# Mission Delta V and Flight Times

## Appendix 2

## Spaceship Handbook Mission Table

This is a table of mission parameters calculated by Jon C. Rogers for the book Spaceship Handbook. It lists **round-trip missions** starting at Terra's surface, traveling to and landing on the destination planet *(or at low orbit for Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune; due to the fact that the atmospheric pressure of these planets will crush your spacecraft like a cheap beer can)* then lifting off, traveling back to and landing on Terra.

Six trajectories are listed, three impulse types and three constant acceleration brachistochrone types. "Impulse" means the spacecraft makes an initial burn then coasts for months.

Impulse trajectory I-1 is pretty close to a Hohmann minimum delta V / maximum time orbit, but with a slightly higher delta V. Impulse trajectory I-3 is near the transition between delta V levels for high impulse trajectories and low brachistochrone trajectories *(it is a hyperbolic solar escape orbit plus 30 km/s)*. Impulse trajectory I-2 is in-between I-1 and I-3 *(it is equivalent to an elliptical orbit from Mercury to Pluto)*.

Brachistochrone trajectories are labeled by their level of constant acceleration: 0.01 g, 0.10 g, and 1.0 g.

These values were calculated with a complicated mathematical model, and take more factors into account than the few I've covered.

I've only listed some of the planets. For the full table refer to the book.

Destination | Impulse | Brachistochrone | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

I-1 | I-2 | I-3 | 0.01g | 0.10g | 1.00g | |

Mercury | 48,740 (8m) | 75,210 (2.5m) | 106,230 (2m) | 397,000 (33d) | 1,205,000 (13d) | 3,794,000 (4d) |

Venus | 30,270 (9.6m) | 63,330 (1m) | 98,620 (21d) | 281,000 (19d) | 815,000 (8d) | 2,552,000 (3d) |

Luna | 16,480 (9d) | - | - | - | - | 260,000 (7h) |

Mars | 29,930 (17m) | 52,930 (2m) | 94,110 (1.5m) | 370,000 (30d) | 1,115,000 (12d) | 3,508,000 (4d) |

Ceres | 33,430 (2y7m) | 44,730 (7.5m) | 92,1600 (5m) | 655,000 (63d) | 2,040,000 (23d) | 6,441,000 (8d) |

Jupiter | 69,990 (5y5m) | 72,690 (1y10m) | 118,010 (1y) | 1,000,000 (3.5m) | 3,142,000 (36d) | 9,930,000 (12d) |

Ganymede | 61,880 (5y5m) | 56,250 (1y10m) | 67,130 (1y) | 1,001,000 (3.5m) | 3,145,000 (36d) | 9,938,000 (12d) |

Saturn | 57,690 (12y1m) | 55,770 (4y11m) | 108,680 (2y3m) | 1,420,000 (5m) | 4,477,000 (52d) | 14,153,000 (17d) |

Titan | 49,670 (12y1m) | 42,750 (4y11m) | 56,660 (2y3m) | 1,421,000 (5m) | 4,479,000 (52d) | 14,160,000 (17d) |

Mr. Rogers had this to say about his table:

## Erik Max Francis' Mission Tables

Below are a series of tables for Hohmann transfer delta V requirments. Unlike the above table, they are for **one-way trips** to various destinations. For instance, the above table will give requirements for a **Terra-Mars-Terra** mission, but the tables below will give requirements for a **Terra-Mars** mission.

The tables assume that an orbit for each of the bodies is 100 km altitude *(even for pointlessly tiny ones like Phobos and Deimos)*, and for surface launches it is presumed that all the bodies have no atmosphere *(not true for, say, Titan)*.

The tables were created by Erik Max Francis' amazing Hohmann orbit calculator and the easy to use Python programming language *(sample program here and here)*.

### Delta V Required for Travel Using Hohmann Orbits

#### Table Legend

- Start and destination planets are labeled along axes.
- Values are in meters per second.
- Values below the diagonal in
**blue**are delta V's needed to go from orbit around one world to orbit around the other, landing on neither. - Values above the diagonal in
**red**are delta V's needed to go from the surface of one world to the surface of the other, taking off and landing. If either is a gas giant, a 100 kilometer orbit is used instead of the planet's surface. - Diagonal values in
**gold**are delta V's needed to take off from the surface of a world and go into circular orbit around it, or to land from a circular orbit.

#### Solar System

Mercury | Venus | Earth | Mars | Vesta | Juno | Eugenia | Ceres | Pallas | Jupiter | Saturn | Uranus | Neptune | Pluto | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mercury | 2,945 | 19,852 | 23,523 | 23,143 | 24,486 | 24,991 | 25,050 | 25,059 | 25,094 | 36,121 | 30,200 | 26,548 | 27,176 | 24,207 |

Venus | 9,524 | 7,265 | 21,703 | 18,542 | 19,316 | 19,960 | 20,043 | 20,078 | 20,114 | 33,372 | 27,477 | 23,913 | 24,620 | 21,488 |

Earth | 13,094 | 6,887 | 7,847 | 16,540 | 16,368 | 17,035 | 17,124 | 17,170 | 17,204 | 31,642 | 25,705 | 22,169 | 22,918 | 19,679 |

Mars | 16,876 | 7,887 | 5,748 | 3,502 | 7,525 | 8,323 | 8,437 | 8,524 | 8,555 | 25,265 | 19,694 | 16,475 | 17,390 | 14,026 |

Vesta | 21,371 | 11,832 | 8,756 | 4,041 | 234 | 1,167 | 1,312 | 1,544 | 1,544 | 20,966 | 15,834 | 12,960 | 14,059 | 10,529 |

Juno | 21,978 | 12,580 | 9,528 | 4,950 | 933 | 77 | 233 | 625 | 578 | 20,367 | 15,253 | 12,423 | 13,558 | 9,968 |

Eugenia | 22,075 | 12,700 | 9,654 | 5,102 | 1,124 | 127 | 44 | 496 | 443 | 20,264 | 15,152 | 12,328 | 13,469 | 9,869 |

Ceres | 21,863 | 12,514 | 9,477 | 4,963 | 1,116 | 279 | 191 | 320 | 755 | 20,172 | 15,041 | 12,216 | 13,360 | 9,751 |

Pallas | 21,943 | 12,596 | 9,558 | 5,041 | 1,160 | 269 | 172 | 233 | 242 | 20,175 | 15,051 | 12,229 | 13,374 | 9,764 |

Jupiter | 33,159 | 26,048 | 24,192 | 21,956 | 20,813 | 20,318 | 20,252 | 19,933 | 19,982 | 42,530 | 28,237 | 24,085 | 24,765 | 20,493 |

Saturn | 27,239 | 20,156 | 18,259 | 16,392 | 15,682 | 15,205 | 15,140 | 14,806 | 14,862 | 28,237 | 25,495 | 16,875 | 17,573 | 12,786 |

Uranus | 23,588 | 16,594 | 14,726 | 13,177 | 12,809 | 12,374 | 12,316 | 11,982 | 12,041 | 24,085 | 16,875 | 15,082 | 13,153 | 7,760 |

Neptune | 24,217 | 17,302 | 15,476 | 14,093 | 13,908 | 13,510 | 13,457 | 13,126 | 13,186 | 24,765 | 17,573 | 13,153 | 16,623 | 8,114 |

Pluto | 20,432 | 13,355 | 11,420 | 9,912 | 9,560 | 9,100 | 9,038 | 8,697 | 8,757 | 19,670 | 11,957 | 6,921 | 7,267 | 802 |

#### Moons of Mars

Phobos | Deimos | |
---|---|---|

Phobos | 3 | 745 |

Deimos | 744 | 1 |

#### Moons of Jupiter

Metis | Adrastea | Amalthea | Io | Europa | Ganymede | Callisto | Himalia | Elara | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Metis | 7 | 109 | 4,970 | 13,485 | 15,561 | 17,006 | 17,380 | 15,589 | 15,574 |

Adrastea | 85 | 8 | 4,877 | 13,410 | 15,495 | 16,949 | 17,330 | 15,549 | 15,534 |

Amalthea | 4,922 | 4,826 | 54 | 9,392 | 11,876 | 13,814 | 14,596 | 13,367 | 13,355 |

Io | 11,768 | 11,690 | 7,625 | 1,761 | 5,689 | 8,022 | 9,431 | 9,560 | 9,558 |

Europa | 14,182 | 14,113 | 10,452 | 2,545 | 1,388 | 5,504 | 6,855 | 7,705 | 7,709 |

Ganymede | 15,107 | 15,047 | 11,871 | 4,385 | 2,177 | 1,902 | 5,772 | 6,626 | 6,636 |

Callisto | 15,676 | 15,624 | 12,850 | 6,004 | 3,748 | 2,127 | 1,691 | 5,065 | 5,083 |

Himalia | 15,542 | 15,499 | 13,279 | 7,806 | 6,281 | 4,676 | 3,305 | 59 | 158 |

Elara | 15,558 | 15,515 | 13,297 | 7,834 | 6,316 | 4,717 | 3,355 | 41 | 20 |

#### Moons of Saturn

Epimetheus | Janus | Mimas | Enceladus | Tethys | Dione | Rhea | Titan | Iapetus | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Epimetheus | 15 | 72 | 1,521 | 3,156 | 4,374 | 5,552 | 6,768 | 9,230 | 8,481 |

Janus | 17 | 26 | 1,515 | 3,149 | 4,368 | 5,546 | 6,762 | 9,224 | 8,475 |

Mimas | 1,428 | 1,416 | 92 | 1,676 | 2,943 | 4,188 | 5,514 | 8,302 | 7,703 |

Enceladus | 3,044 | 3,031 | 1,490 | 112 | 1,384 | 2,653 | 4,077 | 7,249 | 6,827 |

Tethys | 4,121 | 4,108 | 2,617 | 1,023 | 258 | 1,568 | 2,969 | 6,422 | 6,132 |

Dione | 5,216 | 5,203 | 3,780 | 2,217 | 971 | 333 | 1,891 | 5,559 | 5,391 |

Rhea | 6,340 | 6,328 | 5,016 | 3,553 | 2,297 | 1,116 | 422 | 4,565 | 4,469 |

Titan | 7,367 | 7,355 | 6,369 | 5,292 | 4,321 | 3,371 | 2,276 | 1,832 | 3,977 |

Iapetus | 8,104 | 8,093 | 7,258 | 6,359 | 5,523 | 4,698 | 3,681 | 1,736 | 360 |

#### Moons of Uranus

Miranda | Ariel | Umbriel | Titania | Oberon | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Miranda | 115 | 1,215 | 1,889 | 2,834 | 3,137 |

Ariel | 720 | 364 | 1,332 | 2,218 | 2,533 |

Umbriel | 1,431 | 593 | 338 | 1,629 | 1,918 |

Titania | 2,194 | 1,312 | 730 | 514 | 1,566 |

Oberon | 2,530 | 1,663 | 1,060 | 496 | 483 |

### Synodic Periods and Transit Times for Hohmann Travel

Here are some Synodic Periods and Transit Times for Hohmann Travel tables. Remember that Synodic periods are how often Hohmann launch windows occur. These too were created by Erik Max Francis' Hohmann orbit calculator.

#### Table Legend

- In both sections,
**"y"**means "years",**"m"**means "months",**"d"**means "days", and**"h"**means "hours" **Synodic periods***(i.e., frequency of Hohmann launch windows)*are above the diagonal in**red****Transit times**are below the diagonal in**blue**

#### Solar System

Mercury | Venus | Earth | Mars | Vesta | Juno | Eugenia | Ceres | Pallas | Jupiter | Saturn | Uranus | Neptune | Pluto | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mercury | 4.7m | 3.8m | 3.3m | 3.1m | 3.1m | 3.1m | 3.0m | 3.0m | 2.9m | 2.9m | 2.9m | 2.9m | 2.9m | |

Venus | 2.5m | 1y, 7.2m | 11.0m | 8.9m | 8.6m | 8.6m | 8.5m | 8.5m | 7.8m | 7.5m | 7.4m | 7.4m | 7.4m | |

Earth | 3.5m | 4.8m | 2y, 1.6m | 1y, 4.6m | 1y, 3.6m | 1y, 3.4m | 1y, 3.3m | 1y, 3.3m | 1y, 1.1m | 1y, 0.4m | 1y, 0.1m | 1y, 0.1m | 1y, 0.0m | |

Mars | 5.6m | 7.1m | 8.5m | 3y, 10.8m | 3y, 3.7m | 3y, 2.9m | 3y, 2.2m | 3y, 2.1m | 2y, 2.8m | 2y, 0.1m | 1y, 11.1m | 1y, 10.8m | 1y, 10.7m | |

Vesta | 9.7m | 11.5m | 1y, 1.1m | 1y, 4.2m | 21y, 8.2m | 18y, 11.7m | 17y, 2.4m | 16y, 11.6m | 5y, 2.7m | 4y, 1.6m | 3y, 9.5m | 3y, 8.5m | 3y, 8.2m | |

Juno | 11.3m | 1y, 1.2m | 1y, 2.9m | 1y, 6.2m | 1y, 11.9m | 151y, 11.1m | 83y, 1.8m | 77y, 11.1m | 6y, 10.6m | 5y, 1.3m | 4y, 7.1m | 4y, 5.7m | 4y, 5.2m | |

Eugenia | 11.6m | 1y, 1.6m | 1y, 3.2m | 1y, 6.5m | 2y, 0.3m | 2y, 2.5m | 183y, 8.3m | 159y, 11.8m | 7y, 2.5m | 5y, 3.4m | 4y, 8.9m | 4y, 7.3m | 4y, 6.8m | |

Ceres | 11.9m | 1y, 1.8m | 1y, 3.5m | 1y, 6.8m | 2y, 0.6m | 2y, 2.9m | 2y, 3.3m | 1239y, 8.2m | 7y, 6.1m | 5y, 5.3m | 4y, 10.4m | 4y, 8.8m | 4y, 8.2m | |

Pallas | 11.9m | 1y, 1.9m | 1y, 3.5m | 1y, 6.9m | 2y, 0.7m | 2y, 2.9m | 2y, 3.3m | 2y, 3.6m | 7y, 6.6m | 5y, 5.6m | 4y, 10.6m | 4y, 9.0m | 4y, 8.5m | |

Jupiter | 2y, 4.0m | 2y, 6.6m | 2y, 8.8m | 3y, 1.0m | 3y, 8.1m | 3y, 10.9m | 3y, 11.3m | 3y, 11.7m | 3y, 11.8m | 19y, 9.6m | 13y, 9.9m | 12y, 9.5m | 12y, 5.7m | |

Saturn | 5y, 6.8m | 5y, 10.2m | 6y, 1.0m | 6y, 6.5m | 7y, 3.6m | 7y, 7.0m | 7y, 7.5m | 7y, 8.0m | 7y, 8.1m | 10y, 0.6m | 45y, 9.8m | 36y, 2.1m | 33y, 8.8m | |

Uranus | 15y, 3.9m | 15y, 8.7m | 16y, 0.6m | 16y, 8.1m | 17y, 8.4m | 18y, 0.9m | 18y, 1.7m | 18y, 2.4m | 18y, 2.5m | 21y, 3.8m | 27y, 3.6m | 171y, 12.0m | 127y, 11.2m | |

Neptune | 29y, 8.2m | 30y, 2.1m | 30y, 7.0m | 31y, 4.3m | 32y, 7.4m | 33y, 0.9m | 33y, 1.9m | 33y, 2.7m | 33y, 2.8m | 36y, 12.0m | 44y, 1.2m | 61y, 1.1m | 499y, 4.3m | |

Pluto | 44y, 1.1m | 44y, 7.8m | 45y, 1.4m | 46y, 0.0m | 47y, 5.1m | 47y, 11.4m | 48y, 0.5m | 48y, 1.4m | 48y, 1.6m | 52y, 4.4m | 60y, 3.6m | 78y, 11.6m | 101y, 11.3m |

#### Moons of Mars

Phobos | Deimos | |
---|---|---|

Phobos | 10h | |

Deimos | 9h |

#### Moons of Jupiter

Metis | Adrastea | Amalthea | Io | Europa | Ganymede | Callisto | Himalia | Elara | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Metis | 31d, 21h | 17h | 9h | 8h | 7h | 7h | 7h | 7h | |

Adrastea | 4h | 18h | 9h | 8h | 7h | 7h | 7h | 7h | |

Amalthea | 5h | 5h | 17h | 14h | 13h | 12h | 12h | 12h | |

Io | 11h | 11h | 13h | 3d, 13h | 2d, 8h | 1d, 23h | 1d, 19h | 1d, 19h | |

Europa | 20h | 20h | 22h | 1d, 7h | 7d, 1h | 4d, 12h | 3d, 14h | 3d, 14h | |

Ganymede | 1d, 12h | 1d, 12h | 1d, 14h | 2d, 2h | 2d, 15h | 12d, 12h | 7d, 9h | 7d, 9h | |

Callisto | 3d, 6h | 3d, 6h | 3d, 9h | 3d, 24h | 4d, 16h | 5d, 19h | 17d, 21h | 17d, 20h | |

Himalia | 45d, 2h | 45d, 2h | 45d, 9h | 46d, 19h | 48d, 6h | 50d, 16h | 55d, 16h | 7050d, 0h | |

Elara | 46d, 17h | 46d, 17h | 47d, 1h | 48d, 11h | 49d, 23h | 52d, 9h | 57d, 11h | 127d, 16h |

#### Moons of Saturn

Epimetheus | Janus | Mimas | Enceladus | Tethys | Dione | Rhea | Titan | Iapetus | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Epimetheus | 1405d, 13h | 2d, 16h | 1d, 10h | 1d, 2h | 22h | 20h | 17h | 17h | |

Janus | 8h | 2d, 16h | 1d, 10h | 1d, 2h | 22h | 20h | 17h | 17h | |

Mimas | 10h | 10h | 3d, 1h | 1d, 21h | 1d, 11h | 1d, 5h | 1d, 0h | 23h | |

Enceladus | 12h | 12h | 14h | 5d, 0h | 2d, 18h | 1d, 23h | 1d, 12h | 1d, 9h | |

Tethys | 15h | 15h | 17h | 19h | 6d, 2h | 3d, 6h | 2d, 3h | 1d, 22h | |

Dione | 19h | 19h | 21h | 1d, 0h | 1d, 4h | 6d, 23h | 3d, 7h | 2d, 20h | |

Rhea | 1d, 4h | 1d, 4h | 1d, 6h | 1d, 10h | 1d, 13h | 1d, 19h | 6d, 7h | 4d, 19h | |

Titan | 3d, 9h | 3d, 9h | 3d, 12h | 3d, 16h | 3d, 22h | 4d, 5h | 4d, 20h | 19d, 23h | |

Iapetus | 14d, 22h | 14d, 22h | 15d, 3h | 15d, 11h | 15d, 19h | 16d, 8h | 17d, 6h | 21d, 20h |

#### Moons of Uranus

Miranda | Ariel | Umbriel | Titania | Oberon | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Miranda | 4d, 4h | 2d, 13h | 1d, 22h | 1d, 19h | |

Ariel | 1d, 0h | 6d, 11h | 3d, 14h | 3d, 3h | |

Umbriel | 1d, 9h | 1d, 16h | 7d, 23h | 6d, 0h | |

Titania | 2d, 8h | 2d, 16h | 3d, 3h | 24d, 13h | |

Oberon | 3d, 7h | 3d, 15h | 4d, 4h | 5d, 12h |