## Introduction

### Initial Notes

There is a nice basic overview of propulsion systems here.

You can spend lots of time researching spacecraft propulsion systems. But you are in luck, I've got some data for you. This is from various places I found around the internet, and no, I didn't keep track of where I got them. Use at your own risk.

If you don't like the values in the table, do some research to see if you can discover values you like better. Also note that the designs in the list are probably optimized for high exhaust velocities at the expense of thrust. There is a chance that some can be altered to give enough thrust for lift-off at the expense of exhaust velocity. Or you can just give up and go beg Mr. Tyco Bass for some atomic tri-tetramethylbenzacarbonethylene. Four drops should do the trick.

Some engines require electricity in order to operate. These have their megawatt requirements listed under "Power Requirements". With these engines, the Engine Mass value includes the mass of the power plant (unless the value includes "+pp", which means the mass value does NOT include the mass of the power plant). The power plant mass can be omitted if the spacecraft relies on beamed power from a remote power station. Alas, I could find no figures on the mass of the power plant. If the plant is nuclear, it probably has a mass of around 0.5 to 10 tons per megawatt. If it is beamed power the mass is of course zero. Efficiency is the percentage of the power requirements megawatts that are actually turned into thrust. The rest becomes waste heat and has to be removed with heat radiators.

T/W >1.0 = Thrust to Weight ratio greater than one? This boils down to: can this engine be used to take off from Terra's surface? If the answer is "no" use it only for orbit to orbit maneuvers. It is calculated by figuring if the given thrust can accelerate the engine mass greater than one gee of acceleration. As a general rule, a practical spacecraft capable of lifting off from the Earth's surface will require a T/W of about 50 to 75.

### SUV class and Economy class

Most propulsion systems fall into two categories: SUV and economy. SUV propulsion is like an SUV automobile: big and muscular, but the blasted thing gets a pathetic three miles to the gallon. Economy propulsion has fantastic fuel economy, but has trouble climbing low hills. In the world of rockets, good fuel economy means a high "specific impulse" (Isp) and high exhaust velocity. And muscle means a high thrust.

The technical terms for SUV high-thrust + low-specific-impulse are Specific-Impulse Limited and High-Thrust Systems. Typical examples are chemical and solid-core nuclear thermal. These usually create the exhaust velocity by thermal means (heat), so they are limited by how hot you can get the exhaust (limited by chemical energy or limited by the melting point of the rocket engine).

The technical terms for Economy low-thrust + high-specific-impulse are Specific-Mass Limited, Low-Thrust Systems, and Power-Limited Systems. Typical example is an ion drive. "Specific Mass" or "Alpha" (α) is the mass of the propulsion system divided by the thrust power. These are usually electrically powered rockets, which is why they are power-limited.

The only vaguely possible propulsion system that has both high exhaust velocity and high thrust is the Nuclear Salt Water Rocket, and not a few scientist have questions about its feasibility. Well, actually there is also Project Orion, but that has other problems (see below). In science fiction, one often encounters the legendary "fusion drive" or "torchship", which is a high exhaust velocity + high thrust propulsion system that modern science isn't sure is even possible.

## The Drive Table

Note that this table only contains engines for which I have data for the engine's thrust. There are a few for which I only have the specific impulse (e.g., Positron Ablative, LH2/Fluorine, Photon, etc.). These do not appear on the table but they have entries below.

All drives listed in the table whose names end in "MAX" require some sort of technological breakthrough to to prevent the engine from vaporizing and/or absurdly large reaction chamber sizes.

If these figures result in disappointing rocket performance, in the name of science fiction you can tweak some of them and claim it was due to a technological advance. You are allowed to tweak anything who's name does not end in "MAX". You can alter the Thrust, Engine Mass, and/or the Eff, but no other values. If there is a corresponding "MAX" entry for the engine you are tweaking, you cannot alter any of the values above the "MAX" entry (i.e., you are not allowed to tweak NTR-SOLID-DUMBO's thrust above 7,000,000, which is the value in the NTR-SOLID MAX entry).

The engines are sorted by thrust power, since that depends on both exhaust velocity and thrust. So engines that high in both of those parameters will be towards the end of the list. This is useful for designers trying to make spacecraft that can both blast-off from a planet's surface and do efficient orbital transfers.

As Philip Eklund noted in his game High Frontier, the engines fall into three rough categories: megawatt thrusters (thrust power), gigawatt thrusters, and terawatt thrusters. Though if you want to be pedantic the radioisotope, ArcJet, and HOPE MPD engines are kilowatt thrusters. The resistojet is a hectowatt thruster and the poor little DAWN NSTAR is a pathetic watt thruster.

If one was trying to design a more reasonable strictly orbit-to-orbit spacecraft one would want the engine list sorted by exhaust velocity. And surface-to-orbit designers would want the list sorted by thrust. Sorry, you'll have to do that yourself.

PropulsionCodeThrust
Power
Exhaust
Velocity
(m/s)
Specific
Impulse
(s)
Thrust
(N)
Engine
Mass
(kg)
T/W
DAWN mission NSTARESTAT1.37 W30,4113,1009.00e-05263.60e-07
ResistojetETHERM725 W2,9002961
ArcJetETHERM20 kW20,0002,0392
HOPE Cargo MPDEMAG432 kW78,5008,00211
HOPE Tanker MPDEMAG432 kW78,5008,00211
START OF MEGAWATT THRUSTERS
PropulsionCodeThrust
Power
Exhaust
Velocity
(m/s)
Specific
Impulse
(s)
Thrust
(N)
Engine
Mass
(kg)
T/W
HOPE Crew MPDEMAG1.1 MW78,5008,00228
Magneto Inertial Fusion (low)PULSE2.6 MW50,4205,140103
VASIMR (low gear)EMAG5.9 MW29,0002,95640010,0000.004
VASIMR (high gear)EMAG5.9 MW294,00029,9694010,0004.08e-04
VASIMR (med gear)EMAG5.8 MW147,00014,9858010,0008.15e-04
Space Shuttle RCSCHEM LIQ6.0 MW3,1003163,8704106.620
Mirror SteamerBEAM12.8 MW9,8101,0002,60020,9770.013
Monatomic-H MITEENTR SOLID15.0 MW12,7501,3002,3502001.198
HybridMITEEETHERM15.0 MW17,6601,8001,70010,0000.017
PropulsionCodeThrust
Power
Exhaust
Velocity
(m/s)
Specific
Impulse
(s)
Thrust
(N)
Engine
Mass
(kg)
T/W
AIMPULSE16.5 MW598,00060,95855
Solar MothBEAM18.0 MW9,0009174,0001004.077
Antimatter-Driven SailNTR FRAG19.5 MW73,6007,5005301090.496
Umbrella ShipESTAT19.7 MW80,4428,200490
ArcJetETHERM31.4 MW19,6202,0003,20022,3690.015
Hall EffectESTAT32.4 MW19,6202,0003,30085,4690.004
Magneto Inertial FusionPULSE36.0 MW49,0004,9951,4709,1000.016
Pulsed Plasmoid ThrusterPULSE43.2 MW78,4808,0001,10083,6110.001
Ponderomotive VASIMREMAG44.2 MW39,2404,0002,25043,7960.005
Wakefield E-BeamETHERM45.1 MW19,6202,0004,60041,8370.011
Ablative LaserBEAM47.1 MW39,2404,0002,40022,2220.011
MPD T-WaveEMAG47.1 MW78,4808,0001,20082,6750.001
Tungsten ResistojetETHERM48.6 MW9,8101,0009,90042,6010.024
NASA space tugCHEM LIQ49.3 MW4,40044922,400199,6000.011
Mass DriverOTHER51.0 MW9,8101,00010,400163,0000.007
Ion DriveESTAT56.7 MW78,4808,0001,444120,1490.001
MET Steamer AmplitronsETHERM58.9 MW9,8101,00012,000123,3020.010
NERVA (CO or N2)NTR SOLID64.9 MW2,64927049,00010,0000.499
LPNTR High GearNTR SOLID65 MW13,2001,3509,8008351.2
Basic MITEENTR SOLID68.7 MW9,8101,00014,0002007.136
NERVA (CO2)NTR SOLID81.0 MW3,30633749,00010,0000.499
NERVA (H2O)NTR SOLID99.0 MW4,04241249,00010,0000.499
HOPE FFRENTR FRAG111.2 MW5,170,000527,01343
Werka FFRENTR FRAG111.2 MW5,170,000527,01343113,4003.90e-05
NERVA (NH3)NTR SOLID125.0 MW5,10152049,00010,0000.499
D-D Fusion InertialPULSE125.6 MW78,4808,0003,200243,3330.001
NERVA (CH4)NTR SOLID154.8 MW6,31864449,00010,0000.499
Twisted Ribbon RD-0140NTR SOLID155.7 MW8,83090035,2802,0001.798
Dusty Plasma (550AU)NTR FRAG165.0 MW15,000,0001,529,052229,0002.49e-04
PropulsionCodeThrust
Power
(MW)
Exhaust
Velocity
(m/s)
Specific
Impulse
(s)
Thrust
(N)
Engine
Mass
(kg)
T/W
Colloid ThrusterESTAT17243,0004,3838,00020,0000.041
LARSNTR LIQUID19619,6202,00020,0001,0002.039
NERVA (H2)NTR SOLID1988,09382549,00010,0000.499
Laser ThermalBEAM26040,0004,07713,00020,0000.066
LPNTR Low GearNTR SOLID29211,9001,21049,0008356.0
Mass DriverOTHER30030,0003,05820,000150,0000.014
Twisted Ribbon NPPSNTR SOLID3079,02492068,0001,8003.851
LighterCHEM LIQ3094,410450140,000
LANTR (high gear)NTR SOLID3099,22194067,000
SNRE-classNTR SOLID3228,83090073,0002,4003.010
Magneto Inertial Fusion (hi)PULSE34850,4205,14013,800
H-B Cat InertialPULSE369156,96016,0004,70065,0890.007
Aluminum/LOX rocketCHEM LIQ3882,649270292,60056,0000.533
NERVA (H)NTR SOLID39216,0001,63149,00010,0000.499
MICF Fusion (cDD 100/sec)FUSION42336,3003,70023,300
Kuck MosquitoCHEM LIQ4844,400449220,000
Vortex Confined (H2)NTR GAS OP49419,6202,00050,400114,1160.045
Pewee-classNTR SOLID511.59,200938111,2003,2403.499
LH2/LOX rocketCHEM LIQ5404,905500220,00026,6670.841
VCR Light Bulb (H2)NTR GAS CL55319,6202,00056,40072,5660.079
LANTR (low gear)NTR SOLID5846,347647184,000
Dual-mode Fission (H2)NTR SOLID6129,8101,000124,70033,0000.385
H-Li6 FusorFUSION658.319,6202,00067,10054,0000.127
Cermet NERVA (H2)NTR SOLID6599,8101,000134,40032,5460.421
Z-Pinch MicrofissionPULSE667156,96016,0008,500193,3330.004
Afterburner FFRENTR FRAG730313,90032,0004,651268,9610.002
Dual-mode PB (H2)NTR SOLID8479,8101,000172,70058,0000.304
Bimodal NTR Solid (NASA)NTR SOLID8988,980915200,0006,6723.056
MICF Fusion (DT 100/sec)FUSION91144,2004,50041,200
START OF GIGAWATT THRUSTERS
PropulsionCodeThrust
Power
(MW)
Exhaust
Velocity
(m/s)
Specific
Impulse
(s)
Thrust
(N)
Engine
Mass
(kg)
T/W
IonESTAT1,050210,00021,40710,000400,0000.003
D-T FusionFUSION1,18822,0002,243108,00010,0001.101
NERVA Deriv (H2)NTR SOLID1,3508,085824334,06110,1003.372
Antimatter BottlePULSE1,36278,4808,00034,700180,0000.020
Metastable He*CHEM1,37643,0004,38364,00010,0000.652
Resuable Nuclear ShuttleNTR SOLID1,3768,000815344,000
Metastable HeliumCHEM1,56729,4303,000106,500
n-6Li MicrofissionPULSE1,570156,96016,00020,000106,6670.019
Pebble Bed (H2)NTR SOLID1,5909,530971333,6171,70020.005
Vapor Core (H2)NTR VAPOR1,6179,800999330,0006,8304.925
Twisted ribbon NTRNTR SOLID1,6509,420960330,0005,2606.4
3He-D Mirror CellFUSION1,664313,92032,00010,600106,6670.010
HOPE MTFFUSION2,005691,46070,4905,798116,0210.005
Cermet (H2)NTR SOLID2,0309,120930445,2679,0005.043
D-T Fusion TokamakFUSION2,23166,8006,80966,800197,0000.035
Widmer Mars MissionNTR SOLID2,3208,000815580,000
p-Nerva (NRX)AM SOLID2,37010,7901,100440,00010,9404.100
Antimatter Solid maxAM SOLID2,37410,7911,100440,000
Dusty Plasma (0.5LY)NTR FRAG2,58015,000,0001,529,0523449,0000.004
Proton RD-253 x1CHEM LIQ2,8363,1003161,830,0001,260148.051
PuFF Pulsed Fission Fusion2,880196,00019,98029,40055,5600.054
Discovery II (MC Toroidal)FUSION3,123347,00035,37218,000
HOPE Z-PinchPULSE3,617189,78019,34638,12095,1380.041
RaptorCHEM LIQ3,7143,7303801,993,000
HELIOS 2nd StageNTR SOLID3,8267,800795981,000
NTR Gas/Closed (H2)NTR GAS CL4,54020,4052,080445,00056,8000.799
Dumbo (CO or N2)NTR SOLID4,6362,6492703,500,0005,00071.356
Atomic V-2NTR SOLID4,7148,9809151,050,0004,20025.484
Fusion Asteroid MinerFUSION4,800100,00010,19048,00010,0000.979
ORION FissionPULSE5,65443,0004,383263,000200,0000.134
Dumbo (CO2)NTR SOLID5,7863,3063373,500,0005,00071.356
THS Fusion Pulse high gearPULSE6,000300,00030,58140,0004,0001.019
THS Fusion Pulse low gearPULSE6,000150,00015,29180,0004,0002.039
PropulsionCodeThrust
Power
(MW)
Exhaust
Velocity
(m/s)
Specific
Impulse
(s)
Thrust
(N)
Engine
Mass
(kg)
T/W
Dumbo (H2O)NTR SOLID7,0744,0424123,500,0005,00071.356
Antiproton SailNTR FRAG8,05930,411,0003,100,000530
Dumbo (NH3)NTR SOLID8,9275,1015203,500,0005,00071.356
ORION FusionPULSE10,65873,0007,441292,000200,0000.149
Dumbo (CH4)NTR SOLID11,0566,3186443,500,0005,00071.356
Saturn-V F-1 x1CHEM LIQ11,5412,9823047,740,5009,15386.206
ACMF (ICAN-II)PULSE11,919132,43513,500180,00027,0000.680
Space Shuttle SSME x3CHEM LIQ12,1154,4444535,452,2009,53158.313
Dumbo (H2)NTR SOLID14,1638,0938253,500,0005,00071.356
Solid rocketCHEM SOLID15,0003,00030610,000,000
Proton RD-253 x6CHEM LIQ16,2283,10031610,470,0007,560141.174
VISTAPULSE20,400170,00017,329240,000
Project OrionPULSE21,73119,6202,0002,215,200203,6801.109
Nuclear DC-X NERVANTR SOLID27,2729,8101,0005,560,000199,6002.840
Dumbo (H)NTR SOLID28,00016,0001,6313,500,0005,00071.356
Mini-Mag Orion (DRM-3)PULSE29,85393,0009,480642,000199,6000.328
Antimatter Plasma (H2O)AM PLASMA29,890980,00099,89861,000500,0000.012
H-B FusionFUSION29,890980,00099,89861,000300,0000.021
Mini-Mag Orion (DRM-1)PULSE29,90693,1649,497642,000119,0460.550
APCP Space Shuttle SRB x2CHEM SOLID31,2002,60026524,000,0001,180,0002.073
ORION USAF 10mPULSE32,90032,9003,3542,000,000107,9001.889
NTR Solid MAXNTR SOLID42,00012,0001,2237,000,00015,00047.571
Gasdynamic MirrorFUSION46,0601,960,000199,79647,000
Nuclear DC-X LANTRNTR SOLID49,2065,90060116,680,000199,6008.519
NTR Liquid maxNTR GAS OP56,00016,0001,6317,000,00070,00010.194
LunaNTR LIQUID56,65010,3001,05011,000,0009,000124.589
PropulsionCodeThrust
Power
(MW)
Exhaust
Velocity
(m/s)
Specific
Impulse
(s)
Thrust
(N)
Engine
Mass
(kg)
T/W
Saturn-V F-1 x5CHEM LIQ58,0543,00030638,702,50045,76586.206
NTR Gas/Open (H2)NTR GAS OP61,25035,0003,5683,500,000200,0001.784
TankerNTR GAS OP61,80335,3163,6003,500,000
AV:T high gearPULSE102,138832,92884,906245,250
NTR Gas/Open 2nd GenNTR GAS OP125,00050,0005,0975,000,000200,0002.548
Mini-Mag OrionPULSE146,795157,00016,0041,870,000199,6000.955
NTR Gas MAXNTR GAS OP147,00098,0009,9903,000,00015,00020.387
NTR Gas/Coaxial (H2)NTR GAS OP157,15617,6581,80017,800,000127,00014.287
Antimatter Plasma (H2)AM PLASMA192,0807,840,000799,18549,000500,0000.010
He3-D FusionFUSION192,0807,840,000799,18549,0001,200,0000.004
MC-Fusion MAXFUSION200,0008,000,000815,49450,0006008.495
P-jet MagnetoInertial (con)FUSION309,3501,189,790121,280520,000
Salt-water ZubrinNTR GAS OP341,26678,4808,0008,696,900495,4671.789
NSWR (20% UTB)NTR GAS OP425,70066,0006,72812,900,00033,00039.848
FS Z-Pinch (p-11Be)FUSION442,0001,300,000132,500680,000
Liberty ShipNTR GAS CL560,70030,0003,05837,380,000378,00010.080
FS Z-Pinch (D-3He)FUSION577,5003,500,000356,800330,000
Cargo Tug SlingshotESTAT764,400280,00028,5425,460,000
Start Of Terawatt Thrusters
PropulsionCodeThrust
Power
(MW)
Exhaust
Velocity
(m/s)
Specific
Impulse
(s)
Thrust
(N)
Engine
Mass
(kg)
T/W
IBS AgamemnonESTAT1,100,000220,00022,42610,000,000
ORION battleshipPULSE1,560,00039,0003,97680,000,0001,700,0004.797
AV:T low gearPULSE2,541,895104,11610,61348,828,125
P-jet MagnetoInertial (med)FUSION2,989,0514,461,270454,7701,340,000
Ghost StarshipFUSION4,237,9205,297,400540,0001,600,000
Epstein DriveFUSION5,500,00011,000,0001,100,0001,000,000
P-jet MagnetoInertial (opt)FUSION7,941,0008,922,480909,5301,780,000
Firefly Starship (Z-Pinch)FUSION12,245,50012,890,0001,313,9701,900,000
NSWR (90% UTB) MAXNTR GAS OP30,550,0004,700,000479,10313,000,000
ORION MAXPULSE39,200,0009,800,000998,9818,000,0008,000101.937
Enzmann StarshipFUSION343,570,50011,700,0001,192,70058,730,000
IC-Fusion MAXPULSE500,000,00010,000,0001,019,368100,000,0001,000,00010.194
Antimatter Beam MAXAM BEAM500,000,000100,000,00010,193,68010,000,00010,000101.937
Frisbee StarshipAM BEAM586,413,00099,900,00010,183,48611,740,000

## Beamed Power

This section has been moved here

### Laser Thermal

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### Laser Sail

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### Solar Moth

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## Chemical

This section has been moved here

### Storeable vs Cryogenic

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### Solid Rocket

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### Liquid Rocket

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#### Methane-Oxygen

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#### Hydrogen-Fluorine

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#### Hydrogen-Oxygen

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#### RP-1 - Oxygen

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#### Hypergolic Fuels

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### Hybrid Rocket

#### Aluminum-Oxygen

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#### ISRU Metal-Oxygen

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### Metastable

#### Atomic Hydrogen

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#### Metallic Hydrogen

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#### Metastable He*

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#### Metastable He IV-A

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## Electromagnetic (Plasma)

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### Electrodeless plasma

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### Helicon Double Layer (HDLT)

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This section has been moved here

### Pulsed Inductive (PIT)

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### Pulsed Plasma (PPT)

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### Pulsed Plasmoid

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### VASIMR

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## Electrostatic

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### Electrostatic Propellant

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### Colloid

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### Field-Emission Electric (FEEP)

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### Hall Effect (HET)

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### Ion

This section has been moved here

This section has been moved here

### ( IBS Agamemnon )

This section has been moved here

## Electrothermal

### ArcJet

This section has been moved here

#### Hybrid ArcJet

This section has been moved here

### Microwave Electrothermal

This section has been moved here

### Resistojet

This section has been moved here

### Wakefield E-Beam

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## Sail

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### Electric Sail

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### Magnetic Sail

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### M2P2

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### MagBeam

This section has been moved here

### Photon Sail

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### Plasma Magnet

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### Q-Drive

This section has been moved here

## Other

### Mass Driver

This section has been moved here

### Photon

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### Tachyon

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### ( Langston Photon )

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### ( Beer )

This section has been moved here

## Antimatter

This section has been moved here

### Antimatter Energy

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### Solid Core

This section has been moved here

### Gas Core

This section has been moved here

### Plasma Core

This section has been moved here

### Antimatter Bottle

This section has been moved here

### Beam Core

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### Positron Ablative

This section has been moved here

## Fusion

This section has been moved here

### Fusion Fuels

This section has been moved here

#### Deuterium-Tritium

This section has been moved here

#### Hydrogen-Boron

This section has been moved here

#### Helium3-Deuterium

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### Confinement

This section has been moved here

#### Inertial Confinement

This section has been moved here

#### Electrostatic Inertial

This section has been moved here

#### Magnetic Confinement

This section has been moved here

##### Linear Fusion

This section has been moved here

##### Toroidal Fusion

This section has been moved here

### Fusion Engines

This section has been moved here

#### Pure Fusion Engines

This section has been moved here

#### Afterburner Fusion Engines

This section has been moved here

#### Dual-Mode Fusion Engines

This section has been moved here

### Nuclear Magnetic Spin Alignment

This section has been moved here

### ( STARFIRE Fusion Afterburner )

This section has been moved here

### ( AV:T Fusion )

This section has been moved here

### ( THS Fusion Pulse )

This section has been moved here

### ( Epstein Drive )

This section has been moved here

## Nuclear Thermal

This section has been moved here

### Solid Core

This section has been moved here

#### NERVA

This section has been moved here

#### Pewee-class

This section has been moved here

#### SNRE-class

This section has been moved here

#### NERVA Derivative

This section has been moved here

#### DUMBO

This section has been moved here

#### Pebble Bed

This section has been moved here

#### Cermet

This section has been moved here

#### Pulsed Solid-core NTR

This section has been moved here

#### Project Timberwind

This section has been moved here

#### Russian Twisted Ribbon

This section has been moved here

#### Low Pressure NTR

This section has been moved here

#### LANTR

This section has been moved here

#### Bi-Modal NTR

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#### MITEE

This section has been moved here

##### Basic

This section has been moved here

##### Monatomic H

This section has been moved here

##### Hybrid

This section has been moved here

### Liquid Core

This section has been moved here

#### LARS

This section has been moved here

### Droplet Core

This section has been moved here

### Vapor Core

This section has been moved here

### Gas Core

This section has been moved here

#### Closed Cycle

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##### NASA Report

This section has been moved here

##### UAC Report

This section has been moved here

##### Pulsed Close Cycle

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#### Open Cycle

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##### General Open Cycle

This section has been moved here

##### Hybrid-Fuel

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##### Coaxial

This section has been moved here

##### Vortex Confined

This section has been moved here

##### Wheel Flow

This section has been moved here

##### Nuclear Salt Water

This section has been moved here

### Fission Fragment

This section has been moved here

#### Fission Fragment

This section has been moved here

#### Afterburner Fission Fragment

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#### Fission Sail

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#### Antimatter-Driven Sail

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## Pulse

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### Orion

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#### Orion Thrust and Isp

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#### Orion Environmental Impact

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### Zeta-Pinch

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#### Zeta-Pinch Fission

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##### Mini-Mag Orion

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##### Z-pinch Microfission

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##### n-Li6 Microfission

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#### Zeta-Pinch Fusion

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### PuFF Pulsed Fission Fusion

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### Medusa

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### Inertial Confinement

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#### Magneto Inertial Fusion

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#### Plasma Jet Magneto Inertial

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### Antimatter Bottle

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### Antimatter catalyzed

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#### AIM

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#### ACMF

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## Watch the Heat

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## Atomic Rockets notices

This week's featured addition is SPIN POLARIZATION FOR FUSION PROPULSION

This week's featured addition is INsTAR

This week's featured addition is NTR ALTERNATIVES TO LIQUID HYDROGEN