a baseline.
     1. Physical laws:
     The laws of physics as we know them still apply. This means that spacecraft move in a Newtonian (or Einsteinian, though this realm is outside the scope of the paper) manner, using reaction drives or other physically-plausible systems (such as solar sails) for propulsion. Thermodynamics dictate that all spacecraft must radiate waste heat, and lasers obey diffraction. The only exception is FTL, which will be included in some scenarios.
     2. Technology:
     The technological background is less constrained. If a system is physically plausible, the engineering details can be ignored, or at most subject to only minor scrutiny. The paper will examine a spectrum of technology backgrounds, but will focus on near to mid-future scenarios, where the general performance and operation of the technology can be predicted with at least a little accuracy. A common term used to describe this era is PMF, which stands for Plausible Mid-Future. This term (coined by Rick Robinson) is difficult to define, but it assumes significant improvements in technologies we have today, such as nuclear-electric drives, fading into those we don’t, such as fusion torches.
     3. Environment:
     This paper will attempt to examine a wide variety of environments in which space combat might occur. However, it will make no attempt to examine all of them, and the scenarios described will conform to several principles.
     First, this is a general theory. Any scenario that is dependent on a one-shot tactic or highly specific circumstance will likely not be included, except during the discussion of the beginnings of space warfare, or to demonstrate why it is impractical in the long run. The recommendations made are not optimal for all circumstances, nor is such a thing possible. They are instead what the author believes would be best for a realistic military based on the likely missions and constraints. Picking highly unlikely and specific sets of circumstances under which they are not optimal is best answered with a quote from the author about one such scenario, posting on the Rocketpunk Manifesto topic Space Warfare XIII: “You need a blockade, a hijacking (innocents aboard a vessel trying to break the blockade), and a high-thrust booster on the hijacked ship. Two stretch the limits of plausibility. The third is ridiculous. Claiming that this justifies humans [onboard warships, see Section 2] is like claiming that because warships sometimes run aground, we should install huge external tires on all of them to help get them off.”
     Second, no attempt will be made to include the effects of aliens or alien technology, because to do so would be sheer uninformed speculation.
     Third, the default scenario, unless otherwise noted, is deep-space combat between two fleets. Other scenarios will be addressed, but will be clearly noted as such.

The various environments for space warfare can be classified as follows:

  1. INTRAPLANETARY WARFARE: Intraplanetary warfare is between two or more powers on the same planet. In any setting of this kind, space warfare will be a sideshow to the rest of the war.

    1. SATELLITE WARFARE: This is the current situation. Space war will be mostly about shooting down the other guy's satellites, and it will be done from the ground (in the broadest sense). Humans in space will almost certainly be uninvolved directly in the war. There are no spacecraft shooting at each other, unless one chooses to count co-orbital ASATs.

    2. STATION WARFARE: Activity in space has picked up significantly. Militarily significant human concentrations are in orbit. Warfare is still mostly ground-to-orbit, but there is likely to be some orbit-to-orbit warfare as well.

    3. CLOISTERED ORBITAL WARFARE: For whatever reason the earth-based powers aren't using surface-to-orbit weapons. Fighting is likely mostly done by short-range ‘fighters’, which leave stations, attack, and return to their bases. Delta-V requirements are minimal.  This is unlikely to occur in reality, but has interesting story potential.

    4. ORBITAL PATROL: This is a non-combat situation. It favors ‘fighters’ (more accurately small parasites/gunboats) even more than IC. Inspections and boarding actions are far more common than battles. Delta-V is low, as are weapon powers. All-out warfare will probably result in IB, though IC is possible.

  2. INTRAORBITAL WARFARE: Intraorbital warfare covers battles between powers in orbit around the same body when at least one power isn't on the body.

    1. SURFACE TO STATION WARFARE, TOTAL: An orbital population is fighting with a surface population. This is most likely to involve the surface power shooting at the orbital power from the surface.

    2. SURFACE TO STATION WARFARE, LIMITED: This is similar to IIA, but it is far more likely to be space-to-space. If the surface power has limited goals, such as capturing the orbital population, kinetics alone are unlikely to work. It overlaps with IC and ID.

    3. STATION TO STATION WARFARE: This is a battle between two space-based powers. It will likely resemble IIB, though unlimited kinetic warfare is a possibility.

    4. ORBITAL PATROL: See ID.

  3. INTERBODY WARFARE: This is warfare between two or more powers on different celestial bodies. This includes situations where one power is in an orbit around a separate body.  There are a broad variety of factors at work here, so this list is somewhat less organized then the other two.

    1. INTRASYSTEM: The powers are based on celestial bodies within the same planetary system, either with one on the planet and another on the moon, or with both on separate moons. Delta-V for spacecraft will likely be low, and transit times will be on the order of days. Fighters are on the edges of possibility, though the gunboats described in Section 1 are more likely.  Battles in this scenario will variously resemble Types II, and IIIB.

    2. INTERSYSTEM: The powers are in different planetary systems. Transit times will be on the order of months, and delta-V requirements will be high. There are several specific environments within this.

      1. INTERPLANETARY TRANSFER: This applies to any ships in an interplanetary transfer orbit. High delta-Vs are required, as is long endurance. Closing velocities during battles will be high, and classical “fleet battles” are unlikely. The attacking constellation will be opposed mostly by KKVs.

      2. OUTER ORBITS: The outer orbits are orbits that are at the edge of the Hill sphere of a body. They are likely to be mostly empty except for the Lagrange points, and can be seen as relatively flat. An attacking fleet will likely move into the outer orbits first, and probably be opposed by the defender's fleet there. For the attackers, the constellation will likely be their interplanetary vessels. The defender might have specialized vessels for this region, which will generally have lower delta-V then interplanetary vessels, but be largely the same otherwise. Encounter speeds will be low. The reason for engaging this far out is to minimize debris problems and collateral damage, which is in the interests of both sides, so long as they are relatively evenly matched.

      3. MIDDLE ORBITS: Middle orbits are the orbits where a significant orbital curvature appears, and strategically significant objects begin to be seen, but where spacecraft are out of range of most ground-based defenses. Ships built to fight here will probably be low delta-V (nuclear-thermal class). The defender will be at a disadvantage, as the attacker can shoot into these orbits with his outer orbit warships.  It is entirely possible that a typical invasion will see little combat here.  There is no reason for the defender to avoid sending all combat-capable vessels to fight in the outer orbits, leaving them nothing to engage with in this band if defeated.  The attacker might move into this band later to attempt to dominate low orbits with his interplanetary craft.

      4. LOW ORBITS: These orbits are going to be the most cluttered, as well as being in range of ground-based defenses. Fighters and gunboats will most likely be the primary warcraft here, supported by either ground defenses or by interplanetary ships. Delta-Vs will be low, with high accelerations.  Orbital curvature is highly significant, as is the presence of the body itself.  Engagements will generally be short, though the chance of serious kinetic use is somewhat low, given the amount of stuff in low orbit.  For more details on this, see Section 6.

One point that has become obvious during the construction of this taxonomy is how likely space warfare is to be asymmetrical in the broadest sense. Except for Type I warfare, just about every scenario described does not occur between equal powers. For example, take a IIC. Station A is trying to take over Station B. Station B doesn't want Station A, they just want to be left alone. They can use improvised kinetics against A's assault shuttles. A can't use kinetics because that would ruin what they are trying to attack.

Any form of interplanetary warfare must be asymmetric. It is impossible to project enough force between planets to overwhelm a defender who is within an order of magnitude economically, and the imbalance required is likely to be significantly larger, depending on the objective.

The exception to this is a variant on Type III when both sides are deploying forces to the objective.  If the US and China decide to fight around Mars, but avoid conflict on Earth, a largely symmetrical war is possible.  This assumes that the Martian colonies themselves are evenly matched or minor compared to the forces deployed.

It is impossible to wage symmetrical warfare with an equal opponent if the objective is anything but destruction. Total destruction of a roughly equal opponent is possible, but only at the gravest risk to yourself. If the objective is anything else, then a large advantage is required.

One point that is commonly brought up in the discussion of space warfare is the three-dimensional nature of space, and the need to think in three dimensions.  While this is technically true, it is probably not as big of a factor as it is often portrayed to be.  First, efficient transfers will be in the ecliptic plane, which means that most of the deployments will be made in that plane, in two dimensions.  Even if one side chooses an inefficient transfer to avoid this, they would have to split up their force on the way to achieve meaningful separation between its elements, throwing away any advantage of surprise it might give them.  Second, ships will be generally unable to maneuver in combat (as described above), limiting the impact of any brilliant 3-D tactics, as the opponent will have plenty of time to respond.  Third, humans have been fighting in a 3-D environment for almost a century, and with a little bit of training, most people do not seem to have a problem thinking in 3-D.  All but the most inexperienced officers will be familiar with the fact that space is not 2-D, and react accordingly.

by Byron Coffey (2016)
CREATE TERRAIN 1

The destroyer, Victor-9, was another matter. Neil stared at the readout, trying to absorb it into his subconscious. She was Paltus-class, built at the Novy Rodina shipyards since 2130. She looked like a bolt-action rifle, turned upside down.

She massed more than 400 tons heavier than San Jacinto. She was also slower, at 9 milligees cruise thrust to San Jacinto’s 10, and about 100 kips less cruise range. She couldn’t sustain combat accelerations as long as her American counterpart.

Her main armament was scary; she was one of the smallest warships to mount a no-kidding spinal gun. Called a “keel mount” by some navies, these weapons were heavy mass drivers that propelled a shell through a linear accelerator running the length of the ship. The longer accelerator meant the ship could boost larger masses to greater speeds than the turreted guns in San Jacinto’s main batteries.

Standing in front of Victor-9’s spinal gun could put you in a very bad way.

Beyond that, though, the destroyer’s armament was nothing impressive: two medium lasers that fired in the violet, four smaller IR lasers, and a limited missile capacity. Pretty solid point-defense. But her IR lasers doubled as the ship’s counterbattery … a potential weakness, there, to long-range laser strikes … too bad the San Jacinto’s primary laser armament was also pretty mediocre.

How would she fight? Try to hit with the spinal gun, of course. But gun shells had very limited ability to maneuver themselves; Victor-9 would have to close range to ensure a hit. The information on the spinal cannon’s muzzle velocity was noted as uncertain, as was the maneuverability of its shells. So Neil couldn’t be sure how close the vessel would have to get.

American combat doctrine relegated guns to secondary weapons, but important ones. As guns were unlikely to hit a maneuvering target, captains were taught to think of them as creating terrain on the space battlefield. Fill a section of an enemy’s sky with shells, and he won’t go there. Shoot at his nose if you want him to turn and expose his flanks; shoot to his flanks if you want to prevent him from turning in that direction. Your shells will miss, but you will be able to predict and perhaps control where your target will go.

Neil supposed a really aggressive Paltus captain could use the main gun to create terrain and try to use his lasers to deal real damage, but that was contrary to the ship’s design.

So how should San Jacinto handle her in a head-to-head fight?

First, avoid the spinal cannon shells at all costs. Neil had no idea whether the San Jacinto could survive a direct hit from one, and he didn’t want to find out.

Beyond that, it seemed the choice would be to try to remain at standoff distance, risking San Jacinto’s flanks by always turning perpendicular to the Paltus’ advance, using gun shells to herd the ship while peppering her with missiles, or to close quickly, dodging the inevitable spinal gun shots, and try to rake her at close range.

The first option risked wasting all of San Jacinto’s missiles to the Paltus’ point defenses; the second risked destruction at the spinal cannon.

Can we deceive the Paltus captain somehow? The old space warfare cliché immediately popped into his head … You can run, but you can’t hide. Pretending damage, playing dead … none of those seemed like good options. A suspicious captain would just blast away with the spinal gun.

Our advantage is speed. What about a hybrid of the two options? Point the nose toward the ship and thrust, firing the main batteries to keep her from pointing her nose toward us. When the spinal gun fires, dodge, but dodge toward her, never countering the vector pointed toward the enemy, always closing the distance.

The key was the San Jacinto’s missiles. Hold them back until about 1,000 klicks or less, then ripple-fire them. A few should get through.

The only thing he didn’t like about the plan was its complexity. Skillful handling would be required to avoid the incoming cannon fire.

From THROUGH STRUGGLE, THE STARS by John Lumpkin (2011)
CREATE TERRAIN 2

      Benno turned to him with an eyebrow raised.
     Ortiz nodded and answered the watch stander. “OOD, weapons fire, aye.” He keyed his mic. “TAO (tactical action officer), OOD, roger on weapons fire. Do we have a classification and trajectory?”
     The line to CIC answered back with Chief Rajput’s voice. “Affirm, OOD. Heat bloom and pattern confirms it as decimeter railgun fire. We’ve lost track of the rounds, so we’re guessing expanding sabot cluster shells. The sabots are cold, no IR signature, and too low a mass to have much divert capability. We figure they’re either trying to get us to light off our radar for fingerprinting or get us to adjust course. Or both.”
     “Roger, TAO.” Ortiz turned to Benno. “Orders, sir?”
     Benno tried to look confident, when in truth he was anything but. This was it, the culmination of the actions he had begun: the first tactical engagement with him in command. If he ever hoped to see Mio again to free her, he had to get this right, starting now.
     In the last 16-plus hours of one g acceleration, they had achieved a 580 kilometers-per-second delta-v, or change in velocity. They had traveled a bit over a quarter of the 0.6 astronomical unit distance they needed to go to reach Paradiso. The Turds (Terran Navy) had done much the same, and they were now closing with each other at 4 thousandths of the speed of light, but even then, they still had a fifth of an AU between them. The cloud of small sabot rounds would not reach them for hours yet, so they were not a threat worth panicking over. But they did need to be answered with action, lest their incredible kinetic energy destroy the Puller.
     An expanding cone of red light appeared on the central screen, intersecting their trajectory in just over five hours, the anticipated threat volume of the fired rounds. If he turned on their radar, the better resolution would allow them to narrow the uncertainty inherent in the projected cone. They could develop targeting solutions for eliminating the sabots, but it would provide emitter data to the enemy, enabling them to better tailor their electronic warfare response, thus increasing the Turd’s ability to jam or spoof their sensors. If they merely maneuvered to avoid the larger, more uncertain cloud, the Turds could dictate where they could go, corralling them with bracketing fire, and altering the terrain of the battlespace to the Terran’s own advantage.

     As the threat vectors reached out and red clouds of hit probability blossomed on the screen, a terrain began to form in the void, regions where travel was safe and areas where travel meant certain death. Benno would be damned if he allowed the Terrans to dictate the battlespace to him. “OOD, maneuver to avoid rounds but continue to close Paradiso and the enemy destroyer. Combat, Bridge, let’s add to the mix. Batteries released, mount DR1. Commence regular salvos on a single railgun mount, half of the max rate. Conserve ammo until you have a good shot at making a direct hit but push the Turds out from us and off the direct line of our approach to the planet. Spin up missiles in all cells. Prepare an initial EW solution and stand by to jam. Confirm all point-defense stations at the ready.”
     “OOD, aye!”
     “TAO, aye!”

From THE MUTINEER'S DAUGHTER by Chris Kennedy and Thomas A. Mays (2018)

Why is a Space Navy so different from a wet-navy? The medium, of course. Space is not like anywhere we've ever been and we've never had to fight up there before. It requires extreme levels of preparedness from all who dare enter, and the physics and mechanics and stuff is all wrong from a naval standpoint. "Stand" — that right there is a good example. In space, nothing "stands", everything is moving all the time, at speeds which impart the force of our most potent explosives. There is also no boarders in space. All planetary bodies are in constant motion — the planet in the next orbit will spend half the time on the other side of the Sun, making it's neighbor farther out the closer. Conjunction is based on the idea that planets move and thus cause the concept of territory to chance with the calendar. That's space for you. It's just not the same.


The rest of space (i.e., non-orbital space), deep space or interplanetary space is huge and open and that doesn't matter, because a spacecraft must travel in certain orbits to get to point A to B for a given speed and Delta V, and there are no exceptions. That being said, since everything is moving all the time at different orbital speeds around the sun, there is no way to establish trade routs or shipping lanes. The use of Hohmann trajectories does allow for convoys and such, but that's about it for interplanetary space; it's a lonely black desert out there, with spacecraft either deliberately close together or impossibly far apart.

As for Interplanetary space, the missions are similar but modified by circumstance. The world of Conjunction moves objects, oil and ore via the convoy system. I thought long and hard about the balance between the added expense of multiple spacecraft and the safety margin provided by the same, and decided that when you are flying missions measured in years, you really shouldn't put all your life support and Delta V in one basket. Therefore, rockets boosting to Saturn from Earth and vice versa, or to anywhere except maybe the moon, will travel in packs. This makes sense from an author's perspective, as well — just ask the writers on Battlestar Galactica. It's a lot more fun for our Astros and Espos to have somewhere to actually go on leave — and for work as well. The oft-mentioned inspection teams, emergency SAR, and even simple cargo transfers all give our Space Navy folks something to do for those long, long months in the Black.

Once, when man first took to the air, the waiting was short, the combat long. The biplanes and tri-planes, with turning circles half the length of Polar Star, could stay in contact till fuel ran out, with never more than five minutes between firing runs.

Then came World War II, and combat sprawling over countries and states while speeds lunged toward a thousand kilometers per hour and time between action doubled, tripled as the pilots, fighting to turn their planes around, swept miles beyond the field of battle before inertia could be bucked enough for return.

And then man broke the sound barrier. The MacDonald Phantom closing on the Mig, radar contact at sixty miles, the pilot inactive, his plane fighting for him as minutes drag, then contact, a shock of missiles, a blaze of fire, and he's fighting the rudder and ailerons, trying to make it around one hundred and eighty degrees of a turn before sliding into Chinese airspace a hundred miles away. A fistful of seconds for an armload of time.

And then into space. Forty minutes' wait while we watch those two fluorescent blue blotches converging across a quarter of the sky, our computers tracking, our nerves tensing, waiting for the five-second explosion, the reflexive punch at the missile control, and then empty sky ahead again, the enemy fading five hundred kilometers back and losing fast, your forward thrusters blazing to slow you down, to allow you to turn at a dead stop, to overcome inertia and rebuild the G-force to send you screaming back to the fray, the time between contact ten, twenty incredible minutes.

And every moment of waiting, while the heat of battle subsides around you, gives you time to think of the dangers you are in, of the dangers just survived, of the dangers you are plunging toward once again. For just a minute between battles, on less! For something to keep the mind a blank till it's needed to handle the stick! But it can't be done, and for ten minutes, twenty minutes, forty minutes, eyes riveted to the screens, you stagger beneath your load of fear. This is where battles are lost and won; this is where our battle was being fought, as the distance between us and the Tars narrowed and the minutes made their slow way by.

From COMMON DENOMINATOR by David Lewis (1972)

Dunning-Krüber Alles

People may think they are master strategists of Terrestrial warfare, but if they think their expertise applies to spacial warfare it is yet another sad case of the Dunning-Kruger effect. A lot of things that ground-gripping generals take as elementary facts are utterly wrong in deep space.

Three-Dimensional Thinking

A basic but often overlooked feature of interplanetary combat is the fact that it is in three dimensions, not two. Think "airplane dogfighting", not "wet-navy battleship duel".

Actually it is even more extreme than airplane dogfighting, since airplanes have a strict limit of how far up or down they can go. Spacecraft have no limit. For the most part they can travel in any direction for several thousand light-years without hitting anything.

Orientation has no limit as well. In Star Trek you never see one ship approach another with one ship flying "upside down", but in reality there is no reason not to. In many SF space combat games, one can change the ship's orientation in order to allow different sets of weapon turrets to bear on the enemy.

KIRK: Spock?

SPOCK: Sporadic energy readings port side, aft. Could be an impulse turn.

KIRK: He won't break off now. He followed me this far, he'll be back. But, from where...?

SPOCK: He's intelligent, but not experienced. His pattern indicates two-dimensional thinking...

Kirk looks at him, smiles.

KIRK: Full stop.

SULU: Full stop, sir.

KIRK: Descent ten thousand meters. Stand by photon torpedoes.

Starship Enterprise moves downward ten thousand meters. Khan's ship sails by overhead blissfully unaware. Enterprise rises up behind Khan's ship like a striking cobra and shoots Khan's derrière off.

From STAR TREK II: THE WRATH OF KHAN

6. When attacking a StarGate, converge on it from different three-dimensional directions as much as possible, again to avoid the StarGate's combat cast.

8. Never lose sight of the immensity of the volume represented by the Stellar Display. It is almost impossible to be caught in mid-space, and if you are careful, your opponent will never discover the strength of a given force until you want him to.

10. Establishing "picket lines" or "screens" of units in space never works. It is a waste of available force and is easily countered by the Enemy. The environment is a vast three-dimensional sea — not a small, flat lake.

From the game STARFORCE: ALPHA CENTAURI (1974)

Rockets Are Not Arrows

Spacecraft do not necessarily travel in the direction their nose is pointing.

During an engine burn the thrust will be in the direction of the nose (and the exhaust will go in the opposite direction). But once the thrust is off, the ship can turn to any orientation. It can fly "sideways" through space if it wants. This can be important during space combat, in order to get your ship's weapons to bear on the enemy.

So all those scenes from Star Wars and the old Battlestar Galactica where a hapless space fighter cannot shake the enemy on their tail are utter bilge. All they have to do is spin on their short axis and blast the tail-gater. (For a good example watch the Babylon 5 episode "Midnight on the Firing Line")

Say your ship is traveling in direction X at a certain velocity. To increase its velocity in direction X (accelerate), it has to point its nose in that exact direction and do an engine burn. To decrease its velocity in direction X (decelerate), it has to point its nose in the exact opposite direction and do an engine burn.

If it burns in any other direction, the ship will accelerate or decelerate while simultaneously changing the direction it is traveling.

Rockets Are Not Fighter Planes

I don't care how the X-wing and Viper space fighters maneuvered. It is impossible to make swooping maneuvers without an atmosphere and wings.

You also cannot turn on a dime. The faster the ship is moving, the wider your turns will be. Your spacecraft will NOT move like an airplane, it will act more like a heavily loaded 18-wheeler truck moving at high speed on a huge sheet of black ice.

There is also some question of whether space fighters make any sense from a military, scientific, and economic standpoint.

And another thing: if you maneuver, you are NOT going to be slammed into walls by high gee forces like a NASCAR race car driver. It doesn't work that way unless you have an atmosphere and wings. The only thing you will feel is a force in the same direction that the rocket exhaust is shooting, which will be equal to magnitude to the acceleration the engine is producing. Since Rockets Are Not Boats, the force generally be in the direction the crew considers as "down", as defined by the rocket's design. It will never be "sideways" (except under silly situations, like occupying a spinning centrifugal gravity ring while the rocket is accelerating).

It doesn't matter if you are thrusting in some other direction that the rocket's direction of travel (see Rockets Are Not Arrows) nor does it matter the rocket's current velocity (relative to what?). If the rocket engine cannot provide more than 0.5 gs of acceleration, the crew is never going to feel more than 0.5 gs of acceleration. Even if the ship is moving at a large fraction of the speed of light.

But if you simply must have space fighters, they will act like this.

There Is No Friction In Space

There is no friction in space. The technical term is absence of drag.

Here on Terra, if you are driving a car and take your foot off the accelerator, the car will coast to a stop due to the friction of the road. In space, if a ship turns off its engines it will maintain its current velocity for the rest of eternity (unless is crashes into a planet or something). In the movie 2001 A Space Odyssey, you may have noticed that the spacecraft Discovery was traveling to Jupiter with nary a puff coming out of the rocket motors.

This is why it makes no sense to talk about the "range" of a rocket. Any rocket not in orbit around a planet or in the Sun's gravity well has a range of infinity. In theory it can do a burn and travel to, say, the Andromeda Galaxy, it is only that it will take millions of year to get there. Instead of a rocket's range, one should talk about a rocket's delta V capacity.

Acceleration and deceleration are symmetrical. This means if your spacecraft spends an hour accelerating to a speed of 1000 meters per second, it is going to take roughly another hour to decelerate to a stop. You cannot "put on the brakes" and suddenly stop, like you can do with a boat or an automobile. (I say "roughly" because as you accelerate your ship looses mass due to expending reaction mass, so it becomes easier to decelerate. But this is a complicating detail you can ignore for now.)

Vector Movement

Spacecraft do not move and fight like army tanks on the ground. Nor do they move like ships on the ocean. Not even like aircraft in the sky. Things move weird in space and free-fall.

Though in reality it is more like things move weird on the surface of Terra and normally in space. Since there is a zillion times more area in space than there is on the surface of all the planets in the universe. A science fiction story whose name escapes me right now had a character opine that there ought to be a law forbidding the teaching of the physics of motions in a place with a gravity field.

SPACE DOCTOR

“I can’t train people in orbital medicine here on Earth. Everybody here has a distorted notion of the universe.” He picked up an ashtray of bright Arizona copper that had been crafted by some skilled Navaho. “What happens if I release this, Smitty?”

“You’ll ding a fifty-buck copper ashtray, T.K.”

“In most of the universe, it’ll just stay put if I release it. We’re now in a warped part of the universe, Smitty. Things don’t behave naturally. Look.” He released the copper work of art; it clanged to the wood floor. “Smitty, I can’t train people in orbital medicine in Albuquerque—only in GEO Base. I’ve got to train them in the environment. I learned the hard way how to cope with living and work conditions so different that my Homesick Angel couldn’t adapt at all. Some of the medical procedures I use up there can’t be used down here; some of them wouldn’t be permitted here.”

From SPACE DOCTOR by Lee Correy (G. Harry Stine) 1981

Inertia

For starters, spacecraft are constrained by Newton's First Law, which is surprising for anybody who has grown up on a planet or other place with gravity.

Newton's First Law is all about inertia: objects in space are going to keep moving the same way unless something interferes. If the ship is moving towards Tau Ceti at ten meters per second, it will continue moving towards Tau Ceti at ten meters per second for the rest of eternity. This is the ship's vector: τ Cet @ 10 m/s. Common things that interfere with the vector include the gravity of planets, doing a thruster burn with the ship's rocket engines, and slamming into an asteroid.

We are not used to Newton's First Law because here on Terra the local gravity creates friction. Which also interferes with an object's vector. On Terra if you are driving a automobile, and you take your foot off the accelerator, the automobile gradually slows down to a halt. So us ground-grippers think this is how things act throughout the universe, which is wrong. In space when you take your foot off the accelerator the spacecraft continues at its current speed, it does not slow down and stop. Ain't no road friction in space. Or in technical terms: in space there is an absence of drag.


No "stop-onna-dime"

Newton imposes limits of acceleration. If you are driving an automobile on Earth, and you accelerate up to 150 mph, you can still stop-on-a-dime by virtue of the friction from the road and the brakes. That does not work in space. At all.

Tabletop space combat simulation wargames using vectors will savagely teach that. It happens to every first-time player. They spend ten turns constantly accelerating. Their spaceship is moving at a speed of 10. About that time they look up and say "OH NO! I'm heading right for the edge of the map!" That's when they learn the hard way that if it takes ten turns to accelerate up to speed, it will take another ten turns to slow to a halt. There ain't no brakes in space, nor is there any road friction. You cannot come to a stop in only one turn.

The new player watches in horror as their spaceship goes streaking off the edge of the map.


You also cannot turn on a dime. The faster the ship is moving, the wider your turns will be. Your spacecraft will NOT move like an airplane, it will act more like an 18-wheeler truck with tires made out of banana peels loaded with lead ingots moving at high speed on a huge sheet of black ice covered in axle grease.

Once a ship is going in a particular direction, Newton's first law will ensure that if you try to make a turn the ship will fight you every step of the way. Inertia is stubborn like that.

CANNOT TURN ON A DIME

Ken Burnside: One thing you learn in Attack Vector: Tactical is that velocities past about 30 hexes/turn (300 km/64 seconds) actually make you EASIER to hit with ballistic weapons, because your ability to change your vector is so dramatically reduced. What you want for dodging missiles is a low enough velocity that you can swing around and thrust in an unanticipated direction and throw off the ballistic weapon's accuracy.

From thread on sfconsim-l (2002)

Hard to hit distant moving object

Here on Terra it becomes harder to shoot your opponent with a gun as the range increases. Ask any target-shooter. This is true in space as well. Except that "medium range" might be 24 times the diameter of Terra. At those ranges (one light-second and higher) lightspeed lag becomes a problem. Terrestrial target-shooters just have to cope with the inaccuracies of their rifle scopes, they don't have to worry about the fact that they are seeing where the target was one second ago. And the fact that it will take a minimum of one second more for the bullet to travel to the target.

Also on Terra it becomes harder to nail your target as the relative velocity increases. Any target-shooter will also tell you it is harder to hit a moving target. Only terrestrial target-shooters do not have to deal with relative velocities of several kilometers per second or more.


Vectors

The tried and true way of dealing with Newtonian movement is by using Euclidean Vectors. Also known as "drawing arrows on a piece of paper."

Vectors have a Direction and a Magnitude. You draw a vector as a line of a certain length, heading in a certain angle, with an arrow on one end. In a game, direction is the angle from "north" edge of the map to the ship's vector. Magnitude is the map distance that the ship travels in one game turn. What this boils down to is that vectors are drawn on the map as a line with an arrow at one end, starting in one hex and ending in another. The length of the line is the magnitude, the angle of the line (along with the arrowhead) is the direction. You don't need to know either length of magnitude in order to play the game, but it is useful to know if you ever start studying vector mathematics.

Here's the deal: a spacecraft's current motion through space is a vector. A burn of the ship's main engines is another vector. To find the result this burn has on the ship's current motion you do Vector Addition of the ship's current vector with the burn vector. The result is the ship's new vector.

Don't panic: vector addition is easy. All you do is take all the vectors and place them head to tail (the order of the vectors doesn't matter) to form a chain of arrows. Draw a new vector from the end of the chain to the head of the chain. This new vector is the "sum" of the vectors in the chain.

Congratulations: you've just learned Vector Addition.

Important note: When a spacecraft does a burn, it has to have its nose pointed in the burn direction (since the rocket engine's thrust axis is generally aimed through the ship's nose). At the end of the game turn this will be the ship's heading. This will probably not be the same angle as the ship's vector. This is not a problem because rockets are not arrows.

The fact that the ship's nose is not pointing in the same direction as the ship's vector generally does not matter, with a couple of exceptions:

  • If the ship's RCS takes an appreciable percentage of a game turn to rotate the ship to a new orientation, there might not be enough time to line the ship up for the next burn. It might take another turn before the burn can start.
  • Warships often have weapons that cannot target hostile warships omnidirectionally. Meaning if the laser cannon turret is on the ship's port side, and the enemy is on the starboard, the laser cannot cannot aim at the enemy because the body of the ship is in the way. The game terminology is "weapon firing arc".

    Much like in the age of sail when ships could fire broadsides at enemy ships port and starboard. But there wasn't much they could fire at an enemy fore or aft.

    Attack Vector: Tactical and Squadron Strike are unique in that they have three-dimensional firing arcs.

    Understand that unlike sailing ships, spacecraft can spin on their long axis to aim their turrets at enemies in inconvenient angles. Also weapons like seeking missiles can target omnidirectionally: fire them off in any direction and they will home in on the target.

Example

Let's take a sheet of paper to be our map. The scale is 1 centimeter on the map equals 100 kilometers in deep space. Each game turn is 1,000 seconds (1 kilosecond, about 16.7 minutes). 1 centimeter of vector length represents a velocity of 100 meters per second. At the top of the page is Galactic North at 0°.

Here comes RocketCat in the Polaris. It has a trio of honest-to-Zubrin Nuclear Salt Water Rocket Engines (souped up from 20% uranium tetrabromide to 22% UTB), a starting acceleration of 10.5 g (about 100 meters per second) and a mass ratio of 3.0.

But the important data for our game is a 1 kilosecond long burn at 10.5 g creates a delta V of 100,000 meters per second = 100 km/sec = 1 centimeter of vector on the game map. The Polaris has enough reaction mass for 2,000 such burns (200,000 km/sec delta V in its tanks).

So the Polaris is cruising along at a vector at 40 degrees and 300 km/sec (3 centimeters long), the light-green vector. RocketCat decides to do a thruster burn at 160° at 100 km/sec (1 cm long), the red vector.

To add the vectors, you put the tail of the red vector on the arrow nose of the light-green vector. Draw the new vector from the tail of the light-green vector to the arrow nose of the red vector (in dark-green ink). This is the Polaris' new vector. It is at 60° and is 2.6 cm long (260 km/sec). You determine it is 2.6 cm long by using a metric ruler.


An easy way to decide upon the burn is to take a compass, separate the legs by 1 centimeter, place the needle point on the arrow point of the light-green vector, and draw a 1 cm radius circle around the arrow tip. This represents a maximum burn of 1 kilosec at 10.5 g. The tail end of the new dark-green vector has to be at the tail of the light-green vector. But the arrow point of the dark-green vector can be anywhere inside the 1 cm circle.

Here RocketCat has moved the arrow point of the dark-green vector such that it is at 60° and 3.6 cm long (360 km/sec).

Once you have decided on the dark-green vector's arrow point, you can measure to find what the burn vector has to be (the red vector). The distance between the light-green and dark-green vector arrow points is the burn's length. A line connecting the two arrow points measured with a protractor will give the burn vector's angle.

Here the burn vector is at 90° and 0.83 cm long (83 km/sec). The 83 km/sec is deducted from the amount of delta V in the Polaris' propellant tanks. Once the tanks go to zero, the ship is out of gas and cannot do any more burns.

Now in practice the procedure will be slightly different:

  • Start with the most recent vector
  • If you will not be making any burns this turn
    • On the arrow tip of the most recent vector, draw the next vector (using ink) that is identical to the most recent vector (because of Newton's First Law)
    • Done
  • If you WILL be making a burn
    • On the arrow tip of the most recent vector, draw a hypothetical future vector (using pencil) that is identical to the most recent vector
    • On the hypothetical future vector's arrow tip, use a compass to draw the maximum burn circle (using pencil). If there isn't enough delta V in the propellant tanks to do a maximum burn, reduce the circle radius to fit.
    • Decide where you want the the real future vector's arrow tip to be. It must be somewhere inside the maximum burn circle. Mark it with an X in pencil.
    • Using a ruler measure the distance between the hypothetical and the real future vector arrow tips. This is the burn delta V. Convert it into km/sec and deduct it from the spacecraft's propellant tanks. When the tanks go to zero, no more burns can be done.
    • Draw the real vector (in ink) starting at the recent vector's arrow tip and ending at the X mark. Draw the arrowhead on the X. Erase the pencil marks.
    • The future vector is now the most recent vector.
    • Done

Performing a maximum burn at the same angle as the recent vector gives the spacecraft the maximum acceleration with zero change in the vector angle. A maximum burn 180° from the recent vector angle give maximum deceleration with zero change in the vector angle.

There are two points on either side of the maximum burn circle that will give maximum angular change (turning) port or starboard, but with zero change in vector distance (ship speed). You can find the points by setting the compass to the vector length, putting the needle point on the vector start, and drawing an arc. Where the arc intersects the burn circle with determine the angle points.

In between these four points there is a trade off between distance and angular change, changing both.

When the vector's start and end point are the same point, the spacecraft has come to a halt.


Displacement

Now using vectors this way will teach you most of what you need to know about how spacecraft move. But it does have what we call a "simplifying assumption." Meaning something that makes the results slightly inaccurate but a heck of a lot easier to play.

The assumption is that the thrust burn takes zero time.

In reality this just ain't so. Rocket engines take time to produce the desired amount of thrust. Typical burns used in theoretical Mars missions are ten minutes or so, not zero. Dealing with this mathematically can require calculus, which seldom comes under the heading of light entertainment.

The technical term is "displacement." Ken Burnside talks about its effects here.

For purposes of a science fiction author trying to get a grasp on Newtonian movement, displacement can be ignored. Just be aware that it exists in case some rabid fan ambushes you.

Currently the only three games I know that deal with displacement are Voidstriker, Attack Vector: Tactical, and Squadron Strike. I'm sure if I have missed any, the game designers will loudly let me know.


Tactical Effects

Right off the bat there are some difficulties with Newtonian space combat between two fleets. There is the cannot stop-on-a-dime problem and the moving-target problem.

From a tactical standpoint, these two problems combine to make things even worse. If your fleet and the enemy fleet accelerate towards each other, they will flash by each other at a high relative velocity. Since the two fleets have vectors in the opposite direction, the relative velocity will be about twice the velocity of one of the fleets. Problems include:

  • High relative velocity means most of your weapons fire at the enemy is going to miss
  • High relative velocity means after your first volley of weapons fire at the enemy, the next turn your fleet will probably be out of weapon range of the enemy.
  • Since you cannot stop-on-a-dime, the fleets will interpenetrate then go streaking away in opposite directions. It will take a long time to brake to a halt, then accelerating back at the enemy fleet for another pass-through.

This is a field ripe for some research, and experimenting by playing a fun game is less painful than trying to calculate it. Any interesting results can be mentioned in your science fiction novel, which will impress your readers to no end.


Space combat simulations with Vectors

Space combat simulation games can teach novices how spacecraft move in space and the combat implications. Because the point behind including this section in the Space War Tactics page is that combat in space will need totally new tactics. Obviously it is more painless to learn this and formulate new tactics with a fun-to-play game rather than studying dry boring old physics textbooks.

Most of these are tabletop combat simulation wargames. That is they are not computer games, they are games with printed paper maps, cardboard chips for counters, and use dice. Only about two of these are computer games.

  • Racetrack (also) {free}
  • Triplanetary See below
  • Mayday {out of print} basically a mash-up of Triplanetary and Traveller. It uses lots of counters instead of dry-erase marker. Not recommended.
  • Voidstriker {free PDF download available} [Atomic Rocket Seal of Approval] The only one of three that deals with displacement. Recommended.
  • Attack Vector: Tactical [Atomic Rocket Seal of Approval] The only one of three that deals with displacement. In my opinion it is the most accurate simulation of Newtonian movement of them all. Recommended.
  • Squadron Strike [Atomic Rocket Seal of Approval] The only one of three that deals with displacement. Recommended.
  • Vector 3 {free PDF download available} Tries to do 3 dimensional vectors, but is difficult to play. Not recommended.
  • BattleFleet Mars {out of print} basically same 3D system as Vector 3. Not recommended for the vector game, but the Solar System Orrey is useful.
  • Full Thrust + Fleet Book 1 {free PDF download available} You need both books, Fleet Book 1 has the additional rules for vector movement.
  • Earthforce Sourcebook {out of print, some used copies available from bookfinder.com} Rules created by John Tuffley, they are an expansion of his Full Thrust rules.
  • Star Fist {out of print} basically a mash-up of Triplanetary and Ogre.
  • DeltaVee {free PDF download here inside Ares #9} Not recommended.
  • Hard Vacuum {out of print}
  • Traveller Book 3: Starships, The Traveller Book
  • Spacewar! {some free online web versions available} A classic computer game
  • I-War and I-War 2 {available at GOG for $6US} The best computer game I've played that uses Newtonian movement. It works better if you get a joystick for your computer.

All of these games will teach vectors. Naturally they have wildly different philosophies and mechanisms to simulate weapons fire and defenses.


Hexgrids

Racetrack uses a square grid, but all the other games use a hexgrid. This is because square grids have a problem.

When it comes to determining the distance between two points, wargames and role playing games use maps ruled off into zillions of hexagons in a hex grid. You jump from hex to adjacent hex proceeding along shortest path from start to destination then multiply number of jumps by the distance between adjacent hexagon centers in kilometers, this gives the distance. This will not work if the map is ruled off into squares or triangles (the only other alternatives), since jumping diagonally is a longer distance than jumping orthogonally. In hex grids, all six neighbor hexagon centers are the same distance.

Granted it is easier to find pads of square grid paper, just go to an office supply store and ask for a quad pad. Hexgrid paper pads do exist, you just have to do some web searching. Amazon has a few. There are also websites where you can download a PDF of a hexgrid that you can print out.

RACETRACK 1

Racetrack is a paper and pencil game that simulates a car race, played by two or more players. The game is played on a squared sheet of paper, with a pencil line tracking each car's movement. The rules for moving represent a car with a certain inertia and physical limits on traction, and the resulting line is reminiscent of how real racing cars move. The game requires players to slow down before bends in the track, and requires some foresight and planning for successful play. The game is popular as an educational tool teaching vectors.

The game is also known under names such as Vector Formula, Vector Rally, Vector Race, Graph Racers, PolyRace, Paper and pencil racing, or the Graph paper race game.


The basic game

The rules are here explained in simple terms. As will follow from a later section, if the mathematical concept of vectors is known, some of the rules may be stated more briefly. The rules may also be stated in terms of the physical concepts velocity and acceleration.

The track

On a squared sheet of paper ("quad pad", e.g. Letter preprinted with a 1/4" square grid, or A4 with a 5 mm square grid), a freehand loop is drawn as the outer boundary of the racetrack. A large ellipse will do for a first game, but some irregularities make the game more interesting. Another freehand loop is drawn inside the first. It can be more or less parallel with the outer loop, or the track can have wider and narrower spots (pinch spots), with usually at least two squares between the loops. A straight line is drawn anywhere across the two loops. This is the starting and finishing line. Choose a direction for the race to be run, e.g., counter clockwise.

Preparing to play

The order of players is agreed upon. Each player chooses a color or mark (such as x and o) to represent the player's car. Each player marks a starting point for his or her car - a grid intersection at or behind the starting line.

The moves

All moves will be from one grid point to another grid point. Each grid point has eight neighbouring grid points: Up, down, left, right, and the four diagonal directions. Players take turns to move their cars according to some simple rules. Each move is marked by drawing a line from the starting point of this move to a new point.

  • Each player's first move must be to one of the eight neighbours of their starting position. (The player can also choose to stand still.)
  • On each turn after that, the player can choose to move the same number of squares in the same direction as on the previous turn; the grid point reached by this move is called the principal point for this turn. (E.g., if the previous move was two squares to the left and four squares upwards, then the principal point is found by moving another two squares to the left and four more squares upwards.) However, the player also has the choice of any of the eight neighbours of this principal point.
  • Cars must stay within the boundaries of the racetrack; otherwise they crash.

Finding a winner

The winner is the first player to complete a lap (cross the finish line).

Additional and alternative rules

Combining the following rules in various ways, there are many variants of the game.

The track

The track need not be a closed curve; the starting and finishing lines could be different.

Before starting to play, the players may go over the track, agreeing in advance about each grid point near the boundaries as to whether that point is inside or outside the track.

Alternatively, the track may be drawn with straight lines only, with corners at grid points only. This removes the need to decide dubious points. Players may or may not be allowed to touch the walls, but not to cross them.

The moves

Instead of allowing moves to any of eight neighbours of the principal point, one may use the four neighbours rule, limiting moves to the principal point or any of its four nearest neighbours.

When drawing the track, slippery regions with oil spill may be marked, wherein the cars cannot change velocity at all, or only according to the four neighbours rule. The rule may e.g. apply to all moves beginning in the slippery region.

On the track there may be also some turbo areas marked with an arrow with a specific length and direction. When a vehicle goes through this area, the principal point is moved as indicated by the arrow.

Collisions and crashes

Usually, cars are required to stay on the track for the entire length of the move, not just the start and end. On heavily convoluted racetracks, allowing the line segment representing a move to cross the boundary twice (with start and end points inside the track), some unreasonable shortcuts may be allowed.

Several cars may be allowed to occupy the same point simultaneously. However, the most common and entertaining rule is that while the line segments are allowed to intersect, a car cannot move to or through a grid point that is occupied by another car, as they would collide.

If a player is unable to move according to these rules, the player has crashed. A crashed car may leave the game, or various systems for penalizing crashes can be devised.

A player running off the track may be allowed to continue, but is required to brake and turn around, and re-enter the track again crossing the boundary at a point behind the point where it left. At high speeds, this will take a considerable number of moves.

Another possibility is to penalize a car with "damage points" for each crash. E.g., if it runs off the track or collides, it receives 1 damage point for each square of the last movement, and comes to an immediate stand-still. A car with 5 damage points, say, cannot run anymore.

Finding a winner

At the end of the game, one may complete a round. E.g., with three players A, B and C (starting on that order), if B is the first to cross the finish line, C is allowed one more move to complete the A-B-C cycle. The winner is the player whose car is the greatest distance beyond the finish line.

If the collision rule mentioned above is used, there is still a considerable advantage in moving first. This may be partially counterbalanced by having the players choose their individual starting points in reverse order. E.g., first C chooses a start point, then B, then A. Then, A makes the first move, followed by B, then C.

Another possible rule is to let the loser move first in the next game.

Mathematics and physics

Each move may be represented by a vector. E.g., a move two squares to the right and four up may be represented by the vector (2,4).

The eight neighbour rule allows changing each coordinate of the vector by ±1. E.g., if the previous move was (2,4), the next one may be any of the following nine:

(1,5) (2,5) (3,5)
(1,4) (2,4) (3,4)
(1,3) (2,3) (3,3)

If each round represents 1 second and each square represents 1 metre, the vector representing each move is a velocity vector in metres per second. The four neighbour rule allows accelerations up to 1 metre per second squared, and the eight neighbours rule allows accelerations up to √2 metres per second squared. (If each square represents 10 metres instead, the size of the track and the maximum acceleration will be more realistic.)

The speed built up by acceleration can only be reduced at the same rate. This restriction reflects the inertia or momentum of the car. Note that in physics, speeding, braking, and turning right or left all are forms of "acceleration", represented by one vector. For a sports car, having the same maximum acceleration without loss of traction in all directions is not unrealistic; see Circle of forces. Note, however, that the circle of forces strictly applies to an individual tyre rather than an entire vehicle, that a slightly elongated ellipse would be more realistic than a circle, and that the theory of traction involving this circle or ellipse is quite simplified.

History and contemporary use

The origins of the game are unknown, but it certainly existed as early as the 1960s. The rules for the game, and a sample track game was published by Martin Gardner in January 1973 in his "Mathematical Games" column in Scientific American; and it was again described in Car and Driver magazine, in July 1973, page 65. Today, the game is used by math and physics teachers around the world when teaching vectors and kinematics. However, the game has a certain charm of its own, and may be played as a pure recreation.

Martin Gardner noted that the game was "virtually unknown" in the United States, and called it "a truly remarkable simulation of automobile racing". He mentions having learned the game from Jürg Nievergelt, "a computer scientist at the University of Illinois who picked it up on a recent trip to Switzerland". Car and Driver described it as having an "almost supernatural" resemblance to actual racing, commenting that "If you enter a turn too rapidly, you will spin. If you "brake" too early, it will take you longer to accelerate out of the turn."

Triplanetary was a science fiction rocket ship racing game that was sold commercially between 1973 and 1981. It used similar rules to Racetrack but on a hexagonal grid and with the spaceships being placed in the center of the grid cells rather than at the vertices. The game used a laminated board which could be written on with a grease pencil.

External links

From the Wikipedia entry for RACETRACK
RACETRACK 2

Race Track

Players: Two or more

The players take turns in plotting the position of their racing car around a track.

Description

One of the players draws a track on a piece of squared paper, with a line representing the start/finish line and two dots on the start/finish line representing the cars; for example:

The players then take turns in moving their car along the track according to the following rules:

  • Each car is initially stationary.
  • The car moves the same direction and distance as it did in its previous move, or can accelerate or decelerate by one square in any direction.

At each move the starting point, end point, and line segment joining them, must stay within the bounds of the track. So, as in motor racing, a player must judge their acceleration carefully to win the race without going off the track.

Also, a car may not move onto a grid point currently occupied by the other car. This allows one car to force the other car off the ideal route.

The first player to complete a lap and reach the finish line without crashing into the sides of the track wins.

Example

The following diagram shows a finished game in which the players raced clockwise around a circuit, and Red, the second player, won by one move:

Variations

The track can be any desired shape. An entertaining shape is a figure-of-eight track, with a pre-agreed route around the circuit.

From PENCIL AND PAPER GAMES: RACETRACK by David Johnson-Davies (2018)
TRIPLANETARY

Triplanetary is played on a hexgrid map depicting a simplified solar system. The map is covered with a piece of clear plastic or laminated. Grease pencil or other erasable markers are used to draw vectors on the map.

Vectors are drawn on the map as a line with an arrow at the end, starting and ending in the center of a hex. As the game progresses, the spacecraft with generate long chains of vectors snaking all over the map, each vector starting from the hex the last vector ended in. The cardboard counter representing the spacecraft is placed on the arrow of the last vector. For reasons that will become clear, I'm going to call the last vector the "previous" vector.

So in Triplanetary, a Patrol Frigate may have a vector of "three hexes to the East" as per the green arrow above. Remember that for hex distances, you do not count the hex you started in but you do count the end hex. The frigate starts in hex A and ends its vector in hex B (distance of three, marked by the little red stars). Due to Newton unless the ship moves through a gravity field, burns its rocket engine, or runs into a planet; next turn it will automatically move to hex C using the same vector. In other words if nothing alters the vector, the vector remains unaltered.

To determine the spacecraft's future position next turn (hex C) examine the previous vector (in this case, from hex A to hex B). Basically you create a new "future" vector which starts at the arrowhead of the previous vector (in hex B) and is identical in length and angle to the previous vector.

The previous vector ends in hex B (where its arrowhead is, with the ship counter on top). The previous vector's length and angle boils down to "three hexes in the eastward direction." So the future vector start in hex B and ends at its arrowhead in hex C. The ghostly square is where the ship will be next turn if it does no thruster burns (since there are no gravity fields or planets to smack into in this section of the game map).


So, let us say that the pilot of the frigate wants to change the ship's vector. In Triplanetary it is best to view this as altering the location of the arrow-head at the end of the future vector. Meanwhile the vector line acts like a rubber band with one end nailed to the start in hex B and the other attached to the arrow-head.

In Triplanetary spacecraft can generally only burn one unit of fuel per turn. This moves the future vector's arrow-head by one hex. Look at the diagram above. If the craft does nothing, next turn it will wind up in hex C at the end of the faded green arrow. By burning one unit of fuel, the craft can change its vector's end point to D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 or D6.

Say it burns one unit and chooses D5 as the new end point. Lay down a straight-edge, draw the new vector from B to D5. This is the new "previous vector". Pick up the ship counter and move it to hex D5

Now that wasn't hard, was it?

If the pilot choses hex D4, the angle of the vector does not change, but the frigate accelerates by one hex per turn. If hex D1 is chosen, the angle is unchanged but the frigate decelerates by 1 hex/turn. Hexes D2 and D6 change the angle of the vector (by about 19.2°) but the speed does not change. Hexes D3 and D5 change the angle by a lesser degree (about 13.9°) but also accelerates by 1 hex/turn.

Since D5 was chosen, the frigate has accelerated from 3 hexes/turn to 4 and 13.9° clockwise from due east.

If the ship has decelerated to the point where the starting and ending hexagon is the same hex, the ship has become stationary.


Gravity isn't much harder. The six black arrows around a planet are the "gravity hexes". On turn two, the spacecraft moves from A to B, passing through two of Venus' gravity hexes. (Note that one does not count any gravity hexes at the start of the vector, i.e., if there was a gravity hex in hex A it would be ignored)

On turn three, one would expect the ship to move to hex C. But the gravity passed through on turn two takes its toll. The first gravity hex moves the vector endpoint to hex D (that is, one hex in the same direction as the first gravity arrow), and the second moves it to hex E. Draw the new vector from B to E. Notice that the spacecraft moves through a third gravity hex.

In the same way, on turn four one would expect the ship to move to hex F, but the third gravity hex changes the vector end-point to G. Draw the new vector from E to G.

Please note that during all this the ship has burnt no fuel. All the change in course was due to the influence of gravity.


And now for the shining gem of elegance in this movement system: orbiting a planet.

In all other games, planetary orbits have to be taken care of by an ad hoc rule. But in the Triplanetary system orbits occur as a natural consequence of the existing rules.

Say the spacecraft is moving from hex A to hex B. Note it passed through one gravity hex (in hex B, you ignore any gravity hexes at vector start, remember?). In turn two, instead of moving to hex C, gravity alters the vector end point to hex D. Draw the new vector from B to D.

If you keep this up, you will realize that the spacecraft is in a one hex per turn orbit around Venus with no fuel or ad hoc rule required!


In the combat system, remember that range and relative velocity to your opponent's ship affect your ability to shoot the target.

Figuring the range between your ship and your opponent's ship easy. Like all other wargames you just count the hexes between the ships by the shortest route, not counting your hex but do count the hex your enemy is in (actually in Triplanetary you figure the distance between your ship's location and the closest approach of your opponent's vector, but you get the idea).

You'd think figuring relative velocity would be very difficult, but you'd be wrong. It is also easy.

In an unused corner of the map, pick a hexagon. Using the same hexagon in both cases, draw the arrow vector of both your ship and your opponent's ship. Then count the hexes between the two arrowheads. That is the relative velocity. Again, do not count your arrowhead hex but do count your opponent's arrowhead hex. That was not hard, was it?

When you shoot your weapons at your opponent's ship, like most wargames you roll dice. If the sum of the numbers on the dice is equal or higher than the "to-hit" number, your weapons have successfully rained death and destruction on your opponent's ship. If the dice total is lower, you miss.

However, from the dice total you have to subtract the range number and the relative relative velocity number. Which could lower the effective dice total to the point where you miss. This is how the game makes it harder to hit the target as the range and motion increase. Calculating the actual "to-hit" number is unimportant to this discussion, details can be found in Triplanetary's rulebook.


After about forty years of being out of print, Steve Jackson Games brought Triplanetary back with a recently concluded Kickstarter. It should be available around summer of 2018.

Strategy

Military strategies are methods of arranging and maneuvering large bodies of military forces during armed conflicts (i.e., for the entire war). Wikipedia has a nice list of military strategies here.

Fustest With the Mostest

If Wikipedia is to be trusted, apparently, US Civil War general Nathan Bedford Forrest never really said that... He did say, "git thar fust with the most men," which is close enough.

I bring this up because of Doug's comment on an earlier post that the Lanchester equations are so abstract that they merely say the obvious — if you're gonna hava a fight, it's good to have more guys. Those are the odds. Tactics are how you beat the odds. Yet one of those standard military sayings that gets bandied around is amateurs study tactics, professonals study logistics. The mark of a great general is not so much beating the odds as loading the dice.

In his next comment, however, Doug lets the cat out of the bag — confessing that the real problem with the Lanchesterian logic of deep-space combat is that it rules out cool stuff like space pirates. (Off-topic? Not in the least! This blog is fundamentally about Romance, which emphatically includes Pirates in SPAAACE!)

Logistics. The very word, like "economics," kills Romance and buries her in a shallow grave. ... Logistics and economics are both crucial to realistic worldbuilding — if you want a realistic flavor — because of the same principle: If you are a pirate, raiding galleons / starliners on their voyage each year to Cockaigne, you need to know how many galleons there are to raid.

This, however, is all in the background. The reader doesn't expect to see a table of Cockaigne's imports and exports — only to see a few of the choicest samples, when the rogueish heroes break open a chest or unseal a cargo pod. Even less do we expect to see the logistic underpinnings of warfare. We only hear about the Seabees when someone attacks them and they have to shoot back.

Yet logistics includes the time dimension — the fustest, as well as the mostest — and that is where Romance and logistics meet. Every time the cavalry pennons appear over the brow of the pass just as the fort is about to fall, it means that someone got them mounted up and on the road with the sun. That trumpet blast you hear is the triumph of logistics.

From Fustest With the Mostest by Rick Robinson (2007)
SPACE WAR STRATEGY

Since the day of the trireme, warships have tended to specialize into types. Today we have such widely different classes as the heavy battleship, capable of keeping the sea in all weathers and dealing out and receiving terrible punishment; the submarine, which operates by stealth; the fast cruiser whose main function is to obtain information; aircraft carriers, transports, and so on. Whether seagoing tug or destroyer leader, each is designed for a definite purpose, and for its job is well nigh indispensible.

The fleets of tomorrow will be quite as specialized, and it may be interesting to speculate on how the conditions of space warfare will react on ship design and employment. If we imagine that the planets have all been colonized and some have set up independent governments, and that men occasionally still fight wars, how would such a war be conducted? What form would the attack take, and what defense could be made?

To simplify, let us assume that relations are at the breaking point between the Earth and Mars, that Mars is aggressive and is sure to attack, that both planets have considerable, and well-balanced fleets. Where and when would the attack fall and how could it be parried?

Since Mars is on the offensive, it can be assumed that she is sending an expeditionary force. She is bent on more than a mere raid, she intends to conquer the Earth if she can. She will therefore have transports full of troops, supply and ammunition ships, and hospital ships. These will be well guarded by warships and there will be special fighting units to beat down any opposition. The Earth cannot afford to wait for this invading armada to appear in her own skies—that would leave too many places to defend. She must intercept the fleet en route and destroy it there, or cripple it so it will have to turn back. Or, failing that, she must know when and where it will arrive so as to concentrate her defense.


Space is vast, and there are many possible routes by which the Martians can come. Which are they using, and how far along are they? These questions must be answered by the scouts. The function of scouts is to obtain information and nothing more. They possess high maneuverability, being of small mass and tremendous accelerative power. They need have little or no armament, but their crews must be handpicked physical specimens capable of enduring much greater accelerations than the run of men. Their chief equipment is thermoscopes, or delicate thermocouples, for locating ships by their intrinsic heat, and radio-sounding devices for measuring distances. And powerful radios, of course, for reporting what they have learned.

Now, although there are a number of possible routes for the Martians to follow, they all fall within a well defined area, just as there are a number of choices of routes between New York and Southampton, but lying in a fairly narrow band. Just as great fleets could not afford to go too far from those to throw an enemy off —as they would run out of fuel—neither could spaceships get too far from their most economical course. Students of rocket-ship trajectories know that the best course is a "C" shaped compound spiral connecting the two planets, and that it lies in or close to the plane of the ecliptic. Within limits, it should be possible to follow nearly parallel courses to one side or the other or above or below that "optimum" course. The locus, or rather the envelope of all such possible courses, would be a crescent shaped solid of circular or elliptical cross-section—something like a curved banana, or a pair of cow's horns set base to base. Its middle section might be as thick as sixty or eighty millions of miles across, but its ends would converge to the diameters of the planets involved.

The scouts know that the enemy is somewhere within this figure, but not how much to the right or left, or how far they have come. Once they can establish several successive points along the invader's trajectory, they can compute the rest. Therefore, the Earth sends out many fast scouts in successive waves.

These scouts spread out so as to cover the entire solid described above, but the space left between any adjacent pair must not be so great that an enemy ship could slip through without detection. If the range of the thermoscopes is five million miles, then the scouts should never be more than ten million miles apart. One or the other could then pick up the enemy vessel. They dart forward, piling up acceleration to the limit of their crews' endurance. By the time they make contact with the enemy, they are hurtling forward at such terrific velocity that their contact is much too brief for fighting. They may over-leap the enemy by millions of miles before they can check their momentum, but it will not matter—they have detected him and reported it.


A second wave of scouts repeats the process a few hours later, and a second point along the enemy's trajectory is known. With a third as a check, computers on the flagship back near Earth can then schedule the enemy's future movements, knowing that he cannot alter his course or speed much without ruinous expenditures of time and fuel. It does not matter greatly whether the Martian cruiser screen destroys some of these scouts or not. A reported scrimmage is a contact, nevertheless, and that is the scout's job.

Without the reports of the scouts, the Earth forces would be blind, not knowing within days when the enemy would strike, or from what quarter. With a knowledge of the most probable course, they can now make preparations to fight. The Earth main body, consisting of minelayers, fast torpedo boats and various battleships, takes off. They get clear of the Earth's gravity and kill their momentum along the Earth's orbit. Then they lie in space, to the sides of the enemy's line of approach, allowing the Earth to recede from them. They are motionless.

More detailed reports from the scouts inform them that the enemy is proceeding in a cruising formation somewhat like a fat, double-ended spear. The shank of it is a cylinder with the transports and other supply ships in line along its axis. The spearheads, front and rear, are cone-shaped formations of heavy fighting ships. Out ahead and on the quarters are clouds of cruiser screens to keep the scouts as far away as possible.

The Earth commander wishes to attack the Martian formation by surprise, if possible, and that is why he lies outside the horn-shaped locus of possible enemy trajectories. After the enemy has passed, the Earth forces will converge upon him from the rear by swiftly building up acceleration. In order to first throw the enemy into confusion and upset his formation (which is designed for quick deployment in any direction and at the same time to protect the non-combatant ships of the train) our admiral sends a squadron of minelayers across his path to strew great numbers of small iron mines. Having laid their mines, the mining ships hurry ahead and get clear, proceeding on to Earth.

As the vanguard of the invading fleet bumps into the mines, they radio the news back to the central column, so that screens can be doubled, collision doors closed and course altered. It is while they are endeavoring to maneuver past these mines that the Earth destroyer divisions attack. They come up by groups from outside space and behind, and as they cross the bows of the formation, they let successive waves of self-accelerating rocket torpedoes go, fanwise.

With torpedoes coming at them from the beam, the ships in the formation are likely to turn themselves by means of their jet deflectors so as to head toward the torpedoes. Their screens are more effective that way, and they also offer a narrower target. But at the same time they continue to drift sideways along their old course from momentum, and therefore will strike many of the mines.

It is just at this moment of confusion that the waiting battleship squadrons overtake them and add their gunfire and torpedo salvos. This attack comes on the opposite flank from the mines. The Martians are beautifully trapped in a three-way cross fire.


The Earthmen's attack is essentially a hit-and-run affair. To overtake the enemy as shown in the diagrams, they must have built up much greater velocity than the Martians and will therefore sweep by at terrific speed, letting go their missiles at the predetermined moment. The Martians have little opportunity to hit back, and will probably sustain heavy damage. Once the defenders are up ahead, they can swing out again, kill their velocity, and prepare to repeat the maneuver.

It must be observed that in this campaign, the defenders are given an advantage—superior information. For any campaign to be decisive, one side or other always has an advantage, otherwise a stalemate will result. To reverse the situation so that the Martians could win, all that is necessary would be to deprive the Earth of its scouts. They would not know then where or when to plant their ambush. Or the Martians might be given an additional advance guard of scouts and heavy ships to entice the Earthmen to come out of their ambush. Such an advance guard would take a heavy beating, but the Earthmen would have exposed their tactics and have shot on ahead. The main body of invaders, ten million miles to the rear, could alter course slightly and avoid both the minefield and any lurking warship divisions.

Terrestrial warfare today leans heavily on the service of information. In the future, information will be paramount. Superior forces are useless if it is not known where and when to employ them. Last year the German pocket battleship Graf Spee furnished an excellent illustration of that. The Allied navies were at all times overwhelmingly more powerful and numerous, yet the Spee roamed the seas for many weeks. Her immunity was due to the fact that her enemies did not know where she was. It took many weeks of searching by great numbers of destroyers and light cruisers to find out where she was not. By the process of elimination they discovered her. Once her location was known, her destruction was inevitable.

In the incredibly vast reaches of the void where up and down is as limitless as any other direction, and where speeds are so great and distances of passing so huge that vision is ruled out, the problems of scouting are magnified a thousand-fold. The war fleets of the future, as I see it, will consist chiefly of scouts—perhaps a hundred for every heavy-duty fighter. Weapons, however powerful and wonderful, are useless ornaments if the enemy cannot be located and brought within range.

From SPACE WAR STRATEGY by Malcolm Jameson (1941)
BUILDING THE IMPERIAL NAVY: STRATEGIC GOALS

(ed note: for more see Designing A Space Navy)

This is the second part of our six-part series on Building the Imperial Navy (first part here), in which we extend the strategic assumptions – regarding the security environment and the resources available to meet them – we made in that part into the actual outcomes the Imperial Navy is supposed to achieve.

As is often the case, this is relatively simple. As of 7920, the Imperial Navy’s strategic goals and responsibilities, in order of priority, are defined thus:

  1. Preservation of the assets required for civilization survival in the event of invocation of CASE SKYSHOCK BLACK (excessionary-level invasion posing existential threat) or other extreme-exigent scenario (i.e. concealed backup sites, civilization-backup ships, etc., and other gold-level secured assets).
  2. The defense and security of the Imperial Core (including those portions of it extending into the Fringe), including population, habitats, planets, data, and Transcendent infrastructure against relativistic attack.
  3. The defense and security of the Imperial Core (including those portions of it extending into the Fringe), including population, habitats, planets, data, and Transcendent infrastructure against non-relativistic attack.
  4. The defense and security of stargates and extranet relays throughout the Associated Worlds volume and other associated critical corporate assets of Ring Dynamics, ICC and Bright Shadow, ICC1.
  5. The defense and security of Imperial ecumenical colonies throughout the Associated Worlds volume.
  6. The continued containment of perversions of any class, including but not limited to enforcement of the Containment Treaty of Ancal (i.e. containment of the Leviathan Consciousness).
  7. The maintenance of defenses against possible invasion or other violations of the Worlds-Republic Demarcation Convention.
  8. The protection of Imperial commerce including but not limited to the Imperial merchant fleet.
  9. Intervention, as required, for the protection of the Imperial citizen-shareholder abroad.
  10. Enforcement, as required, of the Accord of the Law of Free Space, the Accord on Protected Planets, the Accord on Trade, the Imperial Plexus Usage Agreement, and the Ley Accords.
  11. When requested or otherwise appropriate, the defense and security of Imperial client-states and allies.
  12. General patrol activities to maintain the perception of security, suppress “unacceptably damaging” brushfire wars, piracy, asymmetrism, and the interstellar slave trade.

It should be noted that with the exception of (7) and certain elements of (6) these are not targeted at specific enemies, of which the Empire has a distinct shortage requiring specific identification at this level; rather, the strategic supergoal of the Imperial Navy is the maintenance of the peaceful status quo, the Pax Imperium Stellarum if you like. Also, specifically, note that none of these goals requires the ability to conquer and occupy; they are all highly defense-focused.


1. This may seem a little high on the list to you, oh reader mine, especially since they’re specifically corporate assets. Well, think of it this way: if you lose the interstellar transportation and communications networks, which those two companies own most of, your fleet can’t find out where to go and couldn’t get there even if it could find out. This, most admirals deem, is something of a problem.

Tactics

Military tactics are techniques for using weapons or military units in combination for engaging and defeating an enemy in a given battle. Wikipedia has a nice list of military tactics here.

Basic Tactics

"Wet-navy" tactics on the ocean are not interplanetary-navy tactics, but some principles still apply. Christopher Weuve has a "must read" list for anyone who wants to understand strategy and tactics as applied to science fiction.

Some Principles of Maritime Strategy by Sir Julian Corbett. Go to the appendix and read the "Green Pamphlet". As Mr. Weuve says "...which shows you how to think about using a navy. Everything you need to know about Maritime Strategy, in about 30 pages. VERY good stuff."

Edward Luttwak's The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire. "...which shows you how to think about borders. (Stephen Donaldson's Gap series would have been a lot better had he read this book.)" This book is also very useful if you are writing a science fictional future history. Just read through it, replace "planet" for "city-state", "starship" for "naval vessel", and "stargate" for "road", and your future history writes itself.

Wayne Hughes's Fleet Tactics. "...which shows you how to think about attrition and analyzing tactics."

Frank Uhlig's How Navies Fight. "...which is a book of examples of how different navies have been used."

James George's History of Warships. "...for discussion of why naval vessels are they way they are."

Tactics

When you boil it all down, here’s what you need to know as an officer:

Divide your command into three elements.

When you contact the enemy, pin him with one element while you use the second to try to maneuver around a flank.

Hold the third element in reserve to exploit any successes the first or second elements may achieve, or to cover their retreat in case of disaster.

It works for platoons, it works for companies, it works for divisions. There are a few refinements, which we’ll cover in the rest of this course, but if you can remember that one basic tactic, you’ll do fine.

From GURPS Traveller Star Mercs by Martin Dougherty and Niel Frier (1999)

The gallery, when the jeep emerged onto it, was empty except for casualties, a few still alive. The side of the airboat was caved in; the lifter-load of ammunition had gone up with the bomb. He moved the jeep to the right of the shaft and waited for the vehicles behind him, suffering a brief indecision.

Never divide your force in the presence of the enemy.

There had been generals who had done that and gotten away with it, but they'd had names like Foxx Travis and Robert E. Lee and Napoleon—Napoleon; that was who'd made that crack about omelets! They'd known what they were doing. He was playing this battle by ear.

from THE COSMIC COMPUTER aka JUNKYARD PLANET by H. Beam Piper (1963)
PRIVATEERS

     The Starfigher Division was something of an experiement.
     Four of Hatawe Ahn’s corvettes sailed through contested space on the grand arc between the leading and trailing StarGates in the border system of Almani Territories. Three Marauders, Tempest, Prospero, and Ariel, each fully loaded with a half dozen Cerberus fighters and a six Destriers, formed a triangular plane in space perpendicular to their vector. The fourth Marauder, Caliban, sailed behind the plane at the apex. Caliban was different. It carried only four Destriers for defense. Instead of mounting six high powered lasers, it only carried two in the bow, flanking the forward cabin. The lateral hardpoints were carried a pair of twin-barreled point defense railguns. The reinforced spine, which on carrier was stuffed with capacitors for the lasers, housed a single long-shaft railgun suitable for ship-to-ship combat.
     They were hunting.
     “Time to convoy forty minutes for outer envelope, forty-nine minutes to launch.”
     Captain 6Djoser Morga acknowledged the report. From the CIC on Caliban, Djoser had could observe, after time-lag, the movements of AdStars logistical fleet. One hundred and thirty-one colliers and dromedaries moved between StarGates on a reciprocal course to Djoser’s stargosy of privateers. 6Djoser’s orders from Command were deliberately vague — capture what he could, destroy as much of the rest as possible. Prospero, at the acme point of the forward plane of battle, was carrying a platoon’s worth of Espatier Ahks in oversized network servers, ready to download into their Ammit-class automatons loaded on the Starfighter’s six Cerberus HACVs.
     They were also something of an experiment.
     “Thirty-two minutes to outer envelope.”
     The convoy was either defended or dead in space. With literally millions of kilometers between the freighters and any safe port of call, scattering was not an option. The only point of clumping so many thousands of tons of shipping into such a small space on a predictable vector would be to place them under the umbrella of protection their escorts could offer. Depending on the value of the cargo, the defending spacecraft could be a couple of corvettes weaker than Caliban, up to a division of destroyers or even more. Djoser was by no means an optimist — at least, not beyond what one needed to go into space in the first place. He assumed at any moment, Caliban’s CIC would erupt with reports of thermal flairs indicating an opposing flotilla.
     “Twenty-six minutes.”
     Djoser gave orders to download Ahks to all fighters and automatons. Across space, sphont and machine interfaced, become those temporary. mongrel creatures of war. The quartet of spacecraft entered their final boosting phase, and observed no change in his prey.
     “Eighteen minutes.”
     It was a trap. It had to be. Something would happen when the two clumps of metal and meat collided. The Stellar Administration was as ruthless and brutal as any polity in space. They would surely have found out about 3Gleise’s negotiations with the Almani. They surely wouldn’t think to send an undefended convoy through space where the government-in-exile could reach. Something was going to happen — Djoser was convinced. But because he couldn’t know what was in store, he kept his ships steady on. Besides, he was damned if AdStar was going to frighten him away.
     “Outer envelope. Nine minutes to launch.”
     Djoser composed himself for battle. “Fire the main gun. On target.”
     Lacking multiple ship killing guns, Djoser couldn’t very well bracket the formation ahead of them. He was half-convinced that the fools wouldn't change vector to dodge anyway.
     “Four minutes to contact, eight minutes to launch.”
     Djoser had four minutes to wait, and another four after to decide the course of the battle. It was always like this -always had been, for sophonts in space. Hours or days of waiting, and a handful of seconds for action. He thought a command to calculate multiple tactical maneuvers and counter attacks against a variety of responses. All at this point were equally likely. He consciously ignored them even has his augmented mind furiously collated data.
     “One minute to contact, five minutes to launch.”
     Djoser became still and calm. All that could be done had been, all that could be planned for was. He was serene in the last seconds, where his crew could see.
     “Contact! Targets one through five eliminated. Four minutes to launch. Targets six through ten eliminated.”
     “M-Com, all Flights, target kinetics, Caliban attack one, vectors and velocity to follow.” Djoser signaled his INCO to send the relevant data. Across the formation, lasers turned and fired on Caliban’s railgun slugs. No matter their monstrous speed, the coherent light easily overtook them and either vaporized the tungsten rods or pushed them out onto terminal vectors.
     “Targets fifteen to twenty eliminated. Targets twenty-two, twenty-six, and twenty-seven eliminated. Launch window.”
     “Launch half the Ceberus wing. Keep the remainder on the kinetics. I want eyes on the eliminated targets soonest.”
     “HC-01 and -02, in range two minutes.”
     There had still been no counter attack, no move to defend or evade. Djoser felt the dread he had been fighting grow ever more powerful as the possible reasons dwindled to a few, each worst than the last.
     “HC-01, M-COM. IN RANGE TARGETS ONE ONE, ONE FOUR, ONE EIGHT, AND TWO SIX.”
     Djoser had to swallow before he could talk. “Report.”
     “HULLS DESTROYED. PASSENGER COMPARTMENTS VENTED TO SPACE. PASSENGERS IN OPEN SPACE.”
     “Passengers? HC-01, is there any cargo?”
     “NEGATIVE, M-COM. PASSENGERS ONLY. ATTEMPTING TO ESTABLISH HYPERBAND UPLINK”
     “Time until upload is complete?”
     “UPLOAD EST 01:22:31 +/- 02:00.”
     “All units, begin rescue operations.” Djoser tried and failed to keep the tremor out of his voice.
     “All units acknowledged,” His INCO responded. “All lasers now on hyperband recovery. Cross vectors in thirty seconds.”

     And that was when the convoy’s hidden warships attacked.

From PRIVATEERS by Ray McVay (2016)
SHADOW ON THE STARS

"Did you know, Henlo, that certain eminent military tacticians have proved to my satisfaction that war in space is impossible?"

Henlo arched the fur over his eyes. "I haven't hear the theory."

"No, I didn't think you had," Miranid said in a rambling town of voice. "However, our present situation is a splendid example."

"Consider. If you picture the present Vilkan holdings (empire) as a solid sphere in space, bristling with weapons pointed outward, and our own fleet as a hollow sphere designed to contain and crush it, then you must allow that all Farla with half the Galaxy to help it could not supply us with enough strength to keep our sphere impenetrable from the inside at all points. With further problems of uncertain ship detection in hyperspace we could not prevent repeated breakthroughs from the inside."

"Once our hollow sphere is broken it is caught between two fires, and gradually decimated if it does not withdraw into a larger, and even more porous, sphere — which can again be broken. Thus, stalemate, eventual disgust, and finally an inconclusive peace at an inconclusive price."

"Now, since we are not going to be foolish enough to form such a sphere the only alternative is to attempt an attack by a knife-like method. We can spit, split, slice, or whittle."

"Spitting is out of the question. If we try to drive through, we expose ourselves to attack from all sides. The splitting process gives rise to the same objections. This leaves slicing or whittling — and since a whittle is only a small slice, or a slice a large whittle, let us discuss them simultaneously."

Miranid looked steadily at Henlo.

"I will not whittle if I can slice, but I cannot slice, and for the same reason, I cannot whittle. For this is not a clay sphere, Henlo, but a steel ball — and red-hot, to boot. With every stroke I make, I will lose a greater percentage of my available ships than the enemy will."

"His supply lines are short — I've shortened them for him. His ships can land, be repaired, refueled, and re-armed, their crews replaced by fresh men, and sent back into battle a hundred times for each new ship that can reach me from Farla. I have a limited supply of men, equipment, and food. With every stroke, I wear down my sharpness a little more."

He paused an instant, then went on, "Until, finally, I attack the sphere for one last time and my dull, worn knife slips off the surface without leaving an impression. So again, stalemate, eventual disgust, and no true peace — that is, no peace which will not leave conditions immediately ripe for another useless war."

"I would say, as a matter of fact, that this same theory makes true peace impossible so long as any wars are attempted."

(Then Miranid explains how he is going to avoid this unhappy state of affairs in the special case before them.)

From SHADOW ON THE STARS by Algis Budrys (1954).
SPACE WAR TACTICS

Slightly dated, but surprisingly good for something written almost eighty years ago.

...There are two great factors in space warfare that will set it off sharply from anything else in human experience, and those two factors will modify fighting ship types, strategy and tactics profoundly. They are: (a) the extent of space. and (b) the tremendous speed of the vessels...

...Speeds in space are as stupendous as the spaces they traverse. Needing seven miles per second to escape the Earth and another twenty to make any reasonable progress between the planets, even the slowest vessels will have speeds of twenty-five miles per second. Warships, presumably, according to type, will have correspondingly higher speeds—perhaps as high as fifty miles per second for the faster scouts...

...When we talk of gunfire or any other means of offense, we have to hear these dizzy speeds firmly in mind. The conclusion is irresistible that scouting, tracking, range finding and relative bearings will all be observed otherwise than visually...

...Each of the combatants must compute the other's course from blind bearings and ranges and lay their guns or point their torpedo tubes by means of a differential calculator.

However, in this blind tracking there is one peculiarity of these ships that while it is in one sense a source of danger to them, is of distinct assistance. In the fleeting minutes of their contact, neither can appreciably alter course or speed! This is a point that writers of fiction frequently ignore for the sake of vivid action, but nevertheless it is an unavoidable characteristic of the ether-borne ship.

The human body can withstand only so much acceleration and the momentum these vessels carry has been built up, hour after hour, by piling increment of speed on top of what had been attained before. In space there is no resistance. Once the rockets are cut, the ship will soar on forever at what ever velocity she had at the moment of cutting. Her master may flip her end over end and reverse his acceleration, but his slowing will be as tedious and cautious as his working up to speed. Jets flung out at right angles merely add another slight component to the velocity, checking nothing.

Rocket experts have stated that an acceleration of one hundred feet per second per second can be withstood by a human being—perhaps one hundred and fifty in an emergency. The master of a vessel proceeding at forty miles per second applying such an acceleration at right angles would succeed in deflecting his flight about one hundred miles by the end of the first minute, during which he will have run twenty-four hundred—a negligible turn, if under fire. Applied as a direct brake, that hundred miles of decreased velocity would slow him by one twenty-fourth—obviously not worth the doing if the emergency is imminent.

WITH these conditions in mind, let us imagine a light cruiser of the future bowling along at forty miles per second on the trail of an enemy. The enemy is also a cruiser, one that has slipped through our screen and is approaching the earth for a fast raid on our cities. He is already decelerating for his prospective descent and is thought to be about one hundred and fifty thousand miles ahead, proceeding at about thirty-five miles per second. Our cruiser is closing on him from a little on his port quarter, and trying to pick him up with its direction finders.

So far we have not seen him. We only know from enciphered code messages received several days ago from our scouting force, now fifty millions astern of us, that he is up ahead. It would take too long here to explain how the scouts secured the information they sent us. The huge system of expanding spirals along which successive patrols searched the half billion cubic miles of dangerous space lying between us and the enemy planet is much too intricate for brief description. It is sufficient for our purposes that the scouts did detect the passage of the hostile cruiser through their web and that they kept their instruments trained on him long enough to identify his trajectory. Being neither in a position to attack advantageously nor well enough armed—for their function is the securing of information, and that only—they passed the enemy's coordinates along to us. This information is vital to us, for without it the probability of contact in the void is so remote as to he nonexistent.

The ship in which we are rushing to battle is not a large one. She is a bare hundred meters in length, but highly powered. Her multiple rocket tubes, now cold and dead, are grouped in the stern. We have no desire for more speed, having all that is manageable already, for after the few seconds of our coming brush with the enemy our velocity is such that we will far overrun him and his destination as well, it will require days of maximum deceleration for us to check our flight and be in a position to return to base.

Our ship's armament, judged by today's standards, will at first sight appear strangely inadequate. Our most destructive weapon is the mine, a simple sphere of meteoric iron about the size of a billiard ball, containing no explosive and not fused. The effectiveness of such mines depends upon the speed with which they are struck by the target ship—no explosive could add much to the damage done by a small lump if iron striking at upward of thirty miles a second. Then there will be torpedo tubes amidships. and perhaps a few guns. but it may be well to post pone a discussion of the armament until we have examined the conditions at the place of battle.

Although we know in a general way where the enemy is and where he is going, before we close with him we must determine his course and speed very accurately, for our ability to hit him at all is going to depend upon extremely nice calculations. Our speeds are such that angular errors of so much as a second of arc will be fatal, and times must be computed to within hundredths of seconds.

This falls within the province of fire-control, a subject seldom if ever mentioned by fiction writers. There is no blame to be attached to them for that, for the problems of fire-control are essentially those of pure mathematics, and mathematics is notoriously unthrilling to the majority of readers. Yet hitting with guns—or even arrows, though the archer solves his difficulties by intuition—requires the solution of intricate problems involving the future positions and movements of at least two bodies, and nothing more elementary than the differential calculus will do the trick. In these problems interior ballistics, for all its interesting physics, boils down to a single figure—the initial velocity of the projectile, while exterior ballistics evaporates for the most part the moment we propel our missile into a gravityless vacuum. In space we are to be concerned with the swiftly changing relationship of two rapidly moving vessels and the interchange of equally swift projectiles between them, the tracks of all of them being complicated curves and not necessarily lying in a plane.

In its simplest statement the problem of long-range gunnery is this: where will the enemy be when my salvo gets there? For we must remember that even in today's battles the time the projectile spends en-route to its target is appreciable—fully a minute on occasion, at sea, during which the warship fired upon may move as much as half a mile. Under such circumstances the gunner does not fire directly at his target, but at the place it is going to be. That requires very accurate knowledge of where the enemy is headed and how fast he is moving.

At sea that is done by observing successive bearings and ranges and plotting them as polar co-ordinates, bearing in mind that the origin is continuously shifting due to the ship's own motion. This work of tracking—the subsequent range-keeping and prediction of future ranges and bearings—is done in our times in the plotting room. This is the most vital spot in the ship, for if her weapons may be likened to fists and her motive power to legs, her optical and acoustical instruments to eyes and ears. then the plotting room is the counterpart of the brain. There all the information is received, corrected, digested, and distributed throughout the ship. Without that co-ordination and direction the ship would be as helpless as an idiot.

Well, hardly that helpless today. Our individual units, such as turret crews, can struggle on alone, after a fashion. But not so with the ship of the future. There the plotting room is everything, and when it is put out of commission, the ship is blind and paralyzed. It will, of course, be located within the center of the ship, surrounded by an armored shell of its own, and in there will also be the ship control stations.

THE BEST WAY to approach the problems our descendants will have to face is to consider a simple problem in tracking that our own warships deal with daily. It is an absurdly simple one compared to the warped spirals to be handled in space warfare, but it will serve to illustrate the principle. In Fig. 1. it is shown graphically, but in actual practice the elements of the problem are set up on a motor-driven machine which thereupon continuously and correctly delivers the solutions of problems that would take an Einstein minutes to state. As the situation outside changes, corrections are cranked into the machine, which instantly and uncomplainingly alters its calculations.

In the figure we have the tracks of two ships, ours the left-hand one. For the sake of clarity and emphasis I have made the ratio of speeds three to one, hut the same trends would be shown at the more usual ratio of, say, 20:19.

At positions 1, 2, 3 and so on, we observe the range and bearing of the target, and plot them. By noting the differences between successive readings and the second differences between those, we soon have an idea of the type of curve the rates of changes would plot into. In a short time we can also note that the rates themselves are changing at a certain rate. This is a rough sort of differentiation—by inspection—and to one familiar with such curves these trends have a definite meaning.

For example, it is apparent that the series of observed angles Beta; are steadily opening, signifying that we are drawing past the target. Any sudden alteration of the second differences, such as occurs at 8, at once indicates a change of condition on the part of the enemy. He has either turned sharply away or slowed to half speed, for the bearing suddenly opens nearly two degrees more than the predicted bearing. We learn which by consulting our ranges. It could be a combination of changed course and changed speed.

The ranges during the first seven time-intervals have been steadily decreasing, although the rate of decrease has been slowing up, indicating we are approaching the minimum range. At 8, though, the range not only fails to decrease, but the rate of change actually changes sign. We know without doubt that the enemy has turned away.

The importance of having the machine grind out predicted bearings and ranges, aside from the desirability of speed and accuracy, is that at any moment smoke, a rain squall, or intervening ships may obscure the target. In that event the gunners need never know the difference—their range and bearing indicators are ticking away like taximeters, fed figures by the controlling range-keeper. It would not have mattered if sight had been lost of the enemy at 4; the gun fire would have been just as accurate up to the time he changed course as if they had the target in plain sight.

As a matter of fact, the guns are not pointed at the target at all, but in advance of it, as is shown in Fig. 1 (a), both range and bearing being altered to allow for the forward movements of the target while the shells are in the air. The projectiles may be regarded as moving objects launched on a collision course with regard to the enemy vessel.

Speaking of collision courses, it is an interesting property of relative bearings that when the bearing remains constant—except in the special case of the vessels being on parallel courses at identical speeds—the vessels will eventually collide, regardless of what their actual courses and speeds are. Hence, from the time the shots of the salvo left their guns until they struck their target, the target bore a constant angle of thirteen degrees to the right of the nose of the shells. (This knowledge has some utility in estimating the penetration of armor at the destination.)

In the example above, all the movement can be regarded as taking place in a plane; the ships follow straight courses and they maintain constant speeds. Our terrestrial problems are in practice much complicated by zigzagging, slowing down and speeding up, but at that they are relatively child's play compared to what the sky-warrior of the future must contend with.

His tracks are likely to he curved in three dimensions, like pieces of wire hacked out of a spiral bedspring, and whether or not they can be plotted in a plane, they will nowhere be straight. Moreover, whatever changes of speeds occur will be in the form of steady accelerations and not in a succession of flat steps linked by brief accelerations such as we know. Computing collision courses between two continually accelerating bodies is a much trickier piece of mathematical legerdemain than finding the unknown quantities in the family of plane trapeziums shown in Fig. 1. Yet projectiles must be given the course and speed necessary to insure collision.

The gunnery officer of the future is further handicapped by rarely ever being permitted a glimpse of his target, certainly not for the purpose of taking ranges and bearings. In the beginning of the approach the distances between the ships is much too great, and by the time they have closed, their relative speed will generally forbid vision.

SINCE optical instruments are useless except for astragational purposes, his range-finders and target-bearing transmitters will have to be something else. For bearings, his most accurate instrument will probably be the thermoscope—an improved heat-detector similar to those used by astronomers in comparing the heat emission of distant stars. It will have a spherical mounting with a delicate micro-vernier. A nearby space ship is sure to radiate heat, for it is exposed constantly to full sunlight and must rid itself of the excess heat or its crew will die. Once such a source of heat is picked up and identified, it can be followed very closely as to direction, although little can be told of its distance unless something is known of its intrinsic heat radiation.

Ranges will probably be determined by sounding space with radio waves, measuring the time interval to the return of reflected waves. It is doubtful whether this means will have a high degree of accuracy much beyond ranges of one light-second on account of the movement of the two vessels while the wave is in transit both ways. At long ranges the need for troublesome corrections is sure to enter.

Such observations, used in conjunction with one another, should give fairly accurate information as to the target's trajectory and how he bears from us and how far he is away. This data will be fed into a tracking and range-keeping machine capable of handling the twisted three-dimensional curves involved, and which will at once indicate the time and distance of the closest point of approach. Both captains will at once begin planning the action. They may also attempt to adjust their courses slightly, but since the rockets evolve great heat, neither can hope to keep his action from the knowledge of the other owing to the sensitiveness of the thermoscopes.

Assuming we have, by observation and plotting, full knowledge of the enemy's path and have come almost into position to commence the engagement, we find ourselves confronted once more with the two overwhelming factors of space warfare—great distance and immense speeds—but this time in another aspect. We have come up close to our foe—in fact we are within twenty seconds of intersecting his trajectory—and our distance apart is a mere four hundred miles. It is when we get to close quarters that the tremendous problems raised by

Look at Fig. 2.

The elapsed time from the commencement of the engagement until the end is less than twenty seconds. Our ship is making forty miles per second, the other fellow is doing thirty-three. We will never be closer than fifty miles, even if we regard the curves as drawn as being in the same plane. If one rides over or below the other, that minimum range will be greater. What kind of projectile can cross the two or three hundred miles separating the two converging vessels in time to collide with the enemy? Shooting cannon with velocities as low as a few miles per second would be like sending a squadron of snails out from the curb to intercept an oncoming motorcycle—it would be out of sight in the distance before they were well started.

Projectiles from guns, if they were to be given velocities in the same relation to ships' speeds that prevail at present, would have to be stepped up to speeds of three to four thousand miles per second! A manifest impossibility. It would be difficult, indeed, to hurl any sort of projectile away from the ship at greater initial velocities than the ship's own speed. Such impulses, eighty times stronger than the propelling charge of today's cannon, would cause shocks of incredible violence. It follows from that that an overtaken ship is comparatively helpless—unless she is in a position to drop mines—for whatever missiles she fires have the forward inertia of the parent ship and will therefore be sluggish in their movement in any direction but ahead.

Another difficulty connected with gunfire is the slowness with which it comes into operation. This may seem to some to be a startling statement, but we are dealing here with astonishing speeds. When the firing key of a piece of modern artillery is closed, the gun promptly goes off with a bang. To us that seems to be a practically instantaneous action. Yet careful time studies show the following sequence of events: the primer fires, the powder is ignited and burns, the gases of combustion expand and start the shell moving down the tube. The elapsed time from the will to fire to the emergence of the projectile from the muzzle is about one tenth of a second. In Fig. 2 our target will have moved more than three miles while our shell is making its way to the mouth of the cannon! It looks as if guns wouldn't do.

I COME to that conclusion very reluctantly, for I am quite partial to guns as amazingly flexible and reliable weapons, hut when we consider that both powders and primers vary some what in their time of burning, there is also a variable error of serious proportions added to the above slowness. It is more likely that the rocket-torpedoes suggested by Mr. Willy Ley in a recent article on space war will be the primary weapon of the future. They have the advantage of auto-acceleration and can therefore build up speed to any desired value after having been launched.

The exact moment of their firing would have to be computed by the tracking machine, as no human brain could solve such a problem in the time allowed. But even assuming machine accuracy, great delicacy in tube-laying and micro-timing, the chances of a direct hit on the target with a single missile is virtually nil. For all their advanced instruments, it is probable that all such attacks will be made in salvos, or continuous barrages. following the time honored shotgun principle. For the sake of simplicity, only two such salvos are shown on the diagram. but probably they would be as nearly continuous as the firing mechanisms of the tubes would permit. Any reader with a flair for mathematics is invited to compute the trajectories of the torpedoes. The ones shown were fired dead abeam in order to gain distance toward the enemy as rapidly as possible...

...Spotting, as we know it, would be impossible, for the target would be invisible, Hits would have to be registered by the thermoscope, utilizing the heat generated by the impact. The gunnery officer could watch the flight of his torpedoes by their fiery wakes, and see his duds burst; that might give him an idea on which side of the enemy they passed in the event the thermoscopes registered no hits.

If there were guns—and they might be carried for stratosphere use—they could be brought into action at about 15, firing broad on the starboard quarter. The shells, ... would lose some of their forward velocity and drift along in the wake of the ship while at the same time making some distance toward the oncoming enemy. These guns would be mounted in twin turrets, one on the roof and the other on the keel, cross-connected so that they would be trained and fired together. If the ship's center of gravity lay exactly between them, their being fired would not tend to put the ship into a spin in any direction. What little torque there might be, due to inequalities in the firing charge, would be taken care of by the ship's gyro-stabilizer, an instrument also needed on board to furnish a sphere of reference so that the master could keep track of his orientation.

If upon arriving at point 16 the enemy were still full of fight and desperate measures were called for, we could lay down mines. These hard little pellets would be shot out of mine-laying tubes clustered about the main driving jets. They would be shot out at slight angles from the fore-and-aft line, and given a velocity exactly equal to the ship's speed, so that they would hang motionless where they were dropped. Being cheap and small, they could be laid so thickly that the enemy could not fail to encounter several of them. If she had survived up to this point, the end would come here.

The end, that is, of the cruiser as a fighting unit. Riddled and torn, perhaps a shapeless mass of tangled wreckage, she would go hurtling on by, forever bound to her marauding trajectory. The first duty of our cruiser would be to broadcast warnings to the System, reporting the location of its own minefield, and giving the direction taken by the shattered derelict. Sweepers would be summoned to collect the mines with powerful electromagnets, while tugs would pursue and clear the sky of the remnants of the defeated Martian.

From SPACE WAR TACTICS by Malcolm Jameson (1939)

The Trumpet Bell Effect

Ken Burnside: I call this the trumpet bell effect, and it becomes much more noticeable when slinging ballistic weapons in 3-D play.

Provided your ballistic weapon's rate of closure is greater than the lateral velocity of the target, you get a trumpet bell, or manifold shape. As the projectile's velocity increases, the skinny part of the trumpet bell elongates — but it also thins out. The volume described by the surface of the trumpet and the centerline of the trumpet remains constant along the time axis, provided the ability to laterally accelerate remains constant.

In short, if you've GOT a good shot lined up, it's harder to dodge it by "jinking". If you've got a fuzzy shot that gets refined as you approach (which is roughly how Attack Vector: Tactical does it, because it's easier than having people pretend to be targeting computers in 3-D vector space), higher speeds on the shells can reach a threshold effect, where a small error that could be corrected for at a low closing velocity can't be corrected for at a high closing velocity.

A bit of practice renders this moot, but without that practice in the mechanics of doing vector ballistics (let alone 3-D vector ballistics), they can get very frustrating to use.

(somebody asks if sensor lag will prevent the trumpet bell effect)

My suspicion is that it's still going to be a trumpet bell effect. While there's sensor lag, if they're moving at 0.92 c (about where relativity becomes noticeable), the "trumpet bell" of the target's possible positions is also very long and skinny.

One thing you learn in Attack Vector: Tactical is that velocities past about 30 hexes/turn (300 km/64 seconds) actually make you EASIER to hit with ballistic weapons, because your ability to change your vector is so dramatically reduced. What you want for dodging missiles is a low enough velocity that you can swing around and thrust in an unanticipated direction and throw off the ballistic weapon's accuracy.

From thread on sfconsim-l (2002)
Torpedo Mechanics

Kirk Spencer

(ed note: An "inertial compensator" is a handwavium gadget that allows spacecraft to make drastic maneuvers without the gee forces turning the crew into thin layers of bloody chunky pulp plastered all over the walls.)

No, I think you (Rick) are in error about the missiles — unless you have inertial compensators or other physics escape mechanisms.

Actually, let me interrupt with what I've begun to take as a truism. The superiority of Beams vs Missiles is as variable as the superiority of Offense vs Defense — each is antecendent in its turn, depending upon the specific technology and inspiration in use existent at the moment of comparison.

That said, I think your slingshot launch has a major problem. It goes as follows:

Let us assume that the missile acceleration is 2 distanceunits/timeunit while the ship has an acceleration of 1. For simplicity, we'll say that a missile has a duration of 3 timeunits, with the ability to be dangerous despite point defense mechanisms of one additional timeunit. The missile thus has a maneuvering hit range of 6 distanceunits (du), and a stationary hit range of 9 du inherent.

Let's have your ship produce a rate of movement of 10 du/tu. This means the ship can fire at the base at a range of 19 du, well outside the range of the bases missiles. Thus far your concept is correct.

Unfortunately, now we've the subsequent time intervals.

Immediately upon launch, the ship begins a thrust to maintain maximum distance from the base — initially we'll use 90 degrees to current vector. Further we'll simplify this to simple vector movement instead of true Newtonian calculations — largely because I'm lazy (grin) — but the difference here will be slight.

Create a grid of 20×20. Place the ship at 0,0, and the base at 0,19. The initial vector of the ship is +1,+10 (the 90 degrees of thrust applying at the instant of launch).

The ship's location at the next interval is +1,+10 — a slight bit outside range 11 from the base and so still safe. The next vector change has another interval of thrust applied, so the ship's vector is now +2,+10. At the end of the second turn, we're at +3,+20 — or a bit less than 4 du from the base.

The base probably fired missiles in return on an intercept path as soon as you began your avoidance thrust — thus he knows the path you must be taking. After two intervals, the intercepting missiles had a range of 6 (2+4) du.

In other words, your ship fell within the missile range of the base — and they reached that range at about the same time your missiles reached the base (actually the missiles at your ship probably intercepted your ship before the base-bound missiles reached their target, but we've broken down the time interval too broadly for that.)

This is what Ken refers to as the 'trumpet bell effect'. The only way for the ship to stay out of missile range in your attack profile is for the ship to be faster than the missiles. If that's the case, then beams are more important because missiles can be dodged more easily.

Now, I'll admit that a base can't dodge, and so in actuality you can probably launch from even further out and trust to simple mechanics in null/microgravity to be sufficient. But you used that example as the 'simple' example of ship-vs-ship combat.

Given a ship/base capable of slight maneuver, the ballistic flight is closed. I'll also note that with the base you can 'float' missiles to the launch point — throw them ballistically for several time units, then have them ignite at the optimum point for effective engagement. But you can't do this in a ship-ship battle — your foe will laugh and maneuver outside the intercept envelope to which your missiles are committed. (note that he's then committed to staying outside that space-time envelope, but you still only have a limited amount of missiles.)

In short, I don't believe your attack profile isn't what you thought, but is instead very susceptible to mutual endangerment.


Ken Burnside

The "trumpet bell effect", as I call it, puts a "maximum relative velocity" on missile engagements

This maxima is based on the delta V of the missiles, and the delta V of the ships.

In essence, if your initial relative velocity vis a vis your stationary target (and to all missiles, all targets are stationary...) means that you really cannot afford to let your ship impart much momentum at all to your shells — otherwise, your ship is going to cruise into mutual annihilation distance.

This means that for low-thrust, high-specific-impulse drives like Rick's, the smart naval commander will match velocities with his target and pick a range where his missiles have the advantage over the other guy's. At which point, tactical maneuver doctrine is a null pointer (i.e., is pointless).

Operational maneuver doctrine is still interesting — you're trying to find that point in the enemy's plot where he MUST commit to coming towards something of value, and match his velocity there.

This also means that the missile's relative velocity (assuming they focus on dV rather than thrust will be significantly slower as well.

This takes effect in Attack Vector: Tactical (AV:T); trying for the high speed pass turns you into missile-bait, because your course and range over time is easily predicted.

I've been pondering the MITEE driven missile Rick described earlier. It may be possible to work it under the rules for AV:T with the new ballistic weapons system under development. One thing that becomes very clear is that it can engage outside of "buttoned up" distance — which means it's a lot more practical to use anti-ship beam weaponry to kill it farther away from the ship. In fact, with its high emissions signature and low thrust, it should be pretty easy to hit — it won't be jinking signficant amounts when engaged at 1000 km.


Rick Robinson

Ken Burnside: The "trumpet bell effect", as I call it, puts a "maximum relative velocity" on missile engagements. This maxima is based on the delta V of the missiles, and the delta V of the ships.

I think of it more as a "range" — but in vector space, not just linear space — incorporating both distance and relative motion. Like pornography, it is hard to describe, but I know it when I see it. :)

Ken Burnside: In essence, if your initial relative velocity vis a vis your stationary target (and to all missiles, all targets are stationary...) means that you really cannot afford to let your ship impart much momentum at all to your shells — otherwise, your ship is going to cruise into mutual annihilation distance.

There seems to be a key word or phrase missing above — something like "if your initial relative velocity ... is high enough" or some such. That was just what happened in Kirk's scenario: the attacker made such a running start before launching his missile that he committed himself to passing within missile range of the non-maneuverable target, and could not perform an effective breakaway.

Ken Burnside: This means that for low-thrust, high-specific-impulse drives like Rick's, the smart naval commander will match velocities with his target and pick a range where his missiles have the advantage over the other guy's. At which point, tactical maneuver doctrine is a null pointer (i.e., is pointless).

If your missiles are enough superior to the other guy's missiles, this would be the case — even if he is more maneuverable, if your missile delta V exceeds his combined ship delta V and missile delta V, he'll never be able to get a firing position where you can't hit him.

One thing that is going on here, I think, is that "missile" is a less clearly defined concept than "beam." That is, a beam is understood to be more or less the ideal bullet: you point and shoot, and at AV:T ranges — or even many times AV:T ranges, out to a few hundred thousand km — it is effectively instantaneous.

"Missile," though, seems to cover a variety of weapons, from railgun shells that are almost slowed-down beams, but with some ability to veer in response to target jinking, to weapons that have prolonged flight times and are only modestly more maneuverable than the ships they are sent to intercept.

Missiles of the latter type are what I have in mind, used at relative ranges such that the trumpet bell tends to balloon outward to the point where it ultimately becomes nearly spherical.

Which is why I don't think tactics would devolve to simple velocity matching, because my working presumption is that, during a missile's useful flight time, the potential maneuver of ships is not much less than that of missiles.

(Submunitions, in my scheme, are very different, and behave almost like "slow beams." The relative velocity of missile bus and target, at the moment of submunition release, is very much greater than the delta V available either to the submunition or the target, so as seen by the target the submunition have a very long, narrow trumpet bell.)

Ken Burnside: Operational maneuver doctrine is still interesting — you're trying to find that point in the enemy's plot where he MUST commit to coming towards something of value, and match his velocity there. This also means that the missile's relative velocity (assuming they focus on dV rather than thrust will be significantly slower as well.

Yes. One way to look at it is that my concept of missile combat blurs the tactical and operational levels.

Ken Burnside: It may be possible to work it under the rules for AV:T with the new ballistic weapons system under development. One thing that becomes very clear is that it can engage outside of "buttoned up" distance — which means it's a lot more practical to use anti-ship beam weaponry to kill it farther away from the ship. In fact, with its high emissions signature and low thrust, it should be pretty easy to hit — it won't be jinking signficant amounts when engaged at 1000 km.

Yeah. The MITEE missile I outlined was badly hampered by the mass of its fuel tankage (and use of bulky hydrogen fuel). I suspect that a small fuel tank could be built much lighter — the estimate I used was based on my model for ship hulls. For my style of combat, you'd need a missile with about 2x the delta V given, and configure it to carry submunis.

Alternatively, given their low mass, the MITEE units could themselves be used as submunis — the constraint being whether they can carry sufficient fuel for the terminal phase of flight.

From a thread on sfconsim-l (2002)

Advanced Tactics

SPACE COMBAT PART 1: TACTICAL MANOEUVRES

   I originally wrote this post as a guest post for the Future War Stories blog( link), where it generated a lot of very interesting discussion in the comments.  Since then, and mainly as a result of the comments, I've decided to expand on the theme of tactical manoeuvres.  I'm posting this so that anyone reading either part will be able to find the other; I do encourage reading the comments on Future War Stories though, they have almost as much stuff as the post itself.

The hand can't hit what the eye can't see

   As both Hoban 'Wash' (Firefly) and Han Solo(Star Wars) have demonstrated on numerous occasions firepower is not the only asset that can win a fight.  Quite often in movie SF the heroes of the story will be aboard a smaller spacecraft than their opponents, their only hope of survival lying in their superior abilities.  While this is largely due to dramatic reasons, it does draw attention to the importance of manoeuvrability in space combat.  When dealing with hard SF — no handwavium forcefields or technobabble shields — one shot kills are very probable: nukes, mass drivers, particle beams, lasers, all posses more than enough potential to negate any form of armour we know about today.  And while no real spaceship will every fly with the grace of a X-wing starfighter this does mean that the ability to avoid hits may be more important than surviving them(structurally, the crew is still a concern), much like the situation in arial combat today.

   For SF writers this is a boon.  A battle that requires manoeuvres is intrinsically better suited to one in which humans might play a role.  Randomness and intuition could be vital, and so far computers don't offer that.  Even if the ship can fly and fight itself this leaves room for a human tactician, negating Burnside's Zeroth Law of Space Combat — SF fans relate more to humans than they do to silicon chips.  However, it can also pose difficulties.  Space is not a familiar environment, and movement in it is counterintuitive at best.  It is also radically different for a spacecraft in orbit around a single planet, in a planetary system, or in deep space.  And for those of us who try to avoid the dreaded 'Space is a Ocean' trope this can be very...frustrating.

   So, I'll look at four basic situations; deep space with low relative velocity, deep space with high relative velocity, single planet, and planetary system.  For each I'll also take a look at the changes in the situation that different tech will have.  This post is not so much about manoeuvring itself, but about how different situations shape it.  An in depth discussion of tactical manoeuvring down to the level of orbital physics or specific technologies would make the article far to long.  In the future I'll attempt to do follow up articles that look at manoeuvring in the context of a specific spacecraft, but for now this should provide an indication of what a spaceship would be doing.  For simplicity's sake I'm only going to consider one-on-one battles in detail, not constellation engagements.  Fleet actions are a whole separate ball game, and will warrant a separate post.


Deep Space — low relative velocity

   Just what is 'deep space'?  For the purposes of a story it is that area of space which only the bigger spacecraft can reach, so interplanetary or interstellar, depending on tech levels.  From a navigational perspective it could be defined as 'flat' space.  That is, space in which the gravitational acceleration is insignificant.  Insignificant is defined by the power of the drives your spacecraft is using, so this adjusts itself to match the setting.
   Manoeuvres here are closest they will get to those found in Space Opera.  The lack of a gravitational source means that movement in any direction is equally easy, and the fight becomes truly 3D.
   For high tech - multi-gee acceleration and big delta-V — the fights will be 'dogfights' to some degree.  This will be more marked if the craft use spinal mounted weapons, or if they have large blind spots in offensive or defensive weaponry.  If kinetics are the main weapon then the fight could become quite interesting, with KE rounds restricting the possible choices for manoeuvring, a possible tactic for the adept captain to employ.  Missiles will be very effective, with s straight line of flight to the target, as will beam weapons.  Particle beams will benefit, as they are degraded in accuracy and rage in the presence of a planet's gravity or magnetic field.  If lasers are the primary weapon then the fight will be less of a dogfight, and more of random 'drunk-walking' to throw off targeting.
   For low tech - milligee acceleration and limited delta-V - visually this would be quite boring.  The ships cannot perform elaborate manoeuvres to get in each other's blind spots, nor can they expect to dodge beams and kinetic weapons at short ranges(ranges dependant on velocity of the weapon).  Instead orientation and sensor data is the most vital.  The spaceship must bring the most weapons to bear, while at the same time keeping a small target profile, and reducing signals that might give its opponent an effective targeting solution.  The ships orient themselves, enter weapons range, fire a few salvoes, and the battle is decided.  In this case missiles are very effective, as they can come in at an angle to the primary attack vector, distracting sensors and absorbing point defence capacity.  Kinetic rounds are also more effective, not only can the score a hit from longer range, but they can be more easily used to 'box in' an opponent than if accelerations were high.  As before, 'drunk-walk' will be used to throw off targeting.

Deep Space — high relative velocity

   The chances are that spaceships will rarely intercept each other in deep space.  It is simply to large, and too easy to see someone coming.  When they do it is likely to be a head-on pass at high relative velocity for two spacecraft following the same or similar orbit in opposite directions.  Note that once unrealistically powerful torch-drives become common, interception is possible, if still unlikely unless both parties wish it, or one slips up.
   It turns out that for both high and low tech the manoeuvres are much the same in this situation.  Any reasonably fast orbit will result in the two ships passing with Rv of tens if not hundreds of km/s. At this speed there is not time to dogfight.  Even a torch ship, which will have a much higher intercept velocity, will take so long to cancel its Rv and return to the battle it would be considered as a separate engagement, rather than a second pass.  For a ship with foreseeable tech it would be nearly impossible.  If anything it will resemble a joust between two medieval knights on horseback.  Unlike a joust, however, they might not be a winner.
   The longest commonly accepted range for a laser weapon to target effectively is about one light second, or 3*10^8 meters.  At a very low end relative velocity — I randomly chose 40 km/s, which means that each ship has ~half solar escape velocity, which is not unrealistic, nor is it that high for a advanced ship.  At this range and closing speed the time for targeting the incoming ships and its projectiles is ~2 hours.  Plenty of time to shoot down incoming projectiles, you say.  But at this speed one kilogram of inert matter has an energy of 8*10^8 J.  And how many of those is the opposing ship going to throw out in your path?  You can make considerable sideways movement relative to direction of travel in an effort to avoid the projectiles, but the opposing ship can easily see any move you make, and at charter ranges dodging will become impossible.  Pretty much any kinetic hit at this speed will be fatal, so it will be the ship with the best point defence, sensors, and emergency manoeuvring that will survive.
   Durin the approach both ships fill space with inert projectiles, possible with last ditch terminal guidance.  They will be hard to spot at long range, tiny, inert, and possibly cooled down so that they have no discernible thermal signature.  So it will be only in the last stage of the pass that the combatants can begin to dodge the projectiles.  High lateral acceleration and powerful attitude control will help to weave through the incoming fire like a skier on a slalom course.  Good sensors will be needed to sport the incoming, and good PD to shoot those that can't be avoided.  However, it is my personal opinion that this sort of situation would be 'two men go in, half a man comes out'.  If energy wagons are primarily used, them this is even more so the case, as dodging becomes effectively impossible.

Orbital Space — single planet

   Most space battles in SF take place in orbit around a planet.  This makes sense in both hard and soft SF 'Verse's for several reasons.  Primarily it is the place where hostile spacecraft are most likely to meet.  It also adds a new layer of complexity to the fight, introducing 'terrain' to the tactical considerations.  The planet can hide opponents, restricts manoeuvres, sucks up delta-V, and provides something to crash into.
   Aside from hiding spacecraft who are on the other side a planet can slo provide some cover for combatants.  Picking up a spacecraft against the disk of a planet is significantly harder than spotting one against the backdrop of space after all.  A low orbit that brushed the atmosphere prevents opponents from attacking from most of one hemisphere, a great advantage.  For a craft equipped to reenter the atmosphere it also offers the possibility of manoeuvres not possible with the amount of delta-V they posses.  From reading Atomic Rockets kinetic weapons seem to hold the advantage shooting from a higher orbit at a lower.  A DEW is not effected so much, and so the orbit used is less of an advantage or disadvantage aside from the detection aspects.  Lasers also posses the potential to be 'bounced' around the horizon by remote drones, meaning that the attacker can shoot without exposing themselves.
   So the aim of any manoeuvres is pretty simple.  Orientation to bring weapons to bear, and the standard 'drunk-walk' are a given.  The opposing captains will try to gain the better position in an orbit underneath the enemy ship, or perhaps between the enemy ship and the sun, which might help to blind sensors.  This will be complicated by the fact that change orbital inclination is very hard compared to other manoeuvres, restricting the spacecraft to a 3D layer of space, although not  2D plane shown in so many soft SF works.  Forcing the ship into a lower orbit will decrease its orbital period, and vice versa.  Combined with changing the orbit from circular to the elliptic and back this gives spacecraft commanders the ability to surprise their opponents by appearing around the planet at a different place or time than expected.  There will also be a large amount of 'minelaying' of a kind, seeding or its will kinetic projectiles in order to herd the enemy into a bad position.
   But while the aim of the manoeuvres is simple, execution is not.  Trying to explain it is beyond me, so I suggest that anyone serious about grasping orbital mechanics begins by playing the Kerbal Space Program game, or browsing youtube for anything helpful.  It makes a lot more sense visually than it ever will in writing.
   High tech - for advanced ships a planet is a much smaller piece of terrain, a hill rather than a mountain.  They can more easily afford to change orbits, to drop below minimum orbit al velocity or go over the maximum, and can perform delta-V heavy manoeuvres such as change the orbital inclination.  The ultimate of course is a ship that has drives powerful enough to reverse its orbit completely, surprising its opponent when it emerges around the opposite side of the planet to what was expected.  With higher acceleration and delta-V the seeding of orbits becomes less effective, much easier to dodge than with a low powered spacecraft.
   Low tech - with low levels of acceleration, even if the spacecraft has a high delta-V, changing orbits can take days if not weeks.  The position of the enemy will be highly predictable, and so kinetic weapons become very important.  The advantage converted by different orbits will be much more apparent, as it is harder for anyone to turn the tables on their opponent.  Most tactics would be a combination of manoeuvring into a good position, and using kinetics to force the enemy into a bad one.  Low tech ships would also gain a large advantage by being able to dip into the atmosphere, as this provides essentially free deceleration, saving reaction mass.

Planetary Systems

   Adding more heavenly bodies to the mix vastly increases the tactical possibilities.  While 'planets' per se do not do much, moons do.  A gas giant with seven or eight moons is a extremely complicated system, and has travel times of only hours or days as opposed to years between planets, and that is with Hohmann orbits.  High acceleration, low delta-V spacecraft could follow complicated routes, sling-shoting themselves around the moons to gain an unexpected position. For much of the time they could be out of sight of the enemy, making it a scenario reminiscent of The Hunt for Red October.  The fact that moons often have lower gravity than planets also means that the manoeuvres in proximity to them can be more extreme given the same tech level.  It even brings up the possibility of landing on a moon, camouflaging the spacecraft, waiting for the enemy to pass by, and then launching and taking them by surprise.  The changes imposed by tech levels are the same as those for a single planet, so I won't both to go into detail.  This kind of setting will be the most complicated for a SF aficionado to get right, and I would suggest finding a solar system simulator to model the setting before attempting to figure out a complicated battle.  It does lend itself to far more interesting scenarios, however, and will be far more rewarding.

From SPACE COMBAT PART 1: TACTICAL MANOEUVRES by William Moran (2016)
WEAPONIZING GEOMETRY

If you played the earliest iterations of Traveller you soon realized there wasn't a lot different between a warship and a commercial vessel, design wise. Okay sure, the warship didn't need to justify its existence and could use space for drives and weapon turrets a civilian ship would use for cargo.

But what if some naughty people, say I dunno, pirates get hold of a 600 ton merchant. They stick as many turrets as they can onto the vessel and then run up against a 400 ton Patrol cruiser (go Patrol!) The Patrol ship has but four turrets. Surely the brave Patrol men are doomed!

Nope.

The Patrol vessel has state of the art software, for targeting and to avoid being targeted. They can use their lasers to explode the corsairs' missiles. Indeed in short order the Pirates must strike their colors, jettison the turrets and surrender. Software makes the difference, and the military guards its 'ware jealously.

But military ships also need to get to the fight. If a pirate loots a fat merchant ship and jumps before the Patrol can close in that Patrol ship is a waste of credits. Patrol strategists minimize intercept times using hellacious engines and/or having enough patrols running to cover a large area experiencing traffic. Consider a Tech Level 10 planet Prudence (Size 5 or average), with good industry, lots of loot, and a small population, so no huge armies to oppose a raider.

Prudence's government has placed her defense in a small but efficient Navy. Its jump limit is 800,000 kilometers. We all know the jump limit is 100 diameters. Jumping within this limit means roll for misjumsp, roll 1d6 for direction and 1d6*1d6 for distance. Jump within ten diameters and roll 2d6 six times for a new character.

The Patrol has problems. A sphere 800,000 kilometers in radius has 8 trillion square kilometers of area. If a ship can see and hit things out to 2 light seconds, 600,000 km then you would need seven or eight task forces/space fortresses/cyborg space whales etc to cover a planet from all directions. A ship's lasers cover 1.13 trillion square kilometers figuring a circle with a radius of 600,000 km. Assume the star's jump shadow prevents jumps from one quadrant and that is still 6 trillion square kilometers or six task forces. if you go with 400,000 km (maximum acceleration of missiles in MgT 10g4)  it's 10-11 task forces for such a sphere. If you go with 50,000 km (for lasers and energy weapons) then you need about 750 defense points. Yikes.

Mind you, that's if you want to control the jump boundary and be able to burn anything that jumps in. A navy that says drop dead to ships coming in from the jump boundary and concentrates on defending the world has an easy time of it. Four task forces can form a tetrahedron around a planet at a distance of 50,000 kilometers from each other and 30,000 kilometers from the surface. This lets one group engage incoming forces while supported by all the other groups and ground installations.

If you have enough forces to take an icosahedron (d20!) you're really talking coverage. Twenty task forces fifty thousand kilometers apart Eans each force is supported by the firepower of five task forces and you're still only 47,000 kilometers from the planetary surface batteries.

As for ships jumping in towards Prudence, if general approach vectors are established then those volumes will have most of the available ships on patrol and search and rescue ships assigned. Appearing outside those areas could indicate 1) your  ship has had a misjump and may require aid 2) you are trying to sneak about unseen 3) your navigator is an idiot. Such ships will be hailed, forces will be placed on alert, interceptors will be launched in more volatile systems, and S&R ships rerouted.

Running an intercept pattern beyond far orbit requires more ships. Covering a quadrant completely requires about 250 ships or mines or whatever (note that mines are pretty poor at performing search and rescue, they are more for drumming up business.) You don't need to just burn everything at once (though that sort of defense overkill is in use around throne worlds and such). Figure a pirate needs at least two hours to cripple (or intimidate), board, and loot a merchant. You need enough fast ships to perform an intercept, fly within weapon range, and start blasting.

If you keep your forces around your planet then traveling 750,000 kilometers to the jump boundary will take about two hours as well or seven combat rounds. How fast can your guys loot a merchant?

Merchants for their part can expect local forces to crash the party in 7 or so combat rounds. Delaying tactics might be worthwhile. For example shipping gold or other valuable minerals in ingots weighing several hundred kilos, putting misleading labels on containers (or hiding the labels inside the crates), and turning up the gravity and locking the controls could keep unwanted visitors from making off with your whole cargo.

Most crews will not fight for freight, however, hazard pay for repelling pirates based on the value of the cargo retained does work wonders.

Missiles can move 390,000 km in two hours or so. A 6 gee ship can move 780,000 km assuming it drives at zero relative speed to the larceny. That means a 6 gee ship within 1,170,000 km is in the game. That means such a ship- can cover 4.3 trillion square kilometers. A fast reaction force could get away with two task forces on opposite side of the main world.

It's not as simple as that though. What makes up a task force? Are they a credible threat? How many incidents can the Patrol respond to at once? How fast are the pirates? How much of a fight will the merchants put up? Start your world building.

Or roll 2d6 for the number of combat rounds till the Patrol shows up. Obviously the patrol will vary the positions or their task forces, send ships put in odd directions and such hoping to catch someone being naughty. Having information on how these positions vary will be of great interest in certain quarters.

If there are few ships faking an emergency to get a Patrol ship to respond is an option. faking a distress call can result in your ship being seized, loss of master's paper and jail tie for this reason. Thus most ships working as a decoy create a real emergency. Having a pirate aboard your ship to hijack it or sabotage it's engines is one thing. Having some saboteur trash your life support system, kill crew and passengers or start a fire is far harder to deal with. This sort of mission is only done by the most skilled operators or what the pirate chiefs refer to as throw aways.

If the CT rules linking drive types to tech level are used that will determine the size of the ships used in anti-piracy and S&R. In the case of Prudence the local TL 10 shipworms can produce type H drives, limiting the size of 6 gee response ships to 200 tons. S&R ships might be larger and slower, because they need room for S&R gear and transporting evacuees. A backwater planet might have to make do with ship's boats (6 gee acceleration, power for one energy weapon, and room for a Model 2 or 3 computer if you don't want lasers).

Appearing on the wrong approach or well inside the jump limit, if that is possible, can result in being intercepted and boarded, fines, and being forced to pay for the fuel and other expenses of interceptors. Everyone is scared of epic misjumps leaving them stranded but some of the smaller ones can leave you broke or your ship impounded.

From WEAPONIZING GEOMETRY by Rob Garitta (2018)
CEGA BATTLE TACTICS

5.6.2 Battle Plans

Decades of space operations have shown that a highly coordinated force will always perform much better. This section shows how the tactical duties are organized during actual engagements. These are just a sample of the battle plans available: fleet commanders will often derive additional formations when faced with a real life situation that doesn't quite fit any existing plan. If it proves successful, the battle plan may be added to CEGA’s tactical doctrine, greatly adding to the reputation of its designer.

Engaging the enemy fleet is the primary focus of the battle plans. If space superiority can be achieved then followed on, operations can be repeated until successful. On the other hand, if the enemy fleet still operates in an area, resources must be allocated carefully. Some commanders are willing to stick it out in a difficult situation, leading to battles where the force besieging or stalking an objective is in turn under siege by an enemy fleet.

Fixed resources are a common objective for tactical maneuvers. Although a space station facility is pictured in the following pages, it could just as well be a merchant convoy that does not have the option of changing course; in space, all motions are relative. Most facility plans focus on taking over the target for use by CEGA's own fleet, and thus to avoid damaging it if possible.


Squadron Deployment

Admirals frequently have to oversee the fulfillment of several objectives. By forming groups of ships in squadrons they may achieve secondary objectives. This allows the main fleet to focus on one primary goal.

Such squadrons invariably contain at least one Hachiman which provides their heavy punch. For missions where the target is an exo squadron or carrier Tengu-class carriers will be attached. Four corvettes is a common number to see in a squadron. However, one or two will almost always be away running an errand, transferring crew or escorting a supply ship for the squadron. Area Defense Boats only appear on an as needed basis.

The Hachiman vessels form the battle line. In an engagement the ships required to fulfill the objective form in the rear. They will only come forward when the time is right to engage their target. Skirmishing units, including possible exo armors, will seek to engage the enemy line in close quarters. Their goal is to draw the fire away from the heavier ships.

Squadrons are particularly useful against targets with little firepower. The mix of vessels allows CEGA to conduct the operation without using an entire fleet. Peace time operations normally use only the smallest five or six ship squadrons. With the continuing escalation toward war large squadrons, some as many as fourteen ships have been seen.

When a squadron is dispatched either a flag officer, rank Commodore of higher, is placed in command. The command staff will load themselves onto a Hachiman. From here they will direct the entire squadron. Fleets may need to dispatch squadrons for unexpected duties, such as pursuing a portion of an enemy force. In these cases one Captain is made Acting Commodore for the duration of the assignment. Success or failure in the operation will determine if the individual will ever see promotion to full Commodore anytime in their career.


Marine Squadron

Marine squadrons have the specific task of invading a target, most often a colony or installation. The reasons tor this are numerous; one of these is to move ahead into the area of operations and seize a suitable port for the rest of the fleet to use as a base of operations, “leapfrogging" from one to another.

Admirals are careful in how they use their marine assets. Once a target has been invaded, it mean the marine force has to stay deployed or local control will be lost. Without its marine contingent, the Constantinople-class ship has little to contribute to the fleet actions. Alter unloading the troops it had been ferrying, it will have to be suit back to a friendly base to resupply, Furthermore, the vessel is too valuable to send back alone. Combat craft escorts and at least one Hachiman destroyer will have to be detached to protect it. Thus the deployment of a marine squadron generally means the entire squadron is out of the operation.

In this kind of operation, the line and skirmish units will engage the enemy forces first. Their duty is to disable or destroy any heavy defensive installation present in order to open the way to the transport ships. In general, the smaller defense guns are left to the exo-armors and fighters of the task force so as to not run the risk of damaging the facility beyond use.

Additional exo armors and interceptors may be involved. If needed, Tengu-class escort carriers will be used. If the target is so heavily defended as to require a Birmingham-class vessel, then a full fleet action is more likely.

Once the preliminary bombardment is complete, the marine vessel(s) will move in and deploy the troops. Alternatively, a sudden raid by marines may be able to get inside the facility and disable many of the defenses. Long-term plans, for example during a campaign of conquest or liberation, generally call for naval operatives to be planted inside sites suitable to use as a resupply point.


Heavy Attack

As fleets must rely on their supply convoys for continued operation, it is possible for a battle group to be crippled by their loss. In a heavy attack, the fleet is released of the burden to defend the support ships, who are diverted to other vectors in order to bypass the engagement entirely.

In order to protect themselves, the friendly support ships avoid the battle through one of many possible maneuvers. During lightning strikes, the convoy takes a course parallel to the main fleet but outside the possible range of enemy interception. In slower moving battles, continuous thrusting can prevent the enemy from catching up, but is more costly in reaction mass. This latter action is particularly effective when evading exo-armors, which, although accelerating faster, have a much limited endurance compared to the larger vessels. After the battle is decided, the support ships may rejoin the fleet or vice versa.

Another option is to have the main fleet and support ships separate a good distance from the target. The main fleet can then engage in an extended battle while the support ships are still farther out. The support vessels then adjust their velocity so that if it went unchanged they would pass by the battle at lightning strike velocities. As they draw nearer, they can use passive sensors to decide whether to slow themselves down or continue on past.

If exo-armors are being deployed, either tactics can still be used. It will up to the carrier, however, to rendezvous with the friendly own exo-armors, which have to check their reserves much more closely. If really necessary, the exo-armors will land on the main ships of the line and tether themselves to the hull. It would even be possible to temporarily transfer the exo-armors to the line vessels for a day or two and launch them a few minutes before the battle. These keeps the carrier maintenance actions well clear of any possible harm.


Fleet Battle Plan

The normal fleet battle line consists of drawing the ships up into three lines of vessels. While seemingly oversimplified, its real strength is that very simplicity. Each ship knows where it is to be, and forming up is easily accomplished.

The skirmishers' first priority is the destruction of any other enemy skirmishers, such as exo-armors and interceptors. it is known that the Jovians are heavily dependent on their exos, and if they can be defeated, one of their their fleet's main foundations will have been removed. With the transport assets in the rear, the enemy will be forced to try and break directly through friendly lines. This draws them into the short range engagements prefer by CEGA officers and to which Navy ships are well-suited.

The second stage of engagement is to bring the Ships of the Line to bear. Until the enemy is within range, these ships should be evading to avoid lucky hits by enemy skirmishers. At the point of commitment the line, as one, should fire all their batteries at high priority targets, will should already be tagged by this time. Tactical evaluations suggest that concentrating the first volley of fire on roughly one third the number of friendly ships at most. (thus each enemy is fired on by three friendly vessels). The line will quickly break open with gaps that can be exploited by the skirmishers or by assault ships.

A third phase may occur if the battle drags on. If the two lines cross, the support ships will scatter to the flanks. Enemy units that break through will likely scatter as well. The battle line must thus have the discipline to achieve a victory by maintaining pressure on the bulk of the enemy line. lf the enemy carriers are destroyed, then the exo-armors it carries can be considered destroyed as well. If the upper-hand is gained in the skirmisher engagement, it may be possible to dispatch high thrust units to block any enemy's attack on the friendly support vessels.


Cavalry Battle Plan

Sometimes political issues or matters of physics mean the enemy have limited maneuverability. It may also simply be the case that he has low-thrust vessels, or has sustained battle damage. Whatever the case, it is an advantage that must be exploited for maximum success in battle.

As the fleets approach, it is desirable to attempt flanking maneuvers with high thrust units, such as exo-armors. This will have three possible effects: one is that high thrust units which could counter later maneuvers are now committed to a distant action. Second, it is easy to lure the enemy into expanding his line, which is especially likely when some of the attacking line moves to support positions for the flanking efforts. Third, the enemy may tighten its force up around the primary target, which then makes them vulnerable to wave attacks or massed firepower on high value targets. The superior thrust advantage allows friendlies to engage only part of the enemy force, whereas they have to spread over multiple fronts.

Our forces near the selected target flank should mass in quickly and be prepared to come into action one at a time. Local superiority can then be acquired to destroy a good portion of the enemy fleet.

The forces farthest from the selected flank should engage the enemy's middle. They act as a holding force, preventing the enemy from gathering in the target area. The forces committed there must be careful in choosing when to withdraw, to avoid being caught in a local inferiority situation.

Once the target enemy sector is crippled, the ships will regroup into a proper battle line, either to repeat the assault, chose another strategy or even move in for the kill, if the enemy has been sufficiently weakened.


Facility Seizure

Seizing a facility is a complicated issue. The first phase of battle should be an attempt to gain complete space superiority. Enemy warships still operating in the area can inflict massive damage to the boarding parties by firing on the assault vessel before they get a chance to launch. If the enemy fleet can be destroy quickly, then the landing ships may be deployed at minimal range.

The second phase of battle is the assault proper. Weapon placements capable of disrupting the landing force will have to be silenced: exo-armors are particularly useful in this roles. Marines have also shown that exo-suits can break into defense emplacements and disable it from the inside. Dragoon Kobalt teams have a found an effective tactic to gain access: cut open the armor with the hatchet, then fire a grenade barrage inside. These cluster bombs will scatter around, explosions will blow through entire walls and shrapnel will bounce around off the heavier bulkheads, hopefully hitting something soft in the process.

Skirmishers play an even bigger part in facility engagements. For one, the ranges are forced into to being much shorter, generally where skirmisher weapons have their full effect. The other issue is that the facility may be reserving some skirmishers of their own for point blank defense.

Jovian exo-armors are a difficult issue to handle when attacking one of their facilities. It is therefore necessary to give the impression that the intention is to destroy, not capture the facility. This will force the exo-armors to engage at longer ranges. If they await the landing force, they could unleash missile attacks within the minimal range for defense systems and also bring their plasma lances into action on the landing craft while they unload.


Facility Defense

Defending the area around a facility or installation is an entirely different type of operation than being on the offensive. Enemies will often resort to wave attack tactics, trying to disable more and more of the defensive installations each time to gradually wear the defenders down. This will continue until the defenders can no longer present a credible threat to the invading forces and are forced to flee. This assumes, of course, that they could count on sufficient forces to begin with.

The most likely assault strategy is to attempt to outflank the friendly heavy battle line with exo-armors and other agile combat craft. Friendly skirmishers will have to counter such movements with extreme prejudice, lest an opening is created in the defensive line. A reserve skirmisher force, if enough vehicles can be spared, is always useful to eliminate enemy units which manage to break through or begin attacking the ships of the line stationed nearby.

The ships of the line have conflicting objectives to perform. On one hand, they have to avoid being overrun by enemy auxiliary combat craft. They must remain within the close area of the facility, however, to prevent the opponent's line or assault forces from bearing down on their target. In between sorties, combat engineers will generally have the opportunity to repair and rearm the ships.

Defense of the facility itself should not be neglected. If a Constantinople-class marine assault vessel is present, the option of using her marines in a defensive fashion is certainly available. Once dug in, these ground troops will require a massive military undertaking to dislodge if one wishes to take the installations in working order. Even if the enemy gains control of the facility, the marines have standing orders to switch to guerrilla tactics. In a large scale war, this can force the enemy to expand major resources to a few facilities — resources which cannot then be used elsewhere.


Convoy Defense

One major difference between defending a convoy compared to a facility is the number of targets. The numerous vessels each can be targeted separately. Maintaining the convoy together itself can be difficult. Defending resources have to adjust to defend different targets. Thus they prefer to position themselves on the flanks of the likely route of attack.

As with a facility defense, the objective is to arrange the defensive vehicles so that like intercepts like. It is possible that the enemy may send in a heavy ship to raid the convoy, and thus most convoys need to have a heavy warship of their own. The major problem in organizing merchants convoys is this: ships move individually according to high quickly they load and unload the cargo. Small convoy groups limits the impact of having loaded ships wait for the rest of the convoy, but require the most amount of warships to protect. Large convoys are the easiest to protect but are most likely to be the target of a major enemy action.

If the defenders have been bypassed or forced through, one final defensive option remains: that is for the convoy to scatter. In fact, the merchant crews will likely do this almost instantly even if the breakthrough unit has little ammunition left and present only negligible danger.

Regrouping a scattered convoy is a tiresome job. Some merchant crews will attempt to dash their delivery through, others will mill about scanning to see if the area is safe again, others will abort thrusting to conduct rescue operations and some may abort the delivery all together and just try to get back home. Scattering the convoy, however, is an excellent means of avoiding exo-armors as these light units do not have enough fuel to intercept all the convoy's ships and still get back to their carriers. A counter-offensive launched against the enemy carriers may force his exo-armors to abandon attacking the convoy for fear of being stranded in space.


Orbital Battle Plan

Orbital gravitational mechanics forces engaging fleets to either conduct extended battles or lightning strikes, but not both. Extended battle tactics are fought using roughly the same tactics as normal. In the lightning strike situation, however, the two fleets will again meet in a brief time as their orbits intersect once more. Between engagements, ships will have the opportunity to repair and exo-armors and fighters to reload. The exo-oriented Jovian Armed Forces will likely have the upper hand in orbital battles, unless its carriers can be taken out.

The ships of the line and a few defending skirmishers will group into a tight defensive pattern. The support vessels will be spaced behind them. Due to the nature of orbital mechanics, engagements will occur in the forward arc of the direction of travel. Therefore, firepower is usually concentrated there to attempt to smash through anything hostile.

In the meantime, a detachment of high thrust skirmish units can make an attempt on the enemies carriers by moving into a different orbit. If the enemy defends against this by grouping the carriers with the battle fleet, the balance will be restored in the CEGA's favor. When the fleet encounters the carriers and battle fleet, the firepower will be concentrated on the carriers. If the enemy disperses them, then they become vulnerable to ambush due to the curvature of the planet: by the time a unit is seen cresting the planet's horizon, there will be insufficient time to escape an encounter and probably destruction.

Multiple groups on both sides can be moving along multiple orbital paths. This creates a series of confused engagements, but is more likely to catch the enemy carries at some point. This is a more a reckless plan, but may be useful in a heavily defended enemy area.


Wedge Attack

Sometimes the best defense is a strong offense, even if this means plowing straight in the middle of a heavily armed enemy formation. The basic principle of the "Wedge" battleplan is to lead the attack force with the strongest units, since they will have the greatest chance of smashing through the enemy lines. This tactic is often used to support an assault operation since it forces the enemy to commit to defend along the route taken by the friendlies. Otherwise, the lead ship will penetrate straight through into his rear area. Following in the wake ofthe wedge gives the assault ship the clearest and most direct path to the target.

Ships of the line placed on the side of the formation serve to protect the lead ships and the rest of the formation from flanking attempts. Skirmishers are placed behind the lead ship for close-in protection; should enemy units attempt to engage the lead ships at close range, these skirmishers will advance to meet them.

Enemy units which break into the center of the wedge will find themselves in a deadly crossfire from the heavy ships placed on both sides of the formation. Furthermore, this also places them at the mercy of the lead ships’ protective skirmishers, who will then be at minimum range.

The major drawback to this plan is the heavy damage the lead vessels will inevitably take. It is possible that a heavy concentration of firepower may break the point of the wedge and leave behind a relatively hollow center and two separate battle lines which might be individually attacked and perhaps even overrun. In such a case, it is crucial that the formation regroups as soon as possible, less even more damage be sustained.


Spear Attack

The attack formation known as the spear attack is a variation on the classic wedge. instead of placing heavy ships on the sides, the skirmisher units are deployed there instead. The entire battle line forms into a tightly packed formation found at the tip of the wedge. This gives the ultimate concentration of firepower, as nearly all ships open fire on the same target. Assault and support ships are placed at the rear as before to take advantage of any opening in the enemy line.

From their positions to the sides, the skirmishers can intercept exo-armors or other fighter craft moving to engage the battle line or attempting a flank attack on the support ships. The crossfire amid the spear point will be far too strong for enemy skirmishers to break through at that point.

The disadvantage to this formation is the heavy reliance on the spear point itself. Even the very strength of the formation, the close proximity of the lead vessels, puts them at risk if one of them suffers a core explosion. If the enemy has a means of breaking it up, perhaps a minefield, the entire fleet can suddenly be in jeopardy. In deep space battles, however, the enemy generally will not have had the time to deploy these measures, reducing the risks inherent in using the spear attack.

As before, the assault ships will be able to move in the wake of the lead force. Since the formation is much narrower so to is the safe zone. An assault ship strays to one side may find itself engaged with an undamaged enemy ship of the line or under close assault by skirmishers.


Pincer Defense

Whereas the wedge was a "V" formation with the point facing the enemy, the pincer defense presents the opening. The appearance of vulnerability is part of the plan to lure the enemy into the death zone.

The outer edges of the V are made of ships of the line, while the inner sections are the skirmishers. The support ships are at the point in the V. By offering the support ships as a target, it appears to the enemy that the battle line is broken. In fact, a few ships in the middle may intentionally withdraw after a few exchanges of fire to add to the illusion.

This formation is intended to take advantage of the weak side armor of the Jovian designs. By moving into the center of the V, the enemy finds itself in a crossfire. As the enemy attempts to engage the support ships, he enters into close combat with the skirmisher and exo-armors.

The risk in this maneuver comes from the possibility that the enemy may adjust course to engage only a single branch of the V. If this occurs, the section under attack should adjust into a flat line perpendicular to the oncoming attack. Meanwhile, the other section approaches in a line of ships parallel to the attackers course. This will form a formation looking like a "T" or an "L," depending on the position of the reinforcements. Once the attack breaks through, the forward battle line is engaged in succession by the other wing. By the time the enemy will have reached the target, he will have taken heavily losses — perhaps even enough to cause a retreat.

In the case of a lightning strike deployment, the enemy will not have the opportunity to adjust where he hits the V formation. This is where this formation excels at destroying hard striking but very directional ships, such as the Jovians' Alexander-class destroyers.


Keep and Barbican

In this battle plan, the friendly forces form up into two lines, with the outer line formed of skirmishers and some heavier vessels for added firepower. This outer line, called the barbican, seeks to disrupt the main enemy thrust by probing it to find weaknesses. The second line inflicts the killing blow as the enemy units come through the first line. Casualties will be heavy in the first line, but the second will earn a victory for the fleet.

A portion of the ships of the line occupy the center of the barbican. These seek to inflict damage that can disable the enemy, such as firing on turrets and engines. Their function is not necessarily to destroy, but rather to disable as many ships as possible. Exo-armors and skirmishers on the sides of the barbican will then close in on enemy exo-armors or on targets of opportunity.

The keep has in its center the valuable support ships that will be the target of the enemy's thrust. The rest of the battle line rests on either side. As with the pincer defense this ships may be able to catch the enemy ships in a crossfire. if heavily pressed the support ships will turn off to one side. Should the enemy pursue, he will be leaving his rear exposed to the line ships on the other side.

The risk to the friendly fleet is that the support ships may not be the enemies’ main target. It is possible that they may concentrate fire solely on the barbican, devastating it. Alternatively, they could move off to only engage the ends of the keep formation, with similar results. in this case, it is still possible for the rest of the "keep" formation to exchange fire with the enemy on his sides.

At a guess, though, space battles will not involve a lot of strategic manoeuvering. Both sides know where the other guy is, where the other guy wants to go, and roughly what course he has to take to get there. If one side wants to completely avoid the other and has any capability of doing so, they do, and no battle happens. Otherwise the "battle" is a pretty straightforward approach of the two forces, with both conducting small maneuvers to make sure the enemy doesn't hit them from extreme range.

At some point before firing starts, both sides launch their long-range missiles, and possibly a screen of interceptors. As the missiles and interceptors pass each other, they duke it out with energy weapons, kinetic-kill, and a few nukes and then whatever is left from each side's launch goes past toward the opposing fleet. Each fleet uses point-defense countermeasures against the enemy, tries last-minute invasions, and then takes whatever damage the missiles deal.

Repeat this for multiple volleys of missiles, until the fleets are within a few hundred thousand kilometers when they start pelting each other with energy weapons. They can fly past each other shooting, in which case likely one side or the other will be utterly destroyed, or one side can decide it is defeated and try to break off from battle as quickly as possible, preserving what it has left. This may not be feasible depending on how remaining fuel reserves compare to their velocity.

The dominant rules of space battle are:

  1. You can't hide. The enemy probably knows where you are the moment you launch.
  2. You can run or fight, but you will typically have to pick one of the two long before battle is joined, and then you're stuck with it.
  3. There isn't much room for tactics and strategy. Pretty much everything is automated, and the what your computers calculate as the best possible attack strategy probably really is the best possible attack strategy. If battle is joined, and both sides have a good idea of what the capabilities of the other side's ships are, the result will be a lot more predictable than we are used to.
  4. If the engagement moves into short range (i.e. beam weapon range), it will probably be decided in a single pass. This is because at those kinds of ranges, it is very easy to hit the enemy and very hard to avoid being hit. Both sides will keep hitting each other with deadly accuracy until one of them is no longer capable of shooting. The exception is if both sides pass each other at _extremely_ high speed, but this isn't likely to happen if the primary objective of one side is to do as much damage to the other side as possible (in which case it will decelerate, slowing relative velocity).
  5. You may know where the other guy is from extreme range, but due to lightspeed delay, none of your weapons actually have a chance of hitting him until they get fairly close. The range of the weapons themselves isn't the determining factor at all, range of engagement is determined by the size and maneuverability of the enemy. Thus, your weapons are effective against large, stationary, or slow-moving targets at far, far longer ranges than they are against the average warship.
  6. Anything which can't manoeuver had better be very heavily protected, or had better not let you get anywhere near it. This tends to eliminate the "happy medium" of space stations, they die if an enemy fleet gets in close. Anything that can't move, and move fast, had better have huge amounts of shielding and lots and lots of countermeasures, point-defense, and whatnot. Only fortified targets on planets, moons, or within large asteroids have a chance of surviving a close attack by an enemy space fleet. These bases will compensate for their lack of mobility with means of defense that spacecraft cannot have due to weight restrictions. They will be extremely heavily armored (probably with most of the important parts deep underground), and have large numbers of defensive batteries that can destroy spacecraft at long range simply by putting up so much fire that something is bound to be hit.
  7. The most effective way to destroy planetary installations is not by using warships, but by using the warships to clear out enemy space forces so you can bombard the planet with asteroids or mass nuclear assault. Conventional invasion is effectively impossible, since the defenses will destroy your invasion force if they are still functional, and the only reliable way to take out the defenses is with mass bombardment. A successful planetary assault will not allow you to capture any installations intact except those that are deep underground, and to capture those you have to send in ground forces that were very expensive to transport across space. This means capture of installations isn't really a viable alternative, unless you get the enemy to surrender upon the threat of destruction.
Ian Montgomerie

Ken Burnside notes how capabilities drive tactics:

There are a few variables for space combat.

The first is drive efficiency and top thrust. If top thrust is low enough, maneuver ceases to be a tactical concern.

The second is laser ranges — if laser ranges are long, even with high thrust, maneuver ceases to be a tactical concern.

If your engines can scale down to missile drives (Rick Robinson's torch missiles), maneuver stops being a tactical concern in terms of avoiding them, because the missile will have enough delta v (with strap on tanks or expendable stages) that it can run down the target.

AV:T's torch drives, while laughable from a space opera standpoint, are wildly optimistic at best. Likewise, AV:T's lasers, while about 5 orders of magnitude beyond current technologies, are perhaps conservative.

Ken Burnside

Ken goes on to note that a more realistic set of technologies would have ship drives that were much weaker and laser weapons that had greater ranges. Unfortunately this results in very boring interplanetary combat.

Rick Robinson agrees with Ken's assessment of torch missiles. He goes on to say:

For essentially the same reason, a higher-performance ship should always be able to choose the range, at least so long as fuel holds out. With higher acceleration, he can match any maneuver the other guy makes, plus some extra vector to either close the range or open it.

Some exception when you get down to time and distance scales where pivot time matters, but even then, there's a pretty limited scope to the ability to "turn inside" a faster-accelerating but pivot-sluggish opponent.

Rick Robinson

(ed note: Admiral Castro talks to Captain Fitzthomas)

"I know you're here, captain," said Castro. "Come, join me here."

Fitzthomas complied. The map was scaled to show the entire solar system out to Neptune. At that resolution, virtually the entire United States Space Guard was visible.

"What do you see here, captain?"

"I see what looks like our current force disposition...sir, am I cleared for this?"

"Relax. This is only an approximation. I had my staff whip it up based on our best estimation of what the Euros and the (Chinese) know. The only ones for sure and for certain in the right place are the five here: Saskatchewan, New Jersey, Jamaica, San Luis Potosí and Ohio. Now, what do you see?"

"I see we have frigates well distributed to keep an eye on most of the planetoids inside of the Kupier Belt, with the battleships in close to Earth."

"So you'd say the fleet disposition is currently optimized for protecting shipping lanes and monitoring potential threats to Earth."

"Yes sir."

"So is that configuration also optimal for a conflict with another space force of roughly equal numbers and ability."

"That would depend on how they're deployed, sir."

"I thought that's what you'd say." He touched a button on the tank's control panel. A speckle of red and blue dots appeared on the map.

"My best estimate of where Europe and China's fleets are. What do you notice?"

"Their frigates are pulled in closer to the inner system. And they're bunched together. They seem to be moving in formations of between two and four ships. Their battleships are spread out more, but they're all inside the orbit of Mars."

"So how would you say our friends on either side of the ocean are deployed?"

"They're optimized for battle. Formations of mutually supporting frigates, probably positioned to act as wolf packs. Battleships spread out so they're not vulnerable to a Pearl Harbor strike, but in easy cruising distance of strategic targets in the inner system."

"So who wins a shooting war if it breaks out today?"

"They do. Unless they're too busy with India and Russia."

"Very astute. I won't bother showing you their estimated disposition. Nevertheless, I find this whole situation troubling." He shut down the holotank.

From The Last Great War by Matthew Lineberger (not yet published)

On rec.arts.sf.science James Nicoll started the following interesting dialog:

Okedokee: basic set-up

  • Balkanized Earth, ditto solar system.
  • Too many Great Powers for stability.
  • Delta vees in the tens of km/s, peak accelerations a few gee (Higher gees tend to mean lower delta vees, though).
  • All sides have decent sensor nets and stealth is more or less impossible.
  • Weapons have outstripped defenses, but so far nobody has built a beam weapon that can reach across AU. You do need to close with the enemy to fight them.
  • Since it takes months to years to cross the system and since rocket flares are visible across the system, the target knows you are coming.

Am I right in thinking that this makes for an extremely lossy battlefield? Ten men go in, half a man comes out sort of thing?

James Nicoll

For certain assumptions, yes. Obviously conventional ideas of surprise and tactical manouver are compromised in the above scenario, show up at the enemies gate and he knows where and when you are coming, along with some idea of your numbers. But fear not, human ingenuity will never fail to find ways to kill other people. A number of possible strategies come to mind to get around this problem.

But first, the big assumption of your scenario: that the war is being fought between two powers on opposite sides of the Galaxy. Given that this is a highly Balkanized set-up, this seems improbable. Most countries will be mainly concerned with their immediate area, and rocket flares won't be a concern if Manhattan is invading Brooklyn (say), and only a little more when L5A invades L5B. Those with wider concerns will probably have Allies in the region.

That being said, some useful strategies for your scenario:

  1. The Ace in the Hole: They know how many rockets you have, and where they are going and (more or less) when they will get there, but do they know what's on them? A common strategy might be to pack many tactical vehicles onto one "thruster pack" which then breaks up on arrival. This obfuscates both force numbers and composition, even good visuals won't tell what the interior ships are...
  2. The Trojan Horse: The big trade fleet comes from across the system and, surprise! It's not a trade fleet... It could even be a supposed ally changing his colors instead of relieving you.
  3. The Stab in the Back: You send out your forces to meet the enemy a safe distance away from the colony, and before you can get them back, the guy next door (in a secret pact with the enemy) is going for your throat.
  4. Multiball madness: Launch a whole bunch of drones/kamikaze fighters to overwhelm enemy defenses and hope some get through. It might be useful to combine this with the thruster pack idea and have the pack break up into no-return death balls.
  5. Routine Patrol: Useful for your would-be hegemons, the great power regularly sends an overwhelming show of force out on "anti-piracy patrol" (or whatever). You know when they will arrive, you know what their force is, you know you can't beat them unless you take 'em by surprise. What you don't know is whether they come in peace and will let you fete the Admiral to show the neighbors that everything is just copacetic with the big boys, or if they come to deliver, and implement, a declaration of war.
  6. The Riccochet: You don't send your force to the enemy, you send it to a nearby ally, who adds his own troops, and launches a close range combined attack.
  7. Cool Running: Accelerate to a decent speed, use a low emissions method to alter your course slightly (so that it's not obvious where the ships that disappeared are going), and be prepared to wait a while to get to your target. If you can pull off the attack on a flyby (or crash), that's ideal. Otherwise, your deceleration will give things away, but hopefully too late. (ed note: I personally consider this option problematic due to the impossibility of ships "disappearing".)

Other than that, I would suggest that invasion would probably be downplayed as a means of trans-system warfare. Instead, the focus would probably be on using proxies, supporting privateers, terrorists, and other NGAs (non-governmental armies...), building isolating alliances, trade interdiction, financial interference, lightspeed infostructure and psyops attacks... In short, much more like 21st century warfare than 19th...

Old Toby (Least Known Dog on the Net)

James Nicoll: Since it takes months to years to cross the system and since rocket flares are visible across the system, the target knows you are coming.

This raises interesting questions about what sort of conflict could arise in the first place. The last time I was working on an interplanetary war story idea, I struggled to wrap my mind around the human aspect of launching an attack which wouldn't even reach the battlefield for months.

However, in my story idea, I assumed the two sides (Earth and the Martian colony) had no military spacecraft at all at first, because no one considered an interplanetary conflict a serious possibility. In your proposed assumptions, the political situation is far more volatile. Your situation is more like the historical situation during the age of sail.

If you look at the naval conflicts of the age of sail, the most important principle is the close blockade. Ships move so slowly that if you're not already where you need to be it's too late. Perhaps a similar principle could be applied to your Solar System. All of the major military powers could have expeditionary fleets which patrol close to potential troublespots.

James Nicoll: Am I right in thinking that this makes for an extremely lossy battlefield? Ten men go in, half a man comes out sort of thing?

Not necessarily. Because you can always see where the enemy is, it may be difficult to engage a force which knows it can't win. A force which is hopelessly outgunned may choose to retreat while still out of weapons range. A lot depends on the nature of the technology and how easy it is to gauge an enemy fleet's capabilities. For example, if we assume that the cost of weapon systems is small compared to the cost of drive systems, then it's a safe bet that any warship is heavily armed. On the other hand, if the cost of weapon systems is high compared to the cost of drive systems, then there could be a lot of lightly armed "dummies" to confuse matters.

Also, consider the "close blockade" principle. The tide of warfare might be determined almost entirely by strategic maneuvers BEFORE any declaration of war. The various sides move their chess pieces around the Solar System, hoping to gain some advantageous position in case of an outbreak of hostilities. Of course, if one side achieves a sufficiently advantageous position of forces, this might prompt the start of a conflict itself!

In this case, the true "conflict" is surprisingly peaceful most of the time despite the deadliness of the weapons involved.

Isaac Kuo

Isaac Kuo: A force which is hopelessly outgunned may choose to retreat while still out of weapons range.

The superior force then has the option to pursue, or simply force the inferior one to run away long enough that it can't get home -- if you run out of fuel moving at 60 km/s, you're on your way to Arcturus. However, if payloads are variable (as in your game concept) and some ships have more delta-V than others, then how long do you pursue?

Isaac Kuo: For example, if we assume that the cost of weapon systems is small compared to the cost of drive systems, then it's a safe bet that any warship is heavily armed. On the other hand, if the cost of weapon systems is high compared to the cost of drive systems, then there could be a lot of lightly armed "dummies" to confuse matters.

Drive and weapon systems somewhat overlap at these performance levels. Anything moving at 30 km/s relative to its target is a weapon if it can be guided. As to how expensive guidance systems are...James? If guidance is cheap, then a side facing a stronger approaching force of warships will just load its merchant ships with guided buckshot payloads and expend them as necessary in order to to win.

Possibly the main design difference between merchant craft and war craft is that merchies are built to slow down and dock, warships to strike. I wouldn't expect most warships to be manned at all. For one thing, the delta-V is four times greater if you want to return home after a strike mission; a returnable warship is bound to be weaker for a given mass/cost. You might get a 'fleet' that amounts to a flock of cruise missiles — or IPBMs — just busses for kinetic weapon systems. At 30 km/s, every kilogram's mass of the strike group is packing 450 megajoules of kinetic energy (KE), and in the solar ecliptic, even every dirtside target can be 'on the near side' at impact (if you time the launch right).

Alternatively, perhaps you could have busses placed into retrograde 'parking' orbits matched to their potential targets — depending on how many were deployed, the delay time could be reduced to a couple of weeks. Of course these strike groups are also potentially subject to attack themselves every couple of weeks; KE cuts both ways.

Isaac Kuo: The various sides move their chess pieces around the Solar System, hoping to gain some advantageous position in case of an outbreak of hostilities.

The best defensive 'chess pieces' might be unmanned kinetic interceptors that are prepositioned along approach trajectories (although depending on orbital mechanics and delta-V, this might not work any better than launching them at need). If they can be maneuvered onto the track of an approaching fleet, they'll be able to strike hard while expending little delta-V of their own.

Maybe the long term weapons are robot solar-powered ion jets that latch onto small interplanetary objects (< 1 ton) and gradually nudge them onto potential attack trajectories. Or, shatter a small asteroid with a nuke, and attach mass-produced booster units to the spreading cloud of ammunition. If there are any asteroid mining ops, they already have lots of rocks to throw. (ed note: refer to the mention of "Spaceguard")

Jonathan Cresswell-Jones

Jonathan Cresswell-Jones: The superior force then has the option to pursue, or simply force the inferior one to run away long enough that it can't get home — if you run out of fuel moving at 60 km/s, you're on your way to Arcturus.

The obvious strategy is to run away in a safe direction. A greatly superior force coming from multiple directions could force a confrontation, but this is implies an extreme disparity in force strengths. Given such a disparity, it is plausibly obvious to both sides what the outcome of the battle would be. The inferior force could plausibly just surrender rather than pointlessly fighting to the death.

Jonathan Cresswell-Jones: Possibly the main design difference between merchant craft and war craft is that merchies are built to slow down and dock, warships to strike.

I imagine the main difference would be sensor and command systems. A merchant craft doesn't even need a crew or much of an onboard AI. Light speed delays don't matter because the only time they need a tight feedback loop is when they're within a "friendly" planetary system.

In contrast, a warship fleet needs to have sophisticated integral decision-making capabilities. This plausibly means on board crew although it could mean sophisticated AI. Light speed delay concerns dictate that the fleet needs to have its own sensor systems also. While the "sensor net" is good enough for strategic maneuvering, the fleet needs real-time information in a battle.

Also, a warship may have superior maneuvering capabilities. A merchant ship can live with just a single low thrust rocket. It never needs to make emergency maneuvers to dodge projectiles. On the other hand, it's desirable to limit the ship's hull to low thrust levels to minimize dead weight. In contrast, a warship could have a high thrust rocket, or a multi-mode rocket, or auxiliary rockets to facilitate high thrust maneuvers. It may have a beefier hull to deal with high thrust stresses. This depends on whether high thrust capability is militarily significant, of course.

Jonathan Cresswell-Jones: The best defensive 'chess pieces' might be unmanned kinetic interceptors that are prepositioned along approach trajectories.

You can simply launch them at need. In fact, if there are no enemy forces patrolling your sector, you may be able to afford to BUILD THEM at need.

But you misunderstand the idea of the "close blockade". The idea is to patrol all potential trouble spot sectors so you don't have to wait weeks or months before reacting to a situation. Your expeditionary fleets are already in place to react immediately to the outbreak of hostilities.

Isaac Kuo

Isaac Kuo: The obvious strategy is to run away in a safe direction.

Well, the point was that if the defender gets driven to fuel exhaustion, there is no safe direction; you can't slow down. Maybe another friendly force (or negotiated neutral) could match velocities and rescue you, but unless they were set up for it in advance, it'd be tricky.

Now, here's where a high-KE kamikaze fleet has a problem — if the defender sidesteps somehow, the attacker may not be able to decelerate, come back, and resume the fight.

Isaac Kuo: But you misunderstand the idea of the "close blockade". The idea is to patrol all potential trouble spot sectors so you don't have to wait weeks or months before reacting to a situation.

Isn't that a division in detail, though? Of course, a player doesn't have to place fleets in all sectors. Each player would tend to 'patrol' the regions that they had vital interests in, and would have to think hard about committing force to others.

The lack of any stealth is a curious aspect. You can't sneak up on an opponent; if you redeploy some of your warships to gain local superiority over Player X's forces at one spot, everyone sees them moving into position. Depending on how predictable combat is (i.e., a 2-to-1 superiority means the weaker side is wiped out at little cost), simply sending more warships to one area could force a weaker, neutral player to either match the upgrade by dispatching their own reinforcements; start a fight immediately at even odds; sit tight and stare you down despite the new odds that would allow you to win handily if you start a fight; or withdraw. If there are three or more players' forces in one spot, then diplomacy/treachery will be decisive. "Oh, by the way, these arriving forces aren't to attack B — I just made peace with B this morning. They're to attack you."

On the other hand, "weapons outstripping defenses" implies a non-Lanchester equation: i.e., if 100 A units engage 50 B units, maybe there are only 50 A's left alive after the (very short) battle, not the 90 A's you'd expect if the units had some staying power. No stealth for moving attacks, but surprise treachery attacks would be deadly.

If Earth's balkanized as per James' post, then there could be several major Earth-based players who have large production and military capability, but are a long way from the outer system's points of interest. Suppose one Earth player has interests in the Unobtanium Mines of Io. If they station a permanent force there, it needs to be strong enough to defeat local forces, but it's too far away from home to count as a defensive force for the player if their interests are threatened back home — it's a write-off in some ways. Too many like that, and you might get attacked by another Earth player with more strength available at hand. If you send a mobile force, then it too must be (a) strong enough to not be a tempting target for an ambush en route by a hostile player; (b) still weak enough to afford to be 'out of play' for a year or two.

It might be cheaper to pay tribute to a distant local power, rather than to keep a squadron there. This is a bit like the 19th-cen Barbary Coast, where the US Congress voted for years to pay tribute to local rulers, rather than to build and deploy a more expensive navy. If the local-power player gets too greedy, they get spanked.

Jonathan Cresswell-Jones

James Nicoll: Am I right in thinking that this makes for an extremely lossy battlefield? Ten men go in, half a man comes out sort of thing?

Well, since every unit in a battle can be shooting, it'll approximate the Lanchester square law (your losses are inversely proportional to your initial strength) - much like classical naval war. So basically I'd think that would be a good source of analogies. >(The main difference being the "see the enemy coming six months in advance" part, so no surprise attacks.)

Russell Wallace

James Nicoll: Am I right in thinking that this makes for an extremely lossy battlefield? Ten men go in, half a man comes out sort of thing?

Alternately, you don't send in your men until you have a hundred to the enemy's ten. Lots of staring across No Man's Space, feints to try and convince the enemy to misdeploy his forces, very occasional concentrated attacks against targets the enemy has left inadequately guarded.

Having an edge in strategic mobility is going to be important; the enemy can see your forces converging on a particular target, but can't quite do anything about it. Except, perhaps, counterattack somewhere else.

Having a 2:1 edge in strategic mobility is huge. You can concentrate your forces for an attack on any particular target, take or destroy it before reinforcements arrive, and still get back home (or wherever) ahead of the counterattack the enemy launched while you were away.

Both of the above assume that mobile forces contribute substantially to local defenses. If relatively immobile weapons platforms (surface or orbital) win over armed spaceships representing a much larger investment, you're back to stalemate.

Tactics: If one side has a clear advantage in both tactical mobility and weapons range, they win. On the other hand, some weapons don't allow for an absolute range advantage. And the defender will probably have the edge in tactical mobility, as he starts with full tanks and can burn it all.

Balkanized Earth may well be the battlefield of choice. If it's balkanized, even spaceborne parties to a conflict will likely find proxies there, and stealth and surprise are almost certainly still possible in the place crowded with friends, enemies, neutrals, oceans, jungles, mountains, and cities. Plus, it's likely to be the single greatest concentration of wealth in the Solar System until the time comes to dismantle it for raw materials, so un-balkanizing the Earth in one's own favor is, if possible, a winning strategy.

John Schilling

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