## Sample Delta-V Budgets

- Launch from Terra's surface to LEO—this not only requires an increase of velocity from 0 to 7.8 km/s, but also typically 1.5–2 km/s for atmospheric drag and gravity drag
- Re-entry from LEO—the delta-v required is the orbital maneuvering burn to lower perigee into the atmosphere, atmospheric drag takes care of the rest.

### Stationkeeping

Maneuver | Average delta-v per year [m/s] | Maximum per year [m/s] |
---|---|---|

Drag compensation in 400–500 km LEO | < 25 | < 100 |

Drag compensation in 500–600 km LEO | < 5 | < 25 |

Drag compensation in > 600 km LEO | < 7.5 | |

Station-keeping in geostationary orbit | 50–55 | |

Station-keeping in L_{1}/L_{2} | 30–100 | |

Station-keeping in lunar orbit | 0–400 | |

Attitude control (3-axis) | 2–6 | |

Spin-up or despin | 5–10 | |

Stage booster separation | 5–10 | |

Momentum-wheel unloading | 2–6 |

### Terra–Luna space

Delta-v needed to move inside Terra–Luna system (speeds lower than escape velocity) are given in km/s. This table assumes that the Oberth effect is being used—this is possible with high thrust chemical propulsion but not with current (as of 2011) electrical propulsion.

The return to LEO figures assume that a heat shield and aerobraking/aerocapture is used to reduce the speed by up to 3.2 km/s. The heat shield increases the mass, possibly by 15%. Where a heat shield is not used the higher from LEO Delta-v figure applies, the extra propellant is likely to be heavier than a heat shield. LEO-Ken refers to a low earth orbit with an inclination to the equator of 28 degrees, corresponding to a launch from Kennedy Space Center. LEO-Eq is an equatorial orbit.

(ed note: **EML-1** is considered to be the best place for an orbital propellant depot. )

ΔV km/s from/to | LEO-Ken | LEO-Eq | GEO | EML-1 | EML-2 | EML-4/5 | LLO | Luna | C3=0 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Terra | 9.3–10 | ||||||||

Low Earth orbit (LEO-Ken) | 4.24 | 4.33 | 3.77 | 3.43 | 3.97 | 4.04 | 5.93 | 3.22 | |

Low Earth orbit (LEO-Eq) | 4.24 | 3.90 | 3.77 | 3.43 | 3.99 | 4.04 | 5.93 | 3.22 | |

Geostationary orbit (GEO) | 2.06 | 1.63 | 1.38 | 1.47 | 1.71 | 2.05 | 3.92 | 1.30 | |

Lagrangian point 1 (EML-1) ( Orbital Propellant Depot) | 0.77 | 0.77 | 1.38 | 0.14 | 0.33 | 0.64 | 2.52 | 0.14 | |

Lagrangian point 2 (EML-2) | 0.33 | 0.33 | 1.47 | 0.14 | 0.34 | 0.64 | 2.52 | 0.14 | |

Lagrangian point 4/5 (EML-4/5) | 0.84 | 0.98 | 1.71 | 0.33 | 0.34 | 0.98 | 2.58 | 0.43 | |

Low lunar orbit (LLO) | 1.31 | 1.31 | 2.05 | 0.64 | 0.65 | 0.98 | 1.87 | 1.40 | |

Luna | 2.74 | 2.74 | 3.92 | 2.52 | 2.53 | 2.58 | 1.87 | 2.80 | |

Terra escape velocity (C3=0) | 0.00 | 0.00 | 1.30 | 0.14 | 0.14 | 0.43 | 1.40 | 2.80 |

### Terra–Luna space—low thrust

Current electric ion thrusters produce a very low thrust (milli-newtons, yielding a small fraction of a *g),* so the Oberth effect cannot normally be used. This results in the journey requiring a higher delta-*v* and frequently a large increase in time compared to a high thrust chemical rocket. Nonetheless, the high specific impulse of electrical thrusters may significantly reduce the cost of the flight. For missions in the Terra–Luna system, an increase in journey time from days to months could be unacceptable for human space flight, but differences in flight time for interplanetary flights are less significant and could be favorable.

The table below presents delta-*v'*s in km/s, normally accurate to 2 significant figures and will be the same in both directions, unless aerobreaking is used as described in the high thrust section above.

From | To | delta-v (km/s) |
---|---|---|

Low Earth orbit (LEO) | Earth–Moon Lagrangian 1 (EML-1) | 7.0 |

Low Earth orbit (LEO) | Geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) | 6.0 |

Low Earth orbit (LEO) | Low Lunar orbit (LLO) | 8.0 |

Low Earth orbit (LEO) | Sun–Earth Lagrangian 1 (SEL-1) | 7.4 |

Low Earth orbit (LEO) | Sun–Earth Lagrangian 2 (SEL-2) | 7.4 |

Earth–Moon Lagrangian 1 (EML-1) | Low Lunar orbit (LLO) | 0.60–0.80 |

Earth–Moon Lagrangian 1 (EML-1) | Geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) | 1.4–1.75 |

Earth–Moon Lagrangian 1 (EML-1) | Sun-Earth Lagrangian 2 (SEL-2) | 0.30–0.40 |

### Interplanetary

The spacecraft is assumed to be using chemical propulsion and the Oberth effect.

From | To | Delta-v (km/s) |
---|---|---|

LEO | Mars transfer orbit | 4.3 |

Terra escape velocity (C3=0) | Mars transfer orbit | 0.6 |

Mars transfer orbit | Mars capture orbit | 0.9 |

Mars capture orbit | Deimos transfer orbit | 0.2 |

Deimos transfer orbit | Deimos surface | 0.7 |

Deimos transfer orbit | Phobos transfer orbit | 0.3 |

Phobos transfer orbit | Phobos surface | 0.5 |

Mars capture orbit | Low Mars orbit | 1.4 |

Low Mars orbit | Phobos | 1.4 |

Low Mars orbit | Deimos | 1.9 |

Low Mars orbit | Mars surface | 4.1 |

EML-1 | Mars transfer orbit | 0.74 |

EML-2 | Mars transfer orbit | <1.0 |

Mars transfer orbit | Low Mars Orbit | 2.7 |

Terra escape velocity (C3=0) | Closest NEO | 0.8–2.0 |

(ed note: From EML1, Mars transfer costs 0.74km/s. Mars capture costs 0.9km/s and the move to low Mars orbit costs 1.4km/s. Trip total is just over 3km/s.

Put an orbital propellant depot in Low Mars Orbit, and supply it with ice from Phobos and/or Deimos)

According to Marsden and Ross, "The energy levels of the Sun–Earth L_{1} and L_{2} points differ from those of the Earth–Moon system by only 50 m/s (as measured by maneuver velocity)."

### Near-Earth objects

Near-Earth objects are asteroids that are within the orbit of Mars. The delta-*v* to return from them are usually quite small, sometimes as low as 60 m/s, using aerobraking in Earth's atmosphere. However, heat shields are required for this, which add mass and constrain spacecraft geometry. The orbital phasing can be problematic; once rendezvous has been achieved, low delta-*v* return windows can be fairly far apart (more than a year, often many years), depending on the body.

However, the delta-*v* to reach near-Earth objects is usually over 3.8 km/s, which is still less than the delta-*v* to reach the Moon's surface. In general bodies that are much further away or closer to the Sun than Earth have more frequent windows for travel, but usually require larger delta-*v*s.

My text for this sermon is the set of delta v maps, especially the second of them, at the still ever-growing Atomic Rockets site. These maps show the combined speed changes, delta v in the biz, that you need to carry out common missions in Earth and Mars orbital space, such as going from low Earth orbit to lunar orbit and back.

Here is a table showing some of the missions from the delta v maps, plus a few others that I have guesstimated myself:

Patrol Missions Mission Delta V Low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynch and return 5700 m/s powered

(plus 2500 m/s aerobraking)LEO to lunar surface (one way) 5500 m/s

(all powered)LEO to lunar L4/L5 and return

(estimated)4800 m/s powered

(plus 3200 m/s aerobraking)LEO to low lunar orbit and return 4600 m/s powered

(plus 3200 m/s aerobraking)Geosynch to low lunar orbit and return

(estimated)4200 m/s

(all powered)Lunar orbit to lunar surface and return 3200 m/s

(all powered)LEO inclination change by 40 deg

(estimated)5400 m/s

(all powered)LEO to circle the Moon and return retrograde

(estimated)3200 m/s powered

(plus 3200 m/s aerobraking)Mars surface to Deimos (one way) 6000 m/s

(all powered)LEO to low Mars orbit (LMO) and return 6100 m/s powered

(plus 5500 m/s aerobraking)Entries marked

"(estimated)"are not in source table; delta v estimates are mine. ("Plus x m/s aerobraking"means ordinarily the engine would be responsible for that delta V as well, but it can be obtained for free via aerobraking. E.g., LEO to geosynch and return costs 8,200 m/s with no aerobraking)Two things stand out in this list. One is how helpful aerobraking can be if you are inbound toward Earth, or any world with a substantial atmosphere. Many craft in orbital space will be true aerospace vehicles, built to burn off excess speed by streaking through the upper atmosphere at Mach 25 up to Mach 35.

But what

reallystands out is how easily within the reach of chemical fuels these missions are. Chemfuel has a poor reputation among space geeks because it barely manages the most important mission of all, from Earth to low orbit. Once in orbit, however, chemfuel has acceptable fuel economy for speeds of a few kilometers per second, and rocket engines put out enormous thrust for their weight.(ed note: with 4,400 m/s exhaust velocity oxygen-hydrogen chemical rockets:

3100 m/s Δ

Vrequires a very reasonable mass ratio of 2 {50% of wet mass is fuel}6100 m/s Δ

Vrequires a mass ratio of 4 {75% fuel} which is right at the upper limit of economical mass ratios )In fact, transport class rocket ships working routes in orbital space can have mass proportions not far different from transport aircraft flying the longest nonstop global routes.

A jetliner taking off on a maximum-range flight may carry 40 percent of its total weight in fuel, with 45 percent for the plane itself and 15 percent in payload. A moonship, the one that gets you to lunar orbit, might be 60 percent propellant on departure from low Earth orbit, with 25 percent for the spacecraft and the same 15 percent payload. The lander that takes you to the lunar surface and back gets away with 55 percent propellant, 25 percent for the spacecraft, and 20 percent payload.

(These figures are for hydrogen and oxygen as propellants, currently somewhat out of favor because liquid hydrogen is bulky, hard to work with, and boils away so readily. But H2-O2 is the best performer, and may be available on the Moon if lunar ice appears in concentrations that can be shoveled into a hopper. Increase propellant load by about half for kerosene and oxygen, or 'storable' propellants.)

(ed note: so the point is that chemical rockets are perfectly adequate for missions to Mars or cis-Lunar space provided there is a network of orbital propellant depots suppled by in-situ resource allocation. An orbital propellant depot in LEO supplied by Lunar ice would do the trick. An orbital depot in Low Mars Orbit supplied by Deimos ice would also be very useful.)

**ADVENTURES IN ORBITAL SPACE**by Rick Robinson (2015)

## Spaceship Handbook Mission Table

This is a table of mission parameters calculated by Jon C. Rogers for the book Spaceship Handbook. It lists **round-trip missions** starting at Terra's surface, traveling to and landing on the destination planet *(or at low orbit for Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune; due to the fact that the atmospheric pressure of these planets will crush your spacecraft like a cheap beer can)* then lifting off, traveling back to and landing on Terra.

I repeat, this is for **round** trips, not one-way trips. For instance, the entries for Luna are the trip Terra to Luna then Luna to Terra. Or Luna to Terra then Terra to Luna.

Mr. Rogers is interested in comparing the different trajectory types, so the focus is on splitting the mission into standard blocks, rather than optimizing for minimum delta V. An optimized missiom will require less delta V than what is listed in the table (approximately 5% to 10% less delta V). As a verification, Mr. Rogers used his mathematical model to calculate a mission to Luna and compared it to the actual data reported by NASA for the Apollo 11 mission. His model said delta V of 16.905 km/s which is within 3% of the NASA Apollo 11 delta V of 16.479 km/s.

Six trajectories are listed, three impulse types and three constant acceleration brachistochrone types. "Impulse" means the spacecraft makes an initial burn then coasts for months.

**Impulse trajectory I-1** is pretty close to a Hohmann (minimum delta V / maximum time) orbit, but with a slightly higher delta V.

**Impulse trajectory I-2** is in-between I-1 and I-3 *(it is equivalent to an elliptical orbit from Mercury to Pluto, the biggest elliptical orbit that will fit inside the solar system)*.

**Impulse trajectory I-3** is near the transition between delta V levels for high impulse trajectories and low brachistochrone trajectories *(it is a hyperbolic solar escape orbit plus 30 km/s)*.

**Brachistochrone** (maximum delta V / minimum time) trajectories are labeled by their level of constant acceleration: 0.01 g, 0.10 g, and 1.0 g.

The transit times are important for figuring things like how much food and life support endurance must be carried, mission radiation total dosage, and damage to astronauts due to prolonged microgravity exposure. In fact, if you have a hard limit on, say, total radiation dosage, you can examine the table and rule out any mission trajectory whose transit time exceeds it.

Destination | Impulse | Brachistochrone | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

I-1 | I-2 | I-3 | 0.01g | 0.10g | 1.00g | |

☿ Mercury | 48,740 (8m) | 75,210 (2.5m) | 106,230 (2m) | 397,000 (33d) | 1,205,000 (13d) | 3,794,000 (4d) |

♀ Venus | 30,270 (9.6m) | 63,330 (1m) | 98,620 (21d) | 281,000 (19d) | 815,000 (8d) | 2,552,000 (3d) |

⊕ Terra | - | - | - | - | - | - |

☾ Luna | 16,480 (9d) | - | - | - | - | 260,000 (7h) |

♂ Mars | 29,930 (17m) | 52,930 (2m) | 94,110 (1.5m) | 370,000 (30d) | 1,115,000 (12d) | 3,508,000 (4d) |

⚶ Vesta | 30,300 (2y2m) | 46,670 (5.5m) | 92,560 (3.8m) | 578,000 (54d) | 1,791,000 (20d) | 5,654,000 (7d) |

⚳ Ceres | 33,430 (2y7m) | 44,730 (7.5m) | 92,160 (5m) | 655,000 (63d) | 2,040,000 (23d) | 6,441,000 (8d) |

⚴ Pallas | 33,110 (2y7m) | 44,320 (7.5m) | 91,770 (5m) | 656,000 (63d) | 2,043,000 (23d) | 6,450,000 (8d) |

♃ Jupiter | 69,990 (5y5m) | 72,690 (1y10m) | 118,010 (1y) | 1,000,000 (3.5m) | 3,142,000 (36d) | 9,930,000 (12d) |

Io | 76,220 (5y6m) | 70,760 (1y10m) | 78,980 (1y) | 1,000,000 (3.5m) | 3,143,000 (36d) | 9,933,000 (12d) |

Europa | 67,390 (5y6m) | 61,850 (1y10m) | 71,490 (1y) | 1,001,000 (3.5m) | 3,144,000 (36d) | 9,935,000 (12d) |

Ganymede | 61,880 (5y5m) | 56,250 (1y10m) | 67,130 (1y) | 1,001,000 (3.5m) | 3,145,000 (36d) | 9,938,000 (12d) |

Callisto | 55,400 (5y5m) | 49,640 (1y10m) | 62,190 (1y) | 1,002,000 (3.5m) | 3,147,000 (36d) | 9,945,000 (12d) |

♄ Saturn | 57,690 (12y1m) | 55,770 (4y11m) | 108,680 (2y3m) | 1,420,000 (5m) | 4,477,000 (52d) | 14,153,000 (17d) |

Enceladus | 65,850 (12y1m) | 59,880 (4y11m) | 67,810 (2y3m) | 1,421,000 (5m) | 4,477,000 (52d) | 14,155,000 (17d) |

Tetheys | 62,910 (12y1m) | 56,860 (4y11m) | 65,600 (2y3m) | 1,420,000 (5m) | 4,478,000 (52d) | 14,155,000 (17d) |

Dione | 59,810 (12y1m) | 53,660 (4y11m) | 63,270 (2y3m) | 1,420,000 (5m) | 4,478,000 (52d) | 14,155,000 (17d) |

Rhea | 56,310 (12y1m) | 50,010 (4y11m) | 60,780 (2y3m) | 1,421,000 (5m) | 4,478,000 (52d) | 14,156,000 (17d) |

Titan | 49,670 (12y1m) | 42,750 (4y11m) | 56,660 (2y3m) | 1,421,000 (5m) | 4,479,000 (52d) | 14,160,000 (17d) |

Iapetus | 45,010 (12y1m) | 37,590 (4y11m) | 53,070 (2y3m) | 1,422,000 (5m) | 4,483,000 (52d) | 14,173,000 (17d) |

♅ Uranus | 50,110 (32y) | 44,830 (15y6m) | 56,420 (5y2m) | 2,069,00 (8m) | 6,532,00 (76d) | 20,652,000 (24d) |

Ariel | 49,910 (32y) | 44,650 (15y6m) | 56,150 (5y2m) | 2,069,000 (8m) | 6,532,00 (76d) | 20,653,000 (24d) |

Umbriel | 48,010 (32y) | 42,550 (15y6m) | 54,870 (5y2m) | 2,069,000 (8m) | 6,532,000 (76d) | 20,653,000 (24d) |

Titania | 46,180 (32y) | 40,410 (15y6m) | 53,800 (5y2m) | 2,069,000 (8m) | 6,532,000 (76d) | 20,654,000 (24d) |

Oberon | 45,040 (32y) | 38,930 (15y6m) | 53,220 (5y2m) | 2,069,000 (8m) | 6,532,000 (76d) | 20,654,000 (24d) |

♆ Neptune | 51,370 (61y3m) | 48,420 (36y) | 57,470 (8y5m) | 2,613,000 (10m) | 8,257,000 (96d) | 26,108,000 (31d) |

Triton | 48,090 (61y3m) | 44,780 (36y) | 56,030 (8y5m) | 2,614,000 (10m) | 8,257,000 (96d) | 26,109,000 (31d) |

Nereid | 40,620 (61y3m) | 36,300 (36y) | 50,400 (8y5m) | 2,615,000 (10m) | 7,262,000 (96d) | 26,125,000 (31d) |

♇ Pluto | 39,810 (90y11m) | 39,810 (88y9m) | 50,140 (11y4m) | 3,009,000 (11m) | 9,508,000 (111d) | 30,063,000 (35d) |

Charon | 39,680 (90y11m) | 39,680 (88y9m) | 50,080 (11y4m) | 3,009,000 (11m) | 9,508,000 (111d) | 30,063,000 (35d) |

Using the mission table above, Mr. Rogers took a list of major propulsion systems and calculated which ones were up to the task of peforming said missions. Note that Mr. Rogers values for the exhaust v3elocity of the propulsion systems might differ slightly from the ones I have on the mission list.

**1 Stage, Max Payload**is 33% payload, 66% propellant, mass ratio of 2.94**1 Stage, Min Payload**is 11% payload, 89% propellant, mass ratio of 9.1**Multi Stage**is 1.6% payload, 98.4% propellant, mass ratio of 62.5

Cross reference the mass ratio, propulsion system, and mission trajectory. If there is a colored box at the intersection, the propulsion system can perform that mission.

*Example:* For a 1 Stage minimum payload (mass ratio of 9.1), using a Nuclear Fission Gas Core reactor, with a Mars Impulse trajectory I-2, the presence of a hot pink box says that propulsion system is capable of that mission. But it is not capable of performing a Mars Constant Brachistochrone 0.01g mission.

## Erik Max Francis' Mission Tables

Below are a series of tables for Hohmann transfer delta V requirments. Unlike the above table, they are for **one-way trips** to various destinations. For instance, the above table will give requirements for a **Terra-Mars-Terra** mission, but the tables below will give requirements for a **Terra-Mars** mission.

The tables assume that an orbit for each of the bodies is 100 km altitude *(even for pointlessly tiny ones like Phobos and Deimos)*, and for surface launches it is presumed that all the bodies have no atmosphere *(not true for, say, Titan)*.

The tables were created by Erik Max Francis' amazing Hohmann orbit calculator and the easy to use Python programming language *(sample program here and here)*.

**Be told: these calculations are not NASA-grade because they use certain simplifying assumptions.** They are good enough for a science fiction author but not for an actual spaceflight. The assumptions are:

All bodies are spherical, and rotate with constant angular velocity.

All orbits are circular, with another body or a gravitating point at the center (except for toplevel objects like the Sun); thus all bodies orbit with constant angular velocity.

All orbits are coplanar.

All orbits are prograde. This affects only a few major worlds (e.g., Triton) and numerous, tiny, outer Solar System distant satellites. The rotation of objects could possibly be retrograde, since that is only indicated by means of a negative period.

All bodies have negligible size compared to their orbits, and all suborbits have negligible size compared to their parent orbits.

Only objects with actual proper names are included in BOTEC's database. Even objects such as asteroids and satellites with provisional names are not included here. No comets, whether given proper names, or not, however, are included. This would not be hard to change.

For all orbital transfers, it is assumed that the durations of application of deltavee are much shorter than the duration of the flight time. That is, burns are treated as instantaneous (that is, orbital transfers are "impulsive"). This is a good approximation in most cases (even with chemical rockets), but not with more exotic drive systems like ion drives or solar/magnetic sails.

### Delta V Required for Travel Using Hohmann Orbits

### LEGEND

- Start and destination planets are labeled along axes, it does not matter which axis you use for start or destination.
- In both sections,
**"y"**means "years",**"m"**means "months",**"d"**means "days", and**"h"**means "hours" - Values below the diagonal in
**blue**: First value is delta V (meters per second) needed for a Hohmann transfer from orbit around one world to orbit around the other, landing on neither. Second value is the transit time for the transfer. - Values above the diagonal in
**red**: First value is delta V (meters per second) needed for a Hohmann transfer between the worlds,*including*take-off and landing (If either is a gas giant, a 100 kilometer orbit is used instead of the planet's surface). Second value is the Synodic period*(i.e., frequency of Hohmann launch windows)*. - Diagonal values in
**gold**are delta V's needed to take off from the surface of a world and go into circular orbit around it, or to land from a circular orbit.

**Example:** Hohmann transfer from Mars to Jupiter (or from Jupiter to Mars)

Find the "Mars" row and move along it until you reach the "Jupiter" column. The cell is above the diagonal, printed in red letters. The first number says that if you lift-off from Mars, travel to Jupiter in a Hohmann trajectory, and land (meaning enter a 100 km circular orbit), the spacecraft will expend 25,265 meters per second of delta-V (same delta-V if you start at Jupiter and travel to Mars). The second number says the launch window for the Mars-Jupiter Hohmann opens every two years and 2.8 months (same for Jupiter-Mars Hohmann).

Now, find the "Jupiter" row and move along it until you reach the "Mars" column. The cell is below the diagonal, printed in blue letters. The first number says if you start in a low Mars orbit and travel to a low Jupiter orbit in a Hohmann trajectory, the spacecraft will expend 21,956 m/s of delta-V (same delta-V if you start at Jupiter and travel to Mars). The second number says the Hohmann transfer will take 3 years and 1 month to reach its destination.

As a side note, this style of table apparently originated with Jerry Pournelle in his science essay Those Pesky Belters and Their Torchships. By which I mean values below the diagonal are orbit-to-orbit, values above the diagonal are surface-to-surface, and the diagonal is takoff or landing.

#### Solar System

Be aware of the simplifying assumptions. Meaning that the values here are close approximations but not exact. If you want exact you will need NASA-grade trajectory software.

Mercury | Venus | Earth | Mars | Vesta | Juno | Eugenia | Ceres | Pallas | Jupiter | Saturn | Uranus | Neptune | Pluto | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mercury | 2,945 | 19,852 4.7m | 23,523 3.8m | 23,143 3.3m | 24,486 3.1m | 24,991 3.1m | 25,050 3.1m | 25,059 3.0m | 25,094 3.0m | 36,121 2.9m | 30,200 2.9m | 26,548 2.9m | 27,176 2.9m | 24,200 2.9m |

Venus | 9,524 2.5m | 7,265 | 21,703 1y, 7.2m | 18,542 11.0m | 19,316 8.9m | 19,960 8.6m | 20,043 8.6m | 20,078 8.5m | 20,114 8.5m | 33,372 7.8m | 27,477 7.5m | 23,913 7.4m | 24,620 7.4m | 21,483 7.4m |

Earth | 13,094 3.5m | 6,887 4.8m | 7,847 | 16,540 2y, 1.6m | 16,368 1y, 4.6m | 17,035 1y, 3.6m | 17,124 1y, 3.4m | 17,170 1y, 3.3m | 17,204 1y, 3.3m | 31,642 1y, 1.1m | 25,705 1y, 0.4m | 22,169 1y, 0.1m | 22,918 1y, 0.1m | 19,674 1y |

Mars | 16,876 5.6m | 7,887 7.1m | 5,748 8.5m | 3,502 | 7,525 3y, 10.8m | 8,323 3y, 3.7m | 8,437 3y, 2.8m | 8,524 3y, 2.2m | 8,555 3y, 2.1m | 25,265 2y, 2.8m | 19,694 2y, 0.1m | 16,475 1y, 11.1m | 17,390 1y, 10.8m | 14,023 1y, 10.7m |

Vesta | 21,371 9.7m | 11,832 11.5m | 8,756 1y, 1.1m | 4,041 1y, 4.2m | 234 | 1,167 21y, 8.9m | 1,312 18y, 11.9m | 1,544 17y, 2.6m | 1,544 17y, 0.2m | 20,966 5y, 2.7m | 15,834 4y, 1.6m | 12,960 3y, 9.5m | 14,059 3y, 8.5m | 10,527 37, 8.2m |

Juno | 21,978 11.3m | 12,580 1y, 1.2m | 9,528 1y, 2.9m | 4,950 1y, 6.2m | 933 1y, 11.9m | 77 | 233 149y, 11.9m | 625 82y, 8.0m | 578 78y, 3.9m | 20,367 6y, 10.6m | 15,253 5y, 1.3m | 12,423 4y, 7.1m | 13,558 4y, 5.7m | 9,969 4y, 5.2m |

Eugenia | 22,075 11.6m | 12,700 1y, 1.6m | 9,654 1y, 3.2m | 5,102 1y, 6.5m | 1,124 2y, 0.3m | 127 2y, 2.5m | 44 | 496 184y, 2.2m | 443 163y, 10.9m | 20,264 7y, 2.6m | 15,152 5y, 3.5m | 12,328 4y, 8.9m | 13,469 4y, 7.4m | 9,869 4y, 6.8m |

Ceres | 21,863 11.9m | 12,514 1y, 1.8m | 9,477 1y, 3.5m | 4,963 1y, 6.8m | 1,116 2y, 0.6m | 279 2y, 2.9m | 191 2y, 3.3m | 320 | 755 1488y, 10.0m | 20,172 7y, 6.1m | 15,041 5y, 5.3m | 12,216 4y, 10.4m | 13,360 4y, 8.8m | 9,751 4y, 8.2m |

Pallas | 21,943 11.9m | 12,596 1y, 1.9m | 9,558 1y, 3.5m | 5,041 1y, 6.9m | 1,160 2y, 0.7m | 269 2y, 2.9m | 172 2y, 3.3m | 233 2y, 3.6m | 242 | 20,175 7y, 6.6m | 15,051 5y, 5.6m | 12,229 4y, 10.6m | 13,374 4y, 9.0m | 9,765 4y, 8.4m |

Jupiter | 33,159 2y, 4.0m | 26,048 2y, 6.6m | 24,192 2y, 8.8m | 21,956 3y, 1.0m | 20,813 3y, 8.2m | 20,318 3y, 10.9m | 20,252 3y, 11.3m | 19,933 3y, 11.7m | 19,982 3y, 11.8m | 42,530 | 28,237 19y, 9.6m | 24,085 13y, 9.9m | 24,765 12y, 9.5m | 20,492 12y, 5.6m |

Saturn | 27,239 5y, 6.8m | 20,156 5y, 10.2 | 18,259 6y, 1.0m | 16,392 6y, 6.5m | 15,682 7y, 3.6m | 15,205 7y, 7.0m | 15,140 7y, 7.5m | 14,806 7y, 8.0m | 14,862 7y, 8.1m | 28,237 10y, 0.6m | 25,495 | 16,875 45y, 9.8m | 17,573 36y, 2.1m | 12,787 33y, 8.4m |

Uranus | 23,588 15y, 3.9m | 16,594 15y, 8.7m | 14,726 16y, 0.6m | 13,177 16y, 8.1m | 12,809 17y, 8.4m | 12,374 18y, 0.9m | 12,316 18y, 1.7m | 11,982 18y, 2.4m | 12,041 18y, 2.5m | 24,085 21y, 3.8m | 16,875 27y, 3.6m | 15,082 | 13,153 171y, 12.0m | 7,763 127y, 4.9m |

Neptune | 24,217 29y, 8.2m | 17,302 30y, 2.1m | 15,476 30y, 7.0m | 14,093 31y, 4.3m | 13,908 32y, 7.4m | 13,510 33y, 0.9m | 13,457 33y, 1.9m | 13,126 33y, 2.7m | 13,186 33y, 2.8m | 24,765 36y, 12.0m | 17,573 44y, 1.2m | 13,153 61y, 1.1m | 16,623 | 8,116 491y, 5.0m |

Pluto | 20,424 44y, 5.3m | 13,349 45y | 11,415 45y, 5.6m | 9,909 46y, 4.3m | 9,558 47y, 9.4m | 9,101 48y, 3.7m | 9,038 48y, 4.9m | 8,697 48y, 5.8m | 8,758 48y, 5.9m | 19,670 52y, 8.9m | 11,959 60y, 8.2m | 6,924 79y, 4.7m | 7,268 102y, 4.9m | 802 |

Be aware of the simplifying assumptions. Meaning that the values here are close approximations but not exact. If you want exact you will need NASA-grade trajectory software.

### Legend

**Mission:**origin planet - destination planet**Orbit ΔV:**Orbit-to-Orbit. Delta-V cost a spacecraft has to pay for Hohmann starting in low orbit at origin and ending in low orbit at destination**Orbit T:**Orbit-to-Orbit. Transit time for a spacecraft in a Hohmann starting and ending in low orbit around the two planets. Y=years, M=months**SYN:**Synodic period, (long) delay between one Hohmann launch window and the next**ANG:**Orbital phase angle between origin and destination planets at Hohmann launch window (see diagram above)**Insert ΔV:**Delta-V cost for trans-Destination insertion burn at start of Hohmann trajectory**Arrive ΔV:**Delta-V cost for Destination orbital insertion (arrival) burn at end of Hohmann trajectory**Surf ΔV:**Surface-to-Surface. Delta-V total cost for lift-off from origin, Hohmann trajectory, then landing at destination**Rnd Orbit ΔV:**Delta-V total cost for Orbital**Round**Trip. Start at low orbit at origin, Hohmann to low orbit at destination, then Hohmann to low orbit at origin**Rnd Surf ΔV:**Delta-V total cost for Surface**Round**Trip. Lift-off from origin, Hohmann trajectory, land at destination, lift-off from destination, Hohmann trajectory, land at origin**Wait T:**Wait Time. For round trip, after spacecraft arrives at destination, amount of time ship**must**wait at destination until homeward Hohmann window opens**Rnd T:**Round Trip Time. Total time for round trip, including wait time at destination

MISSION | Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Orbit T | SYN | ANG | Insert ΔV (km/s) | Arrive ΔV (km/s) | Surf ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Surf ΔV (km/s) | Wait T | Rnd T |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mercury-Venus | 9.5 | 2.5m | 4.7m | 59.0° | 5.0 | 4.5 | 19.9 | 19.0 | 39.7 | 0.6m | 5.5m |

Mercury-Terra | 13.1 | 3.5m | 3.8m | 76.0° | 7.5 | 5.6 | 23.5 | 26.2 | 47.0 | 2.3m | 9.3m |

Mercury-Mars | 16.9 | 5.6m | 3.3m | 90.6° | 10.3 | 6.6 | 23.1 | 33.8 | 46.3 | 0.4m | 11.6m |

Mercury-Vesta | 21.4 | 9.7m | 3.1m | 100.1° | 12.5 | 8.9 | 24.5 | 42.7 | 49.0 | 6.1m | 2y, 1.4m |

Mercury-Juno | 22.0 | 11.3m | 3.1m | 102.0° | 13.0 | 9.0 | 25.0 | 44.0 | 50.0 | 6.5m | 2y, 5.1m |

Mercury-Eugenia | 22.1 | 11.6m | 3.1m | 102.3° | 13.1 | 9.0 | 25.1 | 44.2 | 50.1 | 7.1m | 2y, 6.4m |

Mercury-Ceres | 21.9 | 11.9m | 3.0m | 102.5° | 13.1 | 8.7 | 25.1 | 43.7 | 50.1 | 7.6m | 2y, 7.4m |

Mercury-Pallas | 21.9 | 11.9m | 3.0m | 102.6° | 13.1 | 8.8 | 25.1 | 43.9 | 50.2 | 7.7m | 2y, 7.5m |

Mercury-Jupiter | 33.2 | 2y, 4.0m | 2.9m | 109.1° | 15.0 | 18.2 | 36.1 | 66.3 | 72.2 | 1y, 10.8m | 6y, 6.8m |

Mercury-Saturn | 27.2 | 5y, 6.8m | 2.9m | 112.5° | 16.0 | 11.2 | 30.2 | 54.5 | 60.4 | 5y, 2.7m | 16y, 4.3m |

Mercury-Uranus | 23.6 | 15y, 3.9m | 2.9m | 114.4° | 16.7 | 6.9 | 26.5 | 47.2 | 53.1 | 14y, 10.5m | 45y, 6.3m |

Mercury-Neptune | 24.2 | 29y, 8.2m | 2.9m | 115.1° | 16.9 | 7.3 | 27.2 | 48.4 | 54.4 | 29y, 4.5m | 88y, 8.8m |

Mercury-Pluto | 20.4 | 44y, 5.3m | 2.9m | 115.4° | 17.0 | 3.4 | 24.2 | 40.8 | 48.4 | 43y, 11.6m | 132y, 10.1m |

MISSION | Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Orbit T | SYN | ANG | Insert ΔV (km/s) | Arrive ΔV (km/s) | Surf ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Surf ΔV (km/s) | Wait T | Rnd T |

Venus-Mercury | 9.5 | 2.5m | 4.7m | -129.2° | 4.5 | 5.0 | 19.9 | 19.0 | 39.7 | 1.5m | 6.5m |

Venus-Terra | 6.9 | 4.8m | 1y, 7.2m | 36.0° | 3.4 | 3.5 | 21.7 | 13.8 | 43.4 | 11.5m | 1y, 9.1m |

Venus-Mars | 7.9 | 7.1m | 11.0m | 66.0° | 4.5 | 3.4 | 18.5 | 15.8 | 37.1 | 1.3m | 1y, 3.6m |

Venus-Vesta | 11.8 | 11.5m | 8.9m | 85.0° | 6.0 | 5.9 | 19.3 | 23.7 | 38.6 | 5.8m | 2y, 4.8m |

Venus-Juno | 12.6 | 1y, 1.2m | 8.6m | 88.8° | 6.3 | 6.2 | 20.0 | 25.2 | 39.9 | 1.4m | 2y, 3.9m |

Venus-Eugenia | 12.7 | 1y, 1.6m | 8.6m | 89.4° | 6.4 | 6.3 | 20.0 | 25.4 | 40.1 | 0.7m | 2y, 3.8m |

Venus-Ceres | 12.5 | 1y, 1.8m | 8.5m | 89.8° | 6.4 | 6.1 | 20.1 | 25.0 | 40.2 | 0.0m | 2y, 3.7m |

Venus-Pallas | 12.6 | 1y, 1.9m | 8.5m | 89.9° | 6.4 | 6.1 | 20.1 | 25.2 | 40.2 | 0.0m | 2y, 3.8m |

Venus-Jupiter | 26.0 | 2y, 6.6m | 7.8m | 102.6° | 8.1 | 18.0 | 33.4 | 52.1 | 66.7 | 1y, 8.1m | 6y, 9.3m |

Venus-Saturn | 20.2 | 5y, 10.2m | 7.5m | 109.0° | 9.1 | 11.1 | 27.5 | 40.3 | 55.0 | 4y, 7.2m | 16y, 3.5m |

Venus-Uranus | 16.6 | 15y, 8.7m | 7.4m | 112.7° | 9.8 | 6.8 | 23.9 | 33.2 | 47.8 | 14y, 6.2m | 45y, 11.5m |

Venus-Neptune | 17.3 | 30y, 2.1m | 7.4m | 114.0° | 10.0 | 7.3 | 24.6 | 34.6 | 49.2 | 29y, 3.3m | 89y, 7.5m |

Venus-Pluto | 13.3 | 45y, 0.0m | 7.4m | 114.6° | 10.1 | 3.2 | 21.5 | 26.7 | 43.0 | 44y, 2.1m | 134y, 2.2m |

MISSION | Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Orbit T | SYN | ANG | Insert ΔV (km/s) | Arrive ΔV (km/s) | Surf ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Surf ΔV (km/s) | Wait T | Rnd T |

Terra-Mercury | 13.1 | 3.5m | 3.8m | -251.7° | 5.6 | 7.5 | 23.5 | 26.2 | 47.0 | 0.5m | 7.4m |

Terra-Venus | 6.9 | 4.8m | 1y, 7.2m | -54.0° | 3.5 | 3.4 | 21.7 | 13.8 | 43.4 | 1y, 0.5m | 1y, 10.1m |

Terra-Mars | 5.7 | 8.5m | 2y, 1.6m | 44.3° | 3.6 | 2.1 | 16.5 | 11.5 | 33.1 | 11.8m | 2y, 4.8m |

Terra-Vesta | 8.8 | 1y, 1.1m | 1y, 4.6m | 71.9° | 4.5 | 4.2 | 16.4 | 17.5 | 32.7 | 6.3m | 2y, 8.4m |

Terra-Juno | 9.5 | 1y, 2.9m | 1y, 3.6m | 77.4° | 4.8 | 4.7 | 17.0 | 19.1 | 34.1 | 10.9m | 3y, 4.7m |

Terra-Eugenia | 9.7 | 1y, 3.2m | 1y, 3.4m | 78.2° | 4.9 | 4.8 | 17.1 | 19.3 | 34.2 | 11.7m | 3y, 6.1m |

Terra-Ceres | 9.5 | 1y, 3.5m | 1y, 3.3m | 78.9° | 4.9 | 4.6 | 17.2 | 19.0 | 34.3 | 1y, 0.3m | 3y, 7.3m |

Terra-Pallas | 9.6 | 1y, 3.5m | 1y, 3.3m | 79.0° | 4.9 | 4.6 | 17.2 | 19.1 | 34.4 | 1y, 0.4m | 3y, 7.5m |

Terra-Jupiter | 24.2 | 2y, 8.8m | 1y, 1.1m | 97.2° | 6.3 | 17.9 | 31.6 | 48.4 | 63.3 | 9.6m | 6y, 3.2m |

Terra-Saturn | 18.3 | 6y, 1.0m | 1y, 0.4m | 106.1° | 7.3 | 11.0 | 25.7 | 36.5 | 51.4 | 4y, 7.5m | 16y, 9.5m |

Terra-Uranus | 14.7 | 16y, 0.6m | 1y, 0.1m | 111.3° | 8.0 | 6.7 | 22.2 | 29.5 | 44.3 | 14y, 7.0m | 46y, 8.2m |

Terra-Neptune | 15.5 | 30y, 7.0m | 1y, 0.1m | 113.2° | 8.2 | 7.2 | 22.9 | 31.0 | 45.8 | 28y, 7.8m | 89y, 9.8m |

Terra-Pluto | 11.4 | 45y, 5.6m | 1y, 0.0m | 113.9° | 8.4 | 3.1 | 19.7 | 22.8 | 39.3 | 44y, 5.2m | 135y, 4.5m |

MISSION | Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Orbit T | SYN | ANG | Insert ΔV (km/s) | Arrive ΔV (km/s) | Surf ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Surf ΔV (km/s) | Wait T | Rnd T |

Mars-Mercury | 16.9 | 5.6m | 3.3m | 202.2° | 6.6 | 10.3 | 23.1 | 33.8 | 46.3 | 3.1m | 1y, 2.3m |

Mars-Venus | 7.9 | 7.1m | 11.0m | -168.4° | 3.4 | 4.5 | 18.5 | 15.8 | 37.1 | 1.8m | 1y, 4.1m |

Mars-Terra | 5.7 | 8.5m | 2y, 1.6m | -75.1° | 2.1 | 3.6 | 16.5 | 11.5 | 33.1 | 1y, 2.0m | 2y, 7.0m |

Mars-Vesta | 4.0 | 1y, 4.2m | 3y, 10.8m | 45.7° | 2.0 | 2.0 | 7.5 | 8.1 | 15.1 | 1y, 8.3m | 4y, 4.8m |

Mars-Juno | 5.0 | 1y, 6.2m | 3y, 3.7m | 54.7° | 2.3 | 2.6 | 8.3 | 9.9 | 16.6 | 9.3m | 3y, 9.7m |

Mars-Eugenia | 5.1 | 1y, 6.5m | 3y, 2.8m | 56.0° | 2.4 | 2.7 | 8.4 | 10.2 | 16.9 | 7.8m | 3y, 8.9m |

Mars-Ceres | 5.0 | 1y, 6.8m | 3y, 2.2m | 57.1° | 2.4 | 2.5 | 8.5 | 9.9 | 17.1 | 6.5m | 3y, 8.2m |

Mars-Pallas | 5.0 | 1y, 6.9m | 3y, 2.1m | 57.2° | 2.4 | 2.6 | 8.6 | 10.1 | 17.1 | 6.4m | 3y, 8.1m |

Mars-Jupiter | 22.0 | 3y, 1.0m | 2y, 2.8m | 86.5° | 4.2 | 17.8 | 25.3 | 43.9 | 50.5 | 1y, 0.8m | 7y, 2.9m |

Mars-Saturn | 16.4 | 6y, 6.5m | 2y, 0.1m | 100.6° | 5.5 | 10.9 | 19.7 | 32.8 | 39.4 | 4y, 5.9m | 17y, 6.9m |

Mars-Uranus | 13.2 | 16y, 8.1m | 1y, 11.1m | 108.6° | 6.5 | 6.7 | 16.5 | 26.4 | 33.0 | 13y, 6.5m | 46y, 10.8m |

Mars-Neptune | 14.1 | 31y, 4.3m | 1y, 10.8m | 111.5° | 6.9 | 7.2 | 17.4 | 28.2 | 34.8 | 27y, 10.6m | 90y, 7.2m |

Mars-Pluto | 9.9 | 46y, 4.3m | 1y, 10.7m | 112.6° | 7.1 | 2.8 | 14.0 | 19.8 | 28.0 | 42y, 10.2m | 135y, 6.7m |

MISSION | Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Orbit T | SYN | ANG | Insert ΔV (km/s) | Arrive ΔV (km/s) | Surf ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Surf ΔV (km/s) | Wait T | Rnd T |

Vesta-Mercury | 21.4 | 9.7m | 3.1m | 55.6° | 8.9 | 12.5 | 24.5 | 42.7 | 49.0 | 7.4m | 2y, 2.8m |

Vesta-Venus | 11.8 | 11.5m | 8.9m | 339.4° | 5.9 | 6.0 | 19.3 | 23.7 | 38.6 | 4.7m | 2y, 3.7m |

Vesta-Terra | 8.8 | 1y, 1.1m | 1y, 4.6m | -212.3° | 4.2 | 4.5 | 16.4 | 17.5 | 32.7 | 0.2m | 2y, 2.3m |

Vesta-Mars | 4.0 | 1y, 4.2m | 3y, 10.8m | -79.2° | 2.0 | 2.0 | 7.5 | 8.1 | 15.1 | 2y, 0.6m | 4y, 9.1m |

Vesta-Juno | 0.9 | 1y, 11.9m | 21y, 8.9m | 15.3° | 0.4 | 0.5 | 1.2 | 1.9 | 2.3 | 18y, 8.1m | 22y, 7.9m |

Vesta-Eugenia | 1.1 | 2y, 0.3m | 18y, 11.9m | 17.5° | 0.5 | 0.6 | 1.3 | 2.2 | 2.6 | 15y, 10.3m | 19y, 10.9m |

Vesta-Ceres | 1.1 | 2y, 0.6m | 17y, 2.6m | 19.4° | 0.6 | 0.5 | 1.5 | 2.2 | 3.1 | 14y, 0.4m | 18y, 1.7m |

Vesta-Pallas | 1.2 | 2y, 0.7m | 17y, 0.2m | 19.6° | 0.6 | 0.6 | 1.5 | 2.3 | 3.1 | 13y, 10.0m | 17y, 11.3m |

Vesta-Jupiter | 20.8 | 3y, 8.2m | 5y, 2.7m | 68.4° | 3.1 | 17.7 | 21.0 | 41.6 | 41.9 | 1y, 1.6m | 8y, 5.9m |

Vesta-Saturn | 15.7 | 7y, 3.6m | 4y, 1.6m | 91.4° | 4.9 | 10.7 | 15.8 | 31.4 | 31.7 | 1y, 1.6m | 15y, 8.8m |

Vesta-Uranus | 12.8 | 17y, 8.4m | 3y, 9.5m | 104.3° | 6.3 | 6.6 | 13.0 | 25.6 | 25.9 | 11y, 6.5m | 46y, 11.3m |

Vesta-Neptune | 13.9 | 32y, 7.4m | 3y, 8.5m | 108.7° | 6.8 | 7.1 | 14.1 | 27.8 | 28.1 | 26y, 11.9m | 92y, 2.7m |

Vesta-Pluto | 9.6 | 47y, 9.4m | 3y, 8.2m | 110.6° | 7.0 | 2.5 | 10.5 | 19.1 | 21.1 | 42y, 10.4m | 138y, 5.2m |

MISSION | Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Orbit T | SYN | ANG | Insert ΔV (km/s) | Arrive ΔV (km/s) | Surf ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Surf ΔV (km/s) | Wait T | Rnd T |

Juno-Mercury | 22.0 | 11.3m | 3.1m | 209.1° | 9.0 | 13.0 | 25.0 | 44.0 | 50.0 | 9.1m | 2y, 7.8m |

Juno-Venus | 12.6 | 1y, 1.2m | 8.6m | 254.0° | 6.2 | 6.3 | 20.0 | 25.2 | 39.9 | 6.8m | 2y, 9.3m |

Juno-Terra | 9.5 | 1y, 2.9m | 1y, 3.6m | -267.0° | 4.7 | 4.8 | 17.0 | 19.1 | 34.1 | 2.7m | 2y, 8.5m |

Juno-Mars | 5.0 | 1y, 6.2m | 3y, 3.7m | -110.4° | 2.6 | 2.3 | 8.3 | 9.9 | 16.6 | 1y, 3.5m | 4y, 3.9m |

Juno-Vesta | 0.9 | 1y, 11.9m | 21y, 8.9m | -17.8° | 0.5 | 0.4 | 1.2 | 1.9 | 2.3 | 18y, 9.9m | 22y, 9.7m |

Juno-Eugenia | 0.1 | 2y, 2.5m | 149y, 11.9m | 2.6° | 0.1 | 0.1 | 0.2 | 0.3 | 0.5 | 146y, 8.0m | 151y, 1.0m |

Juno-Ceres | 0.3 | 2y, 2.9m | 82y, 8.0m | 4.8° | 0.1 | 0.2 | 0.6 | 0.6 | 1.3 | 79y, 3.4m | 83y, 9.2m |

Juno-Pallas | 0.3 | 2y, 2.9m | 78y, 3.9m | 5.0° | 0.1 | 0.1 | 0.6 | 0.5 | 1.2 | 74y, 11.2m | 79y, 5.0m |

Juno-Jupiter | 20.3 | 3y, 10.9m | 6y, 10.6m | 61.6° | 2.7 | 17.7 | 20.4 | 40.6 | 40.7 | 3.0m | 8y, 0.8m |

Juno-Saturn | 15.2 | 7y, 7.0m | 5y, 1.3m | 88.0° | 4.5 | 10.7 | 15.3 | 30.4 | 30.5 | 1y, 5.0m | 16y, 6.9m |

Juno-Uranus | 12.4 | 18y, 0.9m | 4y, 7.1m | 102.6° | 5.9 | 6.5 | 12.4 | 24.7 | 24.8 | 11y, 10.4m | 48y, 0.3m |

Juno-Neptune | 13.5 | 33y, 0.9m | 4y, 5.7m | 107.7° | 6.4 | 7.1 | 13.6 | 27.0 | 27.1 | 24y, 6.4m | 90y, 8.3m |

Juno-Pluto | 9.1 | 48y, 3.7m | 4y, 5.2m | 109.8° | 6.6 | 2.5 | 10.0 | 18.2 | 19.9 | 42y, 0.5m | 138y, 8.0m |

MISSION | Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Orbit T | SYN | ANG | Insert ΔV (km/s) | Arrive ΔV (km/s) | Surf ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Surf ΔV (km/s) | Wait T | Rnd T |

Eugenia-Mercury | 22.1 | 11.6m | 3.1m | 172.2° | 9.0 | 13.1 | 25.1 | 44.2 | 50.1 | 9.4m | 2y, 8.7m |

Eugenia-Venus | 12.7 | 1y, 1.6m | 8.6m | 238.8° | 6.3 | 6.4 | 20.0 | 25.4 | 40.1 | 7.1m | 2y, 10.2m |

Eugenia-Terra | 9.7 | 1y, 3.2m | 1y, 3.4m | -276.8° | 4.8 | 4.9 | 17.1 | 19.3 | 34.2 | 3.1m | 2y, 9.6m |

Eugenia-Mars | 5.1 | 1y, 6.5m | 3y, 2.8m | -115.9° | 2.7 | 2.4 | 8.4 | 10.2 | 16.9 | 1y, 2.2m | 4y, 3.3m |

Eugenia-Vesta | 1.1 | 2y, 0.3m | 18y, 11.9m | -20.9° | 0.6 | 0.5 | 1.3 | 2.2 | 2.6 | 16y, 0.5m | 20y, 1.1m |

Eugenia-Juno | 0.1 | 2y, 2.5m | 149y, 11.9m | -2.7° | 0.1 | 0.1 | 0.2 | 0.3 | 0.5 | 146y, 8.3m | 151y, 1.4m |

Eugenia-Ceres | 0.2 | 2y, 3.3m | 184y, 2.2m | 2.2° | 0.1 | 0.1 | 0.5 | 0.4 | 1.0 | 180y, 9.2m | 185y, 3.7m |

Eugenia-Pallas | 0.2 | 2y, 3.3m | 163y, 10.9m | 2.5° | 0.1 | 0.1 | 0.4 | 0.3 | 0.9 | 160y, 5.8m | 165y, 0.4m |

Eugenia-Jupiter | 20.3 | 3y, 11.3m | 7y, 2.6m | 60.4° | 2.6 | 17.7 | 20.3 | 40.5 | 40.5 | 6.5m | 8y, 5.1m |

Eugenia-Saturn | 15.1 | 7y, 7.5m | 5y, 3.5m | 87.4° | 4.4 | 10.7 | 15.2 | 30.3 | 30.3 | 1y, 10.7m | 17y, 1.8m |

Eugenia-Uranus | 12.3 | 18y, 1.7m | 4y, 8.9m | 102.4° | 5.8 | 6.5 | 12.3 | 24.6 | 24.7 | 11y, 2.8m | 47y, 6.3m |

Eugenia-Neptune | 13.5 | 33y, 1.9m | 4y, 7.4m | 107.5° | 6.4 | 7.1 | 13.5 | 26.9 | 26.9 | 28y, 0.4m | 94y, 4.2m |

Eugenia-Pluto | 9.0 | 48y, 4.8m | 4y, 6.8m | 109.7° | 6.6 | 2.4 | 9.9 | 18.1 | 19.7 | 40y, 6.8m | 137y, 4.4m |

MISSION | Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Orbit T | SYN | ANG | Insert ΔV (km/s) | Arrive ΔV (km/s) | Surf ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Surf ΔV (km/s) | Wait T | Rnd T |

Ceres-Mercury | 21.9 | 11.9m | 3.0m | 140.6° | 8.7 | 13.1 | 25.1 | 43.7 | 50.1 | 9.7m | 2y, 9.4m |

Ceres-Venus | 12.5 | 1y, 1.8m | 8.5m | 225.7° | 6.1 | 6.4 | 20.1 | 25.0 | 40.2 | 7.4m | 2y, 11.1m |

Ceres-Terra | 9.5 | 1y, 3.5m | 1y, 3.3m | -285.1° | 4.6 | 4.9 | 17.2 | 19.0 | 34.3 | 3.5m | 2y, 10.5m |

Ceres-Mars | 5.0 | 1y, 6.8m | 3y, 2.2m | -120.6° | 2.5 | 2.4 | 8.5 | 9.9 | 17.1 | 1y, 1.3m | 4y, 3.0m |

Ceres-Vesta | 1.1 | 2y, 0.6m | 17y, 2.6m | -23.6° | 0.5 | 0.6 | 1.5 | 2.2 | 3.1 | 14y, 2.8m | 18y, 4.1m |

Ceres-Juno | 0.3 | 2y, 2.9m | 82y, 8.0m | -5.0° | 0.2 | 0.1 | 0.6 | 0.6 | 1.3 | 79y, 4.0m | 83y, 9.8m |

Ceres-Eugenia | 0.2 | 2y, 3.3m | 184y, 2.2m | -2.2° | 0.1 | 0.1 | 0.5 | 0.4 | 1.0 | 180y, 9.4m | 185y, 4.0m |

Ceres-Pallas | 0.2 | 2y, 3.6m | 1488y, 10.0m | 0.3° | 0.1 | 0.1 | 0.8 | 0.5 | 1.5 | 1485y, 4.5m | 1489y, 11.8m |

Ceres-Jupiter | 19.9 | 3y, 11.7m | 7y, 6.1m | 59.4° | 2.3 | 17.7 | 20.2 | 39.9 | 40.3 | 9.5m | 8y, 9.0m |

Ceres-Saturn | 14.8 | 7y, 8.0m | 5y, 5.3m | 86.9° | 4.1 | 10.7 | 15.0 | 29.6 | 30.1 | 2y, 3.7m | 17y, 7.8m |

Ceres-Uranus | 12.0 | 18y, 2.4m | 4y, 10.4m | 102.1° | 5.5 | 6.5 | 12.2 | 24.0 | 24.4 | 10y, 8.3m | 47y, 1.1m |

Ceres-Neptune | 13.1 | 33y, 2.7m | 4y, 8.8m | 107.4° | 6.0 | 7.1 | 13.4 | 26.2 | 26.7 | 27y, 2.2m | 93y, 7.7m |

Ceres-Pluto | 8.7 | 48y, 5.8m | 4y, 8.2m | 109.6° | 6.3 | 2.4 | 9.8 | 17.4 | 19.5 | 39y, 3.5m | 136y, 3.0m |

MISSION | Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Orbit T | SYN | ANG | Insert ΔV (km/s) | Arrive ΔV (km/s) | Surf ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Surf ΔV (km/s) | Wait T | Rnd T |

Pallas-Mercury | 21.9 | 11.9m | 3.0m | 136.6° | 8.8 | 13.1 | 25.1 | 43.9 | 50.2 | 9.7m | 2y, 9.5m |

Pallas-Venus | 12.6 | 1y, 1.9m | 8.5m | 224.1° | 6.1 | 6.4 | 20.1 | 25.2 | 40.2 | 7.5m | 2y, 11.2m |

Pallas-Terra | 9.6 | 1y, 3.5m | 1y, 3.3m | -286.2° | 4.6 | 4.9 | 17.2 | 19.1 | 34.4 | 3.6m | 2y, 10.7m |

Pallas-Mars | 5.0 | 1y, 6.9m | 3y, 2.1m | -121.2° | 2.6 | 2.4 | 8.6 | 10.1 | 17.1 | 1y, 1.2m | 4y, 2.9m |

Pallas-Vesta | 1.2 | 2y, 0.7m | 17y, 0.2m | -23.9° | 0.6 | 0.6 | 1.5 | 2.3 | 3.1 | 14y, 0.4m | 18y, 1.8m |

Pallas-Juno | 0.3 | 2y, 2.9m | 78y, 3.9m | -5.3° | 0.1 | 0.1 | 0.6 | 0.5 | 1.2 | 74y, 11.8m | 79y, 5.6m |

Pallas-Eugenia | 0.2 | 2y, 3.3m | 163y, 10.9m | -2.5° | 0.1 | 0.1 | 0.4 | 0.3 | 0.9 | 160y, 6.1m | 165y, 0.7m |

Pallas-Ceres | 0.2 | 2y, 3.6m | 1488y, 10.0m | -0.3° | 0.1 | 0.1 | 0.8 | 0.5 | 1.5 | 1485y, 4.6m | 1489y, 11.8m |

Pallas-Jupiter | 20.0 | 3y, 11.8m | 7y, 6.6m | 59.3° | 2.3 | 17.7 | 20.2 | 40.0 | 40.4 | 9.9m | 8y, 9.5m |

Pallas-Saturn | 14.9 | 7y, 8.1m | 5y, 5.6m | 86.8° | 4.2 | 10.7 | 15.1 | 29.7 | 30.1 | 2y, 4.3m | 17y, 8.5m |

Pallas-Uranus | 12.0 | 18y, 2.5m | 4y, 10.6m | 102.1° | 5.5 | 6.5 | 12.2 | 24.1 | 24.5 | 10y, 7.4m | 47y, 0.4m |

Pallas-Neptune | 13.2 | 33y, 2.8m | 4y, 9.0m | 107.4° | 6.1 | 7.1 | 13.4 | 26.4 | 26.7 | 27y, 0.9m | 93y, 6.6m |

Pallas-Pluto | 8.8 | 48y, 5.9m | 4y, 8.4m | 109.5° | 6.3 | 2.4 | 9.8 | 17.5 | 19.5 | 39y, 1.5m | 136y, 1.3m |

MISSION | Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Orbit T | SYN | ANG | Insert ΔV (km/s) | Arrive ΔV (km/s) | Surf ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Surf ΔV (km/s) | Wait T | Rnd T |

Jupiter-Mercury | 33.2 | 2y, 4.0m | 2.9m | 286.3° | 18.2 | 15.0 | 36.1 | 66.3 | 72.2 | 2y, 2.0m | 6y, 10.1m |

Jupiter-Venus | 26.0 | 2y, 6.6m | 7.8m | 127.0° | 18.0 | 8.1 | 33.4 | 52.1 | 66.7 | 2y, 1.0m | 7y, 2.3m |

Jupiter-Terra | 24.2 | 2y, 8.8m | 1y, 1.1m | 276.5° | 17.9 | 6.3 | 31.6 | 48.4 | 63.3 | 1y, 11.2m | 7y, 4.8m |

Jupiter-Mars | 22.0 | 3y, 1.0m | 2y, 2.8m | 309.4° | 17.8 | 4.2 | 25.3 | 43.9 | 50.5 | 1y, 4.6m | 7y, 6.7m |

Jupiter-Vesta | 20.8 | 3y, 8.2m | 5y, 2.7m | -184.9° | 17.7 | 3.1 | 21.0 | 41.6 | 41.9 | 6.7m | 7y, 11.0m |

Jupiter-Juno | 20.3 | 3y, 10.9m | 6y, 10.6m | -142.6° | 17.7 | 2.7 | 20.4 | 40.6 | 40.7 | 1y, 9.6m | 9y, 7.3m |

Jupiter-Eugenia | 20.3 | 3y, 11.3m | 7y, 2.6m | -136.4° | 17.7 | 2.6 | 20.3 | 40.5 | 40.5 | 2y, 0.7m | 9y, 11.4m |

Jupiter-Ceres | 19.9 | 3y, 11.7m | 7y, 6.1m | -131.3° | 17.7 | 2.3 | 20.2 | 39.9 | 40.3 | 2y, 3.5m | 10y, 3.0m |

Jupiter-Pallas | 20.0 | 3y, 11.8m | 7y, 6.6m | -130.7° | 17.7 | 2.3 | 20.2 | 40.0 | 40.4 | 2y, 3.9m | 10y, 3.4m |

Jupiter-Saturn | 28.2 | 10y, 0.6m | 19y, 9.6m | 58.0° | 17.6 | 10.6 | 28.2 | 56.5 | 56.5 | 2y, 10.6m | 22y, 11.8m |

Jupiter-Uranus | 24.1 | 21y, 3.8m | 13y, 9.9m | 88.8° | 17.7 | 6.4 | 24.1 | 48.2 | 48.2 | 2y, 3.0m | 44y, 10.6m |

Jupiter-Neptune | 24.8 | 36y, 12.0m | 12y, 9.5m | 99.1° | 17.7 | 7.0 | 24.8 | 49.5 | 49.5 | 19y, 3.5m | 93y, 3.5m |

Jupiter-Pluto | 19.7 | 52y, 8.9m | 12y, 5.6m | 103.4° | 17.8 | 1.9 | 20.5 | 39.3 | 41.0 | 39y, 6.6m | 145y, 0.4m |

MISSION | Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Orbit T | SYN | ANG | Insert ΔV (km/s) | Arrive ΔV (km/s) | Surf ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Surf ΔV (km/s) | Wait T | Rnd T |

Saturn-Mercury | 27.2 | 5y, 6.8m | 2.9m | 142.3° | 11.2 | 16.0 | 30.2 | 54.5 | 60.4 | 5y, 4.8m | 16y, 6.3m |

Saturn-Venus | 20.2 | 5y, 10.2m | 7.5m | 357.5° | 11.1 | 9.1 | 27.5 | 40.3 | 55.0 | 5y, 4.9m | 17y, 1.3m |

Saturn-Terra | 18.3 | 6y, 1.0m | 1y, 0.4m | 149.2° | 11.0 | 7.3 | 25.7 | 36.5 | 51.4 | 5y, 4.3m | 17y, 6.3m |

Saturn-Mars | 16.4 | 6y, 6.5m | 2y, 0.1m | 7.5° | 10.9 | 5.5 | 19.7 | 32.8 | 39.4 | 5y, 1.2m | 18y, 2.2m |

Saturn-Vesta | 15.7 | 7y, 3.6m | 4y, 1.6m | 176.3° | 10.7 | 4.9 | 15.8 | 31.4 | 31.7 | 4y, 2.5m | 18y, 9.7m |

Saturn-Juno | 15.2 | 7y, 7.0m | 5y, 1.3m | 273.8° | 10.7 | 4.5 | 15.3 | 30.4 | 30.5 | 3y, 8.6m | 18y, 10.6m |

Saturn-Eugenia | 15.1 | 7y, 7.5m | 5y, 3.5m | 288.1° | 10.7 | 4.4 | 15.2 | 30.3 | 30.3 | 3y, 7.5m | 18y, 10.6m |

Saturn-Ceres | 14.8 | 7y, 8.0m | 5y, 5.3m | 299.7° | 10.7 | 4.1 | 15.0 | 29.6 | 30.1 | 3y, 6.5m | 18y, 10.6m |

Saturn-Pallas | 14.9 | 7y, 8.1m | 5y, 5.6m | 301.1° | 10.7 | 4.2 | 15.1 | 29.7 | 30.1 | 3y, 6.4m | 18y, 10.6m |

Saturn-Jupiter | 28.2 | 10y, 0.6m | 19y, 9.6m | -124.8° | 10.6 | 17.6 | 28.2 | 56.5 | 56.5 | 6y, 6.7m | 26y, 7.9m |

Saturn-Uranus | 16.9 | 27y, 3.6m | 45y, 9.8m | 63.2° | 10.6 | 6.3 | 16.9 | 33.8 | 33.8 | 8.9m | 55y, 4.0m |

Saturn-Neptune | 17.6 | 44y, 1.2m | 36y, 2.1m | 83.6° | 10.6 | 6.9 | 17.6 | 35.1 | 35.1 | 43y, 7.5m | 131y, 9.9m |

Saturn-Pluto | 12.0 | 60y, 8.2m | 33y, 8.4m | 91.8° | 10.7 | 1.3 | 12.8 | 23.9 | 25.6 | 11y, 8.2m | 133y, 0.7m |

MISSION | Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Orbit T | SYN | ANG | Insert ΔV (km/s) | Arrive ΔV (km/s) | Surf ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Surf ΔV (km/s) | Wait T | Rnd T |

Uranus-Mercury | 23.6 | 15y, 3.9m | 2.9m | 312.3° | 6.9 | 16.7 | 26.5 | 47.2 | 53.1 | 15y, 1.9m | 45y, 9.7m |

Uranus-Venus | 16.6 | 15y, 8.7m | 7.4m | 339.8° | 6.8 | 9.8 | 23.9 | 33.2 | 47.8 | 15y, 3.6m | 46y, 8.9m |

Uranus-Terra | 14.7 | 16y, 0.6m | 1y, 0.1m | 161.9° | 6.7 | 8.0 | 22.2 | 29.5 | 44.3 | 15y, 4.2m | 47y, 5.4m |

Uranus-Mars | 13.2 | 16y, 8.1m | 1y, 11.1m | 227.2° | 6.7 | 6.5 | 16.5 | 26.4 | 33.0 | 15y, 4.0m | 48y, 8.3m |

Uranus-Vesta | 12.8 | 17y, 8.4m | 3y, 9.5m | 224.6° | 6.6 | 6.3 | 13.0 | 25.6 | 25.9 | 15y, 0.1m | 50y, 4.9m |

Uranus-Juno | 12.4 | 18y, 0.9m | 4y, 7.1m | 126.5° | 6.5 | 5.9 | 12.4 | 24.7 | 24.8 | 14y, 9.5m | 50y, 11.4m |

Uranus-Eugenia | 12.3 | 18y, 1.7m | 4y, 8.9m | 164.6° | 6.5 | 5.8 | 12.3 | 24.6 | 24.7 | 14y, 9.0m | 51y, 0.5m |

Uranus-Ceres | 12.0 | 18y, 2.4m | 4y, 10.4m | 195.7° | 6.5 | 5.5 | 12.2 | 24.0 | 24.4 | 14y, 8.6m | 51y, 1.4m |

Uranus-Pallas | 12.0 | 18y, 2.5m | 4y, 10.6m | 199.5° | 6.5 | 5.5 | 12.2 | 24.1 | 24.5 | 14y, 8.5m | 51y, 1.5m |

Uranus-Jupiter | 24.1 | 21y, 3.8m | 13y, 9.9m | 253.7° | 6.4 | 17.7 | 24.1 | 48.2 | 48.2 | 10y, 10.8m | 53y, 6.3m |

Uranus-Saturn | 16.9 | 27y, 3.6m | 45y, 9.8m | -151.3° | 6.3 | 10.6 | 16.9 | 33.8 | 33.8 | 10y, 5.7m | 65y, 0.9m |

Uranus-Neptune | 13.2 | 61y, 1.1m | 171y, 12.0m | 46.5° | 6.3 | 6.9 | 13.2 | 26.3 | 26.3 | 72y, 0.1m | 194y, 2.4m |

Uranus-Pluto | 6.9 | 79y, 4.7m | 127y, 4.9m | 64.6° | 6.3 | 0.6 | 7.8 | 13.8 | 15.5 | 8y, 6.1m | 167y, 3.5m |

MISSION | Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Orbit T | SYN | ANG | Insert ΔV (km/s) | Arrive ΔV (km/s) | Surf ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Surf ΔV (km/s) | Wait T | Rnd T |

Neptune-Mercury | 24.2 | 29y, 8.2m | 2.9m | 95.1° | 7.3 | 16.9 | 27.2 | 48.4 | 54.4 | 29y, 6.2m | 88y, 10.5m |

Neptune-Venus | 17.3 | 30y, 2.1m | 7.4m | 162.6° | 7.3 | 10.0 | 24.6 | 34.6 | 49.2 | 29y, 9.0m | 90y, 1.2m |

Neptune-Terra | 15.5 | 30y, 7.0m | 1y, 0.1m | 330.7° | 7.2 | 8.2 | 22.9 | 31.0 | 45.8 | 29y, 10.7m | 91y, 0.7m |

Neptune-Mars | 14.1 | 31y, 4.3m | 1y, 10.8m | 296.9° | 7.2 | 6.9 | 17.4 | 28.2 | 34.8 | 30y, 0.5m | 92y, 9.1m |

Neptune-Vesta | 13.9 | 32y, 7.4m | 3y, 8.5m | 185.4° | 7.1 | 6.8 | 14.1 | 27.8 | 28.1 | 30y, 0.3m | 95y, 3.1m |

Neptune-Juno | 13.5 | 33y, 0.9m | 4y, 5.7m | 327.3° | 7.1 | 6.4 | 13.6 | 27.0 | 27.1 | 29y, 11.3m | 96y, 1.2m |

Neptune-Eugenia | 13.5 | 33y, 1.9m | 4y, 7.4m | 40.2° | 7.1 | 6.4 | 13.5 | 26.9 | 26.9 | 29y, 11.1m | 96y, 2.9m |

Neptune-Ceres | 13.1 | 33y, 2.7m | 4y, 8.8m | 99.7° | 7.1 | 6.0 | 13.4 | 26.2 | 26.7 | 29y, 10.9m | 96y, 4.3m |

Neptune-Pallas | 13.2 | 33y, 2.8m | 4y, 9.0m | 107.0° | 7.1 | 6.1 | 13.4 | 26.4 | 26.7 | 29y, 10.9m | 96y, 4.5m |

Neptune-Jupiter | 24.8 | 36y, 12.0m | 12y, 9.5m | 138.1° | 7.0 | 17.7 | 24.8 | 49.5 | 49.5 | 27y, 8.7m | 101y, 8.7m |

Neptune-Saturn | 17.6 | 44y, 1.2m | 36y, 2.1m | -355.2° | 6.9 | 10.6 | 17.6 | 35.1 | 35.1 | 16y, 3.9m | 104y, 6.3m |

Neptune-Uranus | 13.2 | 61y, 1.1m | 171y, 12.0m | -81.4° | 6.9 | 6.3 | 13.2 | 26.3 | 26.3 | 88y, 8.5m | 210y, 10.8m |

Neptune-Pluto | 7.3 | 102y, 4.9m | 491y, 5.0m | 31.2° | 6.9 | 0.4 | 8.1 | 14.5 | 16.2 | 329y, 2.1m | 533y, 11.9m |

MISSION | Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Orbit T | SYN | ANG | Insert ΔV (km/s) | Arrive ΔV (km/s) | Surf ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Orbit ΔV (km/s) | Rnd Surf ΔV (km/s) | Wait T | Rnd T |

Pluto-Mercury | 20.4 | 44y, 5.3m | 2.9m | 352.9° | 3.4 | 17.0 | 24.2 | 40.8 | 48.4 | 44y, 3.3m | 133y, 1.9m |

Pluto-Venus | 13.3 | 45y, 0.0m | 7.4m | 124.0° | 3.2 | 10.1 | 21.5 | 26.7 | 43.0 | 44y, 7.0m | 134y, 7.1m |

Pluto-Terra | 11.4 | 45y, 5.6m | 1y, 0.0m | 10.9° | 3.1 | 8.4 | 19.7 | 22.8 | 39.3 | 44y, 9.4m | 135y, 8.7m |

Pluto-Mars | 9.9 | 46y, 4.3m | 1y, 10.7m | 305.8° | 2.8 | 7.1 | 14.0 | 19.8 | 28.0 | 45y, 0.6m | 137y, 9.2m |

Pluto-Vesta | 9.6 | 47y, 9.4m | 3y, 8.2m | 120.9° | 2.5 | 7.0 | 10.5 | 19.1 | 21.1 | 45y, 2.8m | 140y, 9.7m |

Pluto-Juno | 9.1 | 48y, 3.7m | 4y, 5.2m | 148.8° | 2.5 | 6.6 | 10.0 | 18.2 | 19.9 | 45y, 2.7m | 141y, 10.2m |

Pluto-Eugenia | 9.0 | 48y, 4.8m | 4y, 6.8m | 257.5° | 2.4 | 6.6 | 9.9 | 18.1 | 19.7 | 45y, 2.7m | 142y, 0.3m |

Pluto-Ceres | 8.7 | 48y, 5.8m | 4y, 8.2m | 346.0° | 2.4 | 6.3 | 9.8 | 17.4 | 19.5 | 45y, 2.6m | 142y, 2.2m |

Pluto-Pallas | 8.8 | 48y, 5.9m | 4y, 8.4m | 356.9° | 2.4 | 6.3 | 9.8 | 17.5 | 19.5 | 45y, 2.6m | 142y, 2.4m |

Pluto-Jupiter | 19.7 | 52y, 8.9m | 12y, 5.6m | 20.8° | 1.9 | 17.8 | 20.5 | 39.3 | 41.0 | 43y, 10.2m | 149y, 4.0m |

Pluto-Saturn | 12.0 | 60y, 8.2m | 33y, 8.4m | 163.5° | 1.3 | 10.7 | 12.8 | 23.9 | 25.6 | 35y, 7.0m | 156y, 11.4m |

Pluto-Uranus | 6.9 | 79y, 4.7m | 127y, 4.9m | -159.7° | 0.6 | 6.3 | 7.8 | 13.8 | 15.5 | 25y, 1.7m | 183y, 11.1m |

Pluto-Neptune | 7.3 | 102y, 4.9m | 491y, 5.0m | -43.8° | 0.4 | 6.9 | 8.1 | 14.5 | 16.2 | 346y, 5.3m | 551y, 3.1m |

#### Moons of Mars

Phobos | Deimos | |
---|---|---|

Phobos | 3 | 745 10h |

Deimos | 744 9h | 1 |

#### Moons of Jupiter

Metis | Adrastea | Amalthea | Io | Europa | Ganymede | Callisto | Himalia | Elara | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Metis | 7 | 109 31d, 21h | 4,970 17h | 13,485 9h | 15,561 8h | 17,006 7h | 17,380 7h | 15,589 7h | 15,574 7h |

Adrastea | 85 4h | 8 | 4,877 18h | 13,410 9h | 15,495 8h | 16,949 7h | 17,330 7h | 15,549 7h | 15,534 7h |

Amalthea | 4,922 5h | 4,826 5h | 54 | 9,392 17h | 11,876 14h | 13,814 13h | 14,596 12h | 13,367 12h | 13,355 12h |

Io | 11,768 11h | 11,690 11h | 7,625 13h | 1,761 | 5,689 3d, 13h | 8,022 2d, 8h | 9,431 1d, 23h | 9,560 1d, 19h | 9,558 1d, 19h |

Europa | 14,182 20h | 14,113 20h | 10,452 22h | 2,545 1d, 7h | 1,388 | 5,504 7d, 1h | 6,855 4d, 12h | 7,705 3d, 14h | 7,709 3d, 14h |

Ganymede | 15,107 1d, 12h | 15,047 1d, 12h | 11,871 1d, 14h | 4,385 2d, 2h | 2,177 2d, 15h | 1,902 | 5,772 12d, 12h | 6,626 7d, 9h | 6,636 7d, 9h |

Callisto | 15,676 3d, 6h | 15,624 3d, 6h | 12,850 3d, 9h | 6,004 3d, 24h | 3,748 4d, 16h | 2,127 5d, 19h | 1,691 | 5,065 17d, 21h | 5,083 17d, 20h |

Himalia | 15,542 45d, 2h | 15,499 45d, 2h | 13,279 45d, 9h | 7,806 46d, 19h | 6,281 48d, 6h | 4,676 50d, 16h | 3,305 55d, 16h | 59 | 158 7050d, 0h |

Elara | 15,558 46d, 17h | 15,515 46d, 17h | 13,297 47d, 1h | 7,834 48d, 11h | 6,316 49d, 23h | 4,717 52d, 9h | 3,355 57d, 11h | 41 127d, 16h | 20 |

#### Moons of Saturn

Epimetheus | Janus | Mimas | Enceladus | Tethys | Dione | Rhea | Titan | Iapetus | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Epimetheus | 15 | 72 1405d, 13h | 1,521 2d, 16h | 3,156 1d, 10h | 4,374 1d, 2h | 5,552 22h | 6,768 20h | 9,230 17h | 8,481 17h |

Janus | 17 8h | 26 | 1,515 2d, 16h | 3,149 1d, 10h | 4,368 1d, 2h | 5,546 22h | 6,762 20h | 9,224 17h | 8,475 17h |

Mimas | 1,428 10h | 1,416 10h | 92 | 1,676 3d, 1h | 2,943 1d, 21h | 4,188 1d, 11h | 5,514 1d, 5h | 8,302 1d, 0h | 7,703 23h |

Enceladus | 3,044 12h | 3,031 12h | 1,490 14h | 112 | 1,384 5d, 0h | 2,653 2d, 18h | 4,077 1d, 23h | 7,249 1d, 12h | 6,827 1d, 9h |

Tethys | 4,121 15h | 4,108 15h | 2,617 17h | 1,023 19h | 258 | 1,568 6d, 2h | 2,969 3d, 6h | 6,422 2d, 3h | 6,132 1d, 22h |

Dione | 5,216 19h | 5,203 19h | 3,780 21h | 2,217 1d | 971 1d, 4h | 333 | 1,891 6d, 23h | 5,559 3d, 7h | 5,391 2d, 20h |

Rhea | 6,340 1d, 4h | 6,328 1d, 4h | 5,016 1d, 6h | 3,553 1d, 10h | 2,297 1d, 13h | 1,116 1d, 19h | 422 | 4,565 6d, 7h | 4,469 4d, 19h |

Titan | 7,367 3d, 9h | 7,355 3d, 9h | 6,369 3d, 12h | 5,292 3d, 16h | 4,321 3d, 22h | 3,371 4d, 5h | 2,276 4d, 20h | 1,832 | 3,977 19d, 23h |

Iapetus | 8,104 14d, 22h | 8,093 14d, 22h | 7,258 15d, 3h | 6,359 15d, 11h | 5,523 15d, 19h | 4,698 16d, 8h | 3,681 17d, 6h | 1,736 21d, 20h | 360 |

#### Moons of Uranus

Miranda | Ariel | Umbriel | Titania | Oberon | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Miranda | 115 | 1,215 4d, 4h | 1,889 2d, 13h | 2,834 1d, 22h | 3,137 1d, 19h |

Ariel | 720 1d | 364 | 1,332 6d, 11h | 2,218 3d, 14h | 2,533 3d, 3h |

Umbriel | 1,431 1d, 9h | 593 1d, 16h | 338 | 1,629 7d, 23h | 1,918 6d |

Titania | 2,194 2d, 8h | 1,312 2d, 16h | 730 3d, 3h | 514 | 1,566 24d, 13h |

Oberon | 2,530 3d, 7h | 1,663 3d, 15h | 1,060 4d, 4h | 496 5d, 12h | 483 |

#### A Grain Of Salt

"What's delta V from Earth orbit to Mars orbit?" -- a common question in science fiction or space exploration forums. The usual answer given is around 6 km/s, the delta V needed to go from a low, circular Earth orbit to a low, circular Mars orbit. A misleading answer, in my opinion.

There are a multitude of possible orbits and low circular orbits take more delta V to enter and exit. A science fiction writer using 6 km/s for Earth orbit to Mars orbit has a needlessly high delta V budget.

There are capture orbits that take much less delta V to enter and exit. By capture orbit I mean a periapsis as low as possible and apoapsis as high as possible. A capture orbit's apoapsis should be within a planet's Sphere Of Influence (SOI).

On page 124 of Prussing and Conway's Orbital Mechanics, radius of Sphere Of Influence is given by:

r_{soi}= ( m_{p}/ m_{s})^{2/5}r_{sp}

where

r_{soi}is radius of Sphere Of Influence

m_{p}is mass of planet

m_{s}is mass of sun

r_{sp}is distance between sun and planet.

The table below is modeled after a mission table at Atomic Rockets, a popular resource for science fiction writers and space enthusiasts.

• Departure and destination planets are along the left side and across the top of the table.

• Numbers are kilometers/second

• Numbers below the diagonal in blue are delta V's needed to go from departure planet's low circular orbit to destination planet's low circular orbit. These are about the same as the blue quantities listed at Atomic rockets.

• Numbers above the diagonal in red are delta V's needed to go from departure planet's capture orbit to desitnation planet's capture orbit.

Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Venus 0.7 3.6 5.6 6.7 7.5 7.5 Earth 6.8 1.1 3.5 4.6 5.3 5.4 Mars 7.9 5.7 3.0 4.5 5.6 5.8 Jupiter 25.8 24.0 21.8 0.1 0.3 0.3 Saturn 20.0 18.1 16.2 27.8 0.1 0.2 Uranus 16.6 14.7 13.2 23.8 16.6 0.03 Neptune 17.3 15.4 14.1 24.5 17.3 13.1

It's easy to see the red numbers are a lot less than the blue numbers. I used this spreadsheet to get these numbers. The spreadsheet assumes circular, coplanar orbits.

A graphic comparing delta Vs from earth to various destination planets:

If a low circular orbit at the destination is needed, it's common to do a burn to capture orbit with the capture orbit's periapsis passing through the upper atmosphere. Each periapsis pass through the upper atmosphere sheds velocity, lowering the apoapsis. Thus over time the orbit is circularized without the need for reaction mass. The planets in the table above have atmospheres, so the drag pass technique can be used for all of them.

A delta V budget is from propellant source to destination. If propellant depots are in high orbit, the needed delta V is closer to departing from a capture orbit than departing from a low circular orbit.

Thus it would save a lot of delta V to depart from Earth-Moon-Lagrange 1 or 2 (EML1 or EML2) regions. The poles of Luna have cold traps that may have rich volatile deposits. This potential propellant is only 2.5 km/s from EML1 and EML2. Entities like Planetary Resources have talked about parking a water rich asteroid at EML1 or 2. Whether EML propellant depots are supplied by lunar or asteroidal volatiles, they would greatly reduce the delta V for interplanetary trips.

Mars' two moons, Phobos and Deimos, have low densities. Whether that is from volatile ices or voids in a rubble pile is still unknown. If they do have volatile ices, these moons could be a propellant source. It would take much less delta V departing from Deimos than low Mars orbit.

All the gas giants have icey bodies high on the slopes of their gravity wells. However the axis of Uranus and her moons are tilted 97 degrees from the ecliptic. The plane change would be very expensive in terms of delta V. So the moons of Uranus wouldn't be helpful as propellant sources.

Venus has no moon. So of all the planets listed above, only Uranus and Venus lack potential high orbit propellant sources.

Anyway you look at it, the blue numbers from conventional wisdom are inflated.

**INFLATED DELTA Vs**by Hollister David (2012)

## Delta-V Maps

These are "maps" of the delta-V cost to move from one "location" to another (instead of maps of the distance from one location to another). A spacecraft with propellant in the tanks has a delta-V reserve (NASA calls it the delta-V "budget"). Spacecraft "spend" delta-V from their budget to "pay" for the cost of moving from one location to another (what they actually do is burn their rocket engine to expend propellant and thus perform a maneuver). The unit of currency in the delta-V budget is the meter per second of velocity change (abbreviated as "m/s"). If you'd rather use larger denominations then 1,000 m/s of delta-V is equal to 1 kilometer per second of delta-V ("km/s").

Keep in mind that some of the locations are actually orbits. And keep in mind that the "locations" are just useful waypoints spacecraft use to get from one interesting planet/moon/whatever to another. Meaning that there are actually infinitely many "locations", but most of them do not lead to anywhere except a one-way trip into the inky depths of space. We didn't bother to put such worthless locations on the map because what's the point?

If there is a planet with an atmosphere involved and your spacecraft has an aeroshell, then "aerobraking" may be used *(i.e., diving through the planet's atmosphere to use friction to burn off delta-V for free in lieu of expending expensive propellant)*. There is a limit to how much delta-V can be gotten rid of by aerobraking. The general rule is that aerobraking can kill a velocity approximately equal to the escape velocity of the planet where the aerobraking is performed

*(10 km/s for Venus, 11 km/s for Terra, 5 km/s for Mars, 60 km/s for Jupiter, etc.)*.

Finally, all these maps show the minimum delta-V cost for travel. This is because for most near-future spacecraft their delta-V budgets are quite tiny. In other words the spacecraft are poor and can only afford to purchase shoddy items from the dollar store. In this case, "shoddy items" means Hohmann Transfer orbits. They are shoddy because they take a long time to travel (e.g., about nine months to travel from Terra to Mars) and because you can only use it when the launch window opens (e.g., every 26 months for Terra to Mars). Transit time and launch windows to a few major destinations can be found here.

The flip side is if you have a far-future spacecraft with an outrageously huge delta-V budget (a "torchship"), you do not need any of these maps. You just point your ship at the destination and ignite the engines. To find the delta-V cost and transit time refer to the Mission Tables under the columns labeled "Brachistochrone".

**LEO:**Low Earth Orbit. Earth orbit from 160 kilometers to 2,000 kilometers from the Earth's surface (below 200 kilometers Earth's atmosphere will cause the orbit to decay). The International Space Station is in an orbit that varies from 320 km to 400 km.**GEO:**Geosynchronous Earth Orbit. Earth orbit at 42,164 km from the Earth's center (35,786 kilometres from Earth's surface). Where the orbital period is one sidereal day. A satellite in GEO where the orbit is over the Earth's equator is in**geostationary**orbit. Such a satellite as viewed from Earth is in a fixed location in the sky, which is intensely desirable real-estate for telecommunications satellites. These are called "Clarke orbits" after Sir. Arthur C. Clarke. Competition is fierce for slots in geostationary orbit, slots are allocation by the International Telecommunication Union.**EML1:**Earth-Moon Lagrangian point 1. On the line connecting the centers of the Earth and the Moon, the L1 point is where the gravity of the two bodies cancels out. It allows easy access to both Earth and Lunar orbits, and would be a good place for an orbital propellant depot and/or space station. It has many other uses. It is about 344,000 km from Earth's center.

**Rocket Flight Delta-V Map**

Fan map made by me for tabletop boardgame Rocket Flight (1999). Click for larger image

In the also regrettably out of print game Rocket Flight the map is ruled off in hexagons of delta V instead of hexagons of distance (wargames use hexagons instead of squares so that diagonal movement is the same distance as orthogonal). Moving from one hex to an adjacent hex represents a delta V of 3 kilometers per second. This also means that in this map each hexagon represents an entire orbit (instead of a location), due to "rotating frames of reference" (no, I do not quite understand that either; but people I know who are more mathematically knowledgable than I have assured me that it is a brilliant idea).

In order to move to an adjacent hexagon in one turn, the spacecraft has to expend propellant mass points. To discover how much, refer to the table and cross reference the spacecraft propulsion's specific impulse with the spacecraft's dry mass points:

Specific Impulse | Dry Mass 0 to 5 | Dry Mass 6 to 10 | Dry Mass 11 to 20 | Dry Mass 21 to 30 | Dry Mass 31 to 99 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

800 km/s | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0.1 |

100 km/s | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0.5 |

32 km/s | 0 | 0 | 0.5 | 0.5 | 1 |

16 km/s | 0 | 0.5 | 1 | 1 | 2 |

8 km/s | 0.5 | 1 | 2 | 2 | 4 |

4 km/s | 1 | 1 | 3 | 4 | 7 |

3 km/s | 1 | 2 | 4 | 6 | 10 |

2 km/s | 2 | 3 | 4 | 9 | 15 |

1 km/s | 4 | 8 | 16 | 24 | 40 |

If you want to move two hexes in one turn, you have to burn four times the specified number of propellant points. You can move three hexes for eight times the propellant, four hexes for 16 times the propellant, and 5 hexes for 32 times the propellant. Which is why most people opt to just move one hex per turn unless it is an emergency.

However, the various propulsion systems have a maximum mass flow rate, which is the maximum number of propellant points it can expend in one turn. This corresponds to the spacecraft's acceleration rate.

**High Frontier Delta-V Map**

The black hexagons are **sites**, which are planets, moons, and asteroid spacecraft can land on. some planets are composed of several sites, *e.g.,* the planet Mars is composed of three sites: North Pole, Hellas Basin Buried Glaciers, and Arsia Mons Caves.

Sites are connected by lines called **routes** which are paths that spacecraft can move along. During the turn, a spacecraft can move as far as it wants along a path, until it encounters a pink circle. In order to enter a pink circle it has to expend one "burn" (paying the 2.5 km/sec delta V cost and also expending a unit of propellant). At the beginning of each turn, a spacecraft is given an allotment of "burns" equal to its acceleration rating. These burns can be used during its turn, unused burns are lost. Remember in order to use a burn the spacecraft must pay a point of propellant.

When a spacecraft runs out of burns, it can no longer enter pink circles during this turn. It has to stop on any "Intersections" on its current path prior to the pink circle. And when a spacecraft runs out of propellant, it can no longer make burns at all until it is refueled no matter what turn it is.

The number of propellant units and the acceleration rating of a spacecraft depends upon its propulsion system and mass ratio.

Different routes cross each other. If one of the routes has a gap (so it appears that one route goes "over" and the other goes "under", see "No Intersection" in the diagram) the two routes are not connected. If both routes have no gaps they are connected, this is called a "Hohmann Intersection". If the place the two routes cross is marked with a circle they are connected, this is called a "Lagrange Intersection." At the end of a turn all spacecraft must be occupying either an Intersection or a Site.

A spacecraft can turn at an Interstection to switch from the route it is on to the route it was crossing (otherwise it has to stay on its current route). It costs one burn to turn at a Hohmann intersection, turning at a Lagrange intersection is free (due to gravity being negated by a nearby planet).

Some Lagrange intersections are marked with symbols:

- Skull and Crossed Bones: a Crash Hazard. Spacecraft has to roll a die to see if it crashes and is destroyed.
- Parachute: an Aerobrake Hazard. Spacecraft has to roll a die. If it rolls 2 to 6, it successfully areobrakes, and can now move to land on a Site with no cost in propellant. If it rolls a 1, it burns up in reentry and is destroyed. Spacecraft with Atmospheric ISRU Scoops are immune to Aerobrake Hazards, they are automatically successful. In addition such spacecraft can refuel if they ends their move there. A spacecraft using one of the three kinds of lightpressure sail propulsion is automatically destroyed if it enters an Aerobrake Hazard.
- Number: Gravitational Slingshot. Spacecraft obtains that number of extra burns
*which do not require propellant to be expended*. These burns can be used in the remainder of the game turn. NASA loves gravitational slingshots and use them at every opportunity. - Lunar Crescent: Moon Boost. As per Gravitational Slingshot, except it only gives +1 extra propellant-free burn.
- Nuclear Trefoil: Radiation Belt. Spacecraft entering this suffer a radiation attack. Roll one die and subtract the spacecraft's modified thrust to find the radiation level (the faster you can fly the lower the radiation dose). All spacecraft systems with a radiation hardness lower than the radiation level are destroyed. If sunspots are active add 2 to the die roll. The UN Cycler is immune to the Earth radiation belt. Spacecraft with a sail propulsion system are immune to radiation belts. Spacecraft with Magnetic Sails are immune and in addition get a Moon Boost.

Tabletop boardgame High Frontier (2010)

The concentric gold circles show solar intensity, used for figuring thrust of solar sails.The lop-eared bunny rabbit head slightly above center is the "rabbit hole." This is the FTL jump point from Attack Vector: Tactical.

Tabletop boardgame High Frontier (2010)

Earth has lots of Radiation Belt hazards due to the Van Allen Belt. The Earth Flyby Lagrange Intersection is a +2 Gravitational Slingshot. Luna has two Moon Boost Lagrange Intersections.

Tabletop boardgame High Frontier (2010)The planet Mars is composed of three sites: North Pole, Hellas Basin Buried Glaciers, and Arsia Mons Caves (black hexagons). Spacecraft can attempt to Aerobrake into Arisa Mons (little parachute symbol). If it tries to Aerobrake into Hellas Basin it also has to run the risk of deadly dust stormes (skull-and-crossbones symbol). Entering the North Pole requires doing a burn for a change-of-plane maneuver to enter a polar orbit (pink circle labeled "polar insert"). The Mars Flyby Lagrange Intersection is a +1 Gravitational Slingshot.

Tabletop boardgame High Frontier (2010)

**High Trader Delta-V Map**

A pity this game never saw the light of day.

Each triangle or diamond shape is an Orbital. Spacecraft in orbitals must always be facing one of the sides of the orbital. Turning to face an adjacent side requires one burn of 2.5 km/s delta V. Spacecraft can move from the orbital they are in, jumping over the face they are pointing at, and enter the next orbital. There is no cost to do so unless the face has a Burn Dot on it. In that case the spacecraft must expend one burn of 2.5 km/s delta V. If the spacecraft does not have that much delta V left it is forbidden to cross the Burn Dot.

Each new orbital entered adds 2 months to the spacecraft's travel time.

Tabletop boardgame High Trader (never released)

The white lop-eared bunny rabbit head in upper left corner is the "rabbit hole." This is the FTL jump point from Attack Vector: Tactical.

Tabletop boardgame High Trader (never released)Tabletop boardgame High Trader (never released)