Atomic Rockets

Inspired By Reality

These are some spacecraft designs that are based on reality. So they appear quite outlandish and undramatic looking. In the next page will appear designs that are fictional, but much more breathtaking. Obviously these are all NASA style exploration vehicles, they are not very suited for interplanetary combat.

Avatar ISV Venture Star

RocketCat sez

Much as I hate to admit it, the Venture Star is arguably the most scientifically accurate spacecraft in the history of Hollywood. It is a beautiful piece of work, with all the major problems solved. And it has heat radiators!

The good starship ISV Venture Star from the movie Avatar is one of the most scientifically accurate movie spaceships it has ever been my pleasure to see. When I read the description of the ship, I got a nagging feeling that something was familiar. A ship with the engines on the nose, towing the rest of the ship like a water-skier? Wait a minute, that sounds like Charles Pellegrino and Jim Powell's Valkyrie starship.

Well, as it turns out, there was a good reason for that. James Cameron likes scientific accuracy in his movies. So he looked for a scientist who had experience with designing starships. Cameron didn't have to look far. As it turns out he already knew Dr. Pellegrino. This is because Dr. Pellegrino had worked with Cameron on a prior movie, since Dr. Pellegrino is one of the worlds greatest living experts on the Titanic.

After James Cameron had designed all the technical parameters of the Venture Star, master artist Ben Procter worked within those parameters to bring it to life.

Departing from Earth

In the upper diagram is a green arrow at the ship's nose, indicating the direction of flight. The ship is 1.5 kilometers long. In the Sol departure phase, a battery of orbital lasers illuminates a 16 kilometer diameter photon sail attached to the ship's nose (sail not shown). A mirror shield on the ship's rear prevents the laser beams from damaging the ship. The lasers accelerate the ship at 1.5 g for 0.46 year. At the end of this the ship is moving at 70% the speed of light (210,000 kilometers per second).

Keep in mind that battery of orbital lasers is going to have to be absolutely huge if it is going to push a lightsail at 1.5 g. This is not going to be a tiny satellite in LEO.

I cannot calculate the exact power rating since figures on the mass of the ISV Venture Star are conspicuous by their absence. The equation is Vs = (2 * Ev) / (Ms * c) where Vs is the starship acceleration, Eb is the energy of the beam, Ms is the mass of the starship, and c is the speed of light in a vacuum. Dr. Geoffrey Landis says is boils down to 6.7 newtons per gigawatt.

In Dr. Robert Forward's The Flight of the Dragonfly (aka Rocheworld), his starship's light sail is illuminated by a composite laser beam with a strength of 1500 terawatts. This pushes the starship with an acceleration of 0.01g (about 150 times as weak as the acceleration on the Venture Star). The beam is produced by one thousand laser stations in orbit around Mercury (where solar power is readily available in titanic amounts). Each station can produce a 1.5 terawatt beam, 1500 terawatts total. By way of comparison, in the year 2008, the entire Earth consumed electricity at a rate of about 15 terawatts. Since the Venture Star appears to be more massive than Forward's starship, and is accelerating 150 times as fast, presumably its battery of laser cannons is orders of magnitude larger.

As a side note, it is good to remember Jon's Law for SF authors. and The Kzinti Lesson. While technically this laser array is a component of a propulsion system, not a weapon; in practice it will have little difficulty vaporizing an invading alien battlefleet. Or hostile human battlefleet, for that matter (with the definition of "hostile" depending upon who actually controls the laser array). As Commander Susan Ivanova said in the Babylon 5 episode Deathwalker: "Our gun arrays are locked on to your ship, and will fire the instant you come into range. You will find their firepower most impressive ... for a few seconds."

Anyway, after the laser boost period is over, the sail is then collapsed along molecular fold lines by service bots, and stowed in the cargo area. The ship then coasts for the next 5.83 years to Alpha Centauri.

Braking at Alpha Centauri

There are no batteries of laser cannon at Alpha Centauri so the lightsail cannot be used to brake to a halt. Instead, the twin hybrid fusion/matter-antimatter engines are used. These engines are not used for the Sol departure phase because that would increase the propellant requirement by about four times with a corresponding decrease in cargo capacity. The engines burn for 0.46 year, producing 1.5 g of thrust, thus braking the ship from a velocity of 70% c to zero.

Matter and antimatter is annihilated, and the energy release is used both in the form of photons and to heat up hydrogen propellant for thrust. A series of thermal shields near the engines protect the ship's structure from the exhaust heat. The engines are angled outwards a few degrees so that the exhaust does not torch the rest of the ship (exhaust path indicated in diagram by red arrows). This does reduce the effective thrust by an amount proportional to the cosine of the angle but is acceptable.

Why is most of the ship behind the engine exhaust? Because this reduces the mass of the ship. And when you are delta-Ving a ship up to and down from 70% c, every single gram counts. Conventional spacecraft have the engines on the bottom and the rest of the ship build on top like a sky scraper. This design has the engines on the top and the rest of the ship is dragged behind on a long tether (the "tensile truss" on the diagram). The result is a massive reduction in structural mass.

The engines are topped by monumental heat radiators used to get rid of waste heat from the matter-antimatter reaction. According to the description, after the burn is finished, the radiators will glow dull red for a full two weeks.

Cargo Modules

Immediately stern ward of the engines is the cargo section. It is arranged in four ranks of four modules each. Each module contains 6 cargo pods. A mobile transporter with a long arm moves within the cargo section in order to load and unload the shuttles.

Interface Craft

Next comes Two Valkyrie trans-atmospheric vehicles, aka "surface to orbit shuttles." They are docked to pressurized tunnels connected to the habitation section. Each is capable of transporting either:

  1. the contents of two cargo pods and 100 passengers OR
  2. the contents of six cargo pods and no passengers

Habitation Modules

Next come the habitation module. This holds the passengers in suspended animation for the duration of the trip. This is constructed almost totally from non-metallic materials, to prevent secondary radiation from galactic cosmic radiation.

The habitation module's life support system can only support all the passengers being awake for a limited time. There is no problem for the short period when the passengers are woken up and shuttled to the planet's surface. However, if the suspended animation system malfunctioned half-way through the multi-year voyage, life support could not handle it. In theis case, the passengers would be "euthanized" instead of being awakened.

Crew Modules

Next is the two on-duty crew modules. These are spun on the ends of arms to provide artificial gravity. When the ship is under thrust, the spin is taken off, and the arms are folded down along their hinges so that the direction of gravity is in the proper direction.

Shield

Finally comes the shield. While the ship is being boosted by the laser batteries, the shield protect the ship (but not the sail) from the laser beams. After boost, while the ship is coasting at 70% c, the ship is rotated so that the shield is in the direction of travel. The shield is constructed as a Whipple shield, and protects the ship from being damage by grains of dust.

At 70% c relative, each dust grain would have 4,900,000,000 freaking Ricks of damage. This means a typical interstellar dust grain with a mass of 4 x 10-6 grams will hit with the force of 20 kilograms of TNT, or about the force of four anti-tank mines.

When the ship wants to depart Alpha Centauri and return to Sol, it re-fills its antimatter and propellant tanks from the local fueling stations, uses the matter-antimatter engines to boost up to 70% c again, coasts for five-odd years, and is decelerated to a halt by the laser batteries at Sol.

Bono Mars Glider

This is from "A Conceptual Design for a Manned Mars Vehicle" by Philip Bono, in Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 7, pp. 25-42 (1960). Actually since I have yet to locate a copy of the paper, this is mostly from David Portree's article in his always worth reading Beyond Apollo blog.

In 1960 the Boeing Airplane Company was working on the X-20A Dyna-Soar orbital glider for the US Air Force. This inspired Philip Bono to envision a huge version for a Mars mission. Just like the Widmer Mars Mission, it was optimistically scheduled to depart in 1971, to take advantage of the next Hohmann launch window. Oh, isn't it just precious how idealistic we were back in the 1970's?

The Dyna-Soar was only 10.77 meters long and 6.34 meters wide at the tips of its delta wings, carrying a single person. Bono's glider was a monstrous 38 meters long and 29 meters along the wing, carrying a crew of eight. The glider is split into two stages, as part of the strategy to blast off from Mars.

Bono's Mars mission stack had the glider perched on a habitat module, which was in turn perched on a short booster rocket. This is the core. Six full sized booster rockets would be clustered around the core. Stack would be 76 meters tall and have a wet mass of about 3,800 metric tons.

The habitat module is 13.7 meters tall and 5.5 meters in diameter. Internal breathing mix is 40% oxygen + 60% helium, so it's going to be Donald Duck time for the next thirty months. Module has an inflatable 15 meter radio dish to communicate with Terra. It also has a Pratt & Whitney Centaur engine with 89 kiloNewtons of thrust.

Electricity is supplied by a small nuclear reactor located in the glider's nose. Which is why the crew will be spending most of the time living in the habitat module, as far away from the reactor as they can possibly get.

The boosters use plug nozzles instead of conventional bell nozzles to reduce engine mass and cooling requirements. This is why the boosters in the pictures have pointed ends instead of the usual bell-shaped exhaust. The boosters would have a combined thrust of about 40,000 kiloNewtons.

After lift-off, at an altitude of about 60 kilometers, four of the outer boosters would be jettisoned. The stack would continue with just the core and two outer boosters. At 100 kilometers the two remaining outer boosters would be jettisoned. The short core booster continues to burn until the stack enters the trans-Mars trajectory, then it is jettisoned.

If at any point a booster fails, the upper stage of the glider will perform an emergency detachment and do its darnest to land the crew back on Terra.

The stack is oriented with the glider nose aimed at the Sun, to protect the habitat module and its rocket engine from solar heating. The eight crew members leave the glider, crawling through a tunnel to enter the habitat module.

Transit time from Terra to Mars is 259 days. I trust they brought along a poker deck.

Upon arrival at Mars, the habitat module would eject a 9 metric ton capsule containing 256 days worth of eight astronaut's sewage. This would eventually impact Mars' surface, prompting every exobiologist on Terra to howl for Philip Bono's head (now they will never ever be sure if a newly-discovered Martian bacterium is an alien life form or an e. coli fugitive from some astronaut poop).

The eight crew members exit the habitat module and enter the glider. The glider separates from the habitat module and heads for a Mars landing. Meanwhile the habitat moduel uses the Centaur engine for Mars orbit insertion, under automatic control. This means the glider is in for a hot time as it has to aerobrake not only the orbital velocity but also the transfer velocity. But it saves on Centaur fuel. Remember: every gram counts.

The glider enters the Martian atmosphere, slows with a drag parachute, and glides to the landing site. At an altitude of 600 meters it uses three landing engines to hover and gently set down. The glider sits on landing skids with its nose pointed 15° above horizontal (angled for the future blast-off).

(Unfortunately for Bono's design, it was crafted with the assumption that Martian surface air pressure was 8% of Terra. We now know that it is less than 1%. Neither the parachute nor the glider wings would function at all in such a tenuous atmosphere. Oops.)

The crew would remove the reactor from the glider's nose and relocate it about a kilometer away, so the radiation doesn't kill them. It supplies electricity to the camp via cables that are, you guessed it, about a kilometer long. A six meter living dome is inflated, and a two metric ton Mars rover is unpacked.

The crew will live on Mars for the next 479 days, doing scientific research, until the next Mars-Terra Hohmann launch window arrives. Curse those long synodic periods.

On the eve of the launch window, the nuclear reactor is re-mounted on the glider's nose, and the landing rockets are moved so they can serve as ascent engines.

(as a side note, I use the above image as inspiration when I designed the scoutships for an illustration of the tabletop boardgame Stellar Conquest.)

The upper stage of the glider blasts off into orbit, using the lower stage as a launch rail.

In orbit, the glider rendezvouses with the habitat module. The crew perform an EVA to manually dock the glider to the habitat module, and to jettison the empty Centaur engine fuel tank. This torus shaped tank surrounds the fuel tank for the return trip. The empty was retained until now to protect the inner full tank from meteor strikes. But now it has to go because (chorus) every gram counts.

The Centaur engine does a burn to enter a Mars-Terra Hohmann trajectory. Transit time is about 120 days. Time to break out a fresh deck of poker cards.

It is unclear to me from the description if the stack does a further Centaur burn to enter Terra orbit, or if it uses aerobraking. Seeing the strategy of the rest of the mission, my money is on aerobraking. In any event, after the crew enter the glider, they jettison both the habitat module and nuclear reactor (and presumably 120 days worth of sewage). These burn up in the atmosphere, with the reactor causing screams of outrage from the anti-nuclear community.

The glider lands on its skids at a NASA landing site in the desert. The crew open the doors and can now stop talking like Donald Duck. The news reporters take lots of photos as the crew is stuffed into a quarantine unit. True if there were any lethal Martian plague germs the incubation period would probably be less than 120 days, but you can never be too careful with possible Martian versions of The Andromeda Strain.

Basic Solid Core NTR

Overview

RocketCat sez

Now this is design to pay attention to. Dr. Crouch did this one to a queen's taste, with plenty of delicious detail. Even if he did have some outrageous ideas, like detaching the freaking atomic reactor for splashdown and recovery in the Pacific Ocean!

This is from NUCLEAR SPACE PROPULSION by Holmes F. Crouch (1965).

Please note that this is a strict orbit-to-orbit ship. It cannot land on a planet.

The Command Capsule contains the payload, the habitat module for the crew, the ship controls, life-support, navigation equipment, and everything else that is not part of the propellant or propulsion system. It is designed to detach from the ship proper along the "Payload Separation Plane."

The Rocket Reactor is the actual nuclear thermal rocket propulsion system. It too is designed to detach from the ship proper along the "Reactor Separation Plane." This allows such abilities as to jettison the reactor if a criticality accident is immanent, to swap an engine for an undamange or newer model engine, or to return the engine Earth via splashdown.

The book had most of a chapter about returning an engine to various locations in the Pacific ocean where international condemnation was low enough and the problems of designing an ocean-going recovery vessel that can fish the reactor out of the water without exposing the crew to radiation. What an innocent age the 1960's were, that sort of thing would never be allowed nowadays. The illustrations above are provided for their entertainment value.

The propellant tank contains the liquid hydrogen propellant. The payload interstage and the propulsion interstage are integral parts of the propellant tank, and contains hardware items of lesser value than the payload and the reactor. The propulsion interstage also contains the attitude jets. As with all rockets, the propellant and its tank dominate the mass of the spacecraft. A larger propellant tank or smaller strap-on tanks can be added to increase the mass ratio. Note that the main propellant tank is load-bearing, it has to support the thrust from the engine. But the strap-on tanks are not load-bearing, they can be made lightweight and flimsy.

ItemMass (kg)Average Diameter (m)Overall Length (m)
Payload15,0004.579.14
Engine6,8001.52 to 3.056.10
Tank (empty)22,7007.3238.1
Tank (full)90,700--

Sample specifications : wet mass: 112,500 kg, maximum thrust 445 kN, specfic impulse 800 seconds. That implies a thrust-to-weight ratio of 0.4, which is its acceleration in gs when the propellant tank is full. The figures below imply a mass ratio of 1.5, and a ΔV capability of 3,200 meters per second. The book implied that a solid core engine could be devloped up to a specific impulse of 1000 seconds, with a max of 12,000 seconds (but at max you'll be spewing molten reactor bits in your exhaust). A later design in the book had a specific impulse of 1000 seconds and a ΔV capability of 15,000 m/s (which implies a mass ratio of about 4.6, which is a bit over the rule-of-thumb maximum of 4.0). Please note that the dimensions below were originally in feet and pounds in the book, that's why they are such odd numbers (e.g., 1.52 meters is 5 feet).

Rescue Ship

This is a variant on the basic NTR rocket: the nuclear rescue ship. This is for use by the outer-space version of the Coast Guard.

Note the "Neutron isolation shield" between the two reactors. Nuclear reactors are throttled by carefully controlling the amount of available neutrons within the reactor. A second reactor randomly spraying extra neutrons into the first reactor is therefore a Bad Thing. "Neutronically isolated" is a fancy way of saying "preventing uninvited neutrons from crashing the party."

Reactor

The propulsion interstage is the non-nuclear part of the propulsion subsystem. It contains the propellant plumbing, the turbopump, and the attitude control system.

The nuclear part of the propulsion system is the rocket reactor. This is basically the reactor, the exhaust nozzle, and the radiation shadow shield.

The rocket reactor is designed to be detachable from the rest of the spacecraft.

Shadow Shield

The shadow shield casts a protective shadow free from deadly radiation. Care has to be taken or other objects can scatter radiation into the rest of the ship. Any side tanks will have to be truncated so they do not emerge from the shadow. Otherwise they will be subject to neutron embrittlement, and they will also scatter radiation. The reason the reactor does not have shielding all around it is because the shielding very dense and savagely cuts into payload mass allowance. The shadow shield typically casts a 10 degree half-angle shadow.

Note that shadow shields will more or less force the docking port on the ship to be in the nose, or the other ship will be outside of the shadow and exposed to reactor radiation.

When the reactor is idling, the shadow shield does not have to be as thick. In order to widen the area of shadow (for adding side tanks or whatever), the secondary shadow shield could extrude segments as extendable side shields.

Plug Nozzle

For nuclear thermal rockets, the exhaust bell tends to be about twice the size of a corresponding chemical rocket nozzle. A small concern is meteors. While very rare, the shape of the bell will funnel any meteors into a direct strike on the base of the reactor. This can be avoided by replacing the bell nozzle with a Plug Nozzle.

The basic design uses a bell nozzle, and powers the attitude jets from the reactor. This might not be the best solution. Compared to a chemical rocket, the moment of inertia of a nuclear rocket is about ten to thirty times as large (diagram omitted). This is due to the larger mass of the engine (because of the reactor) and due to the more elongated shape of the nuclear rocket (because of the shadow cast by the shadow shield, and designers taking advantage of radiation's inverse square law). Taking into account the relative moment arms, the attitude jets will have to be four to twelve times as powerful. Conventional attitude jets might not be adequate.

Also note that with this design, the attitude jets cannot be used during a main engine burn. Further: attitude jets are pulse reaction devices (maximum change in the minimum time). Also there is a mandatory delay time between reaction pulses to permit the nozzles to cool off and to allow propellant feed oscillations to dampen out. None of these limits work well with nuclear thermal rockets.

Mr. Crouch suggests that the basic problem is that bell nozzles are not the optimal solution for nuclear engines. He suggests that plug nozzles (aka "annual throat nozzle") can solve the problems. Plug nozzles have problems with chemical rockets, but have advantages with nuclear rockets. Mr. Crouch mentions that wide design flexibity arises from the fact that the outer boundary radius (rβ) and cowl lip angle (β) can be varied. Translation: you can design a hinge into the shroud that will allow the cowl lip to wiggle back and forth. This will allow thrust vectoring.

Mr. Crouch also likes how a plug nozzle can be structurally integrated into the reactor, unlike a conventional bell nozzle. It is also nice that the subsonic setion of the nozzle requires structural support in the very region where the core exit needs support. What a happy coincidence! The support grid, the plenum chamber, the plug body, and the plug supports could be integrated into one common structure. You will, however, have to ensure that the hot propellant passes through the plug body support, not across it.

Note the reversed curvature of the propellant flow. This allows placement of neutron reflection material to prevent neutrons going to waste out the tail pipe. The propellant can move in curves, but neutrons have to move in straight lines. This will create a vast improvement in the neutronics of the reactor.

Of course there are problems. The biggest one is burnout of the cowl lips. The lip is thin and the exhaust is very hot. The lip will be burnt away unless special cooling techiques are invented (Here Mr. Crouch waves his hands and states that such cooling will only be invented if there is a compelling need, and the desire for a nuclear plug nozzle is such a need. Which is almost a circular argument). Some form of regenerative cooling will probably be used, where liquid hydrogen propellant flows through pipes embedded in the lips as coolant.

Thrust Vectoring

The plug nozzle lends itself well to thrust vectoring, thrust throttling, and nozzle close-off. This is because of the short shroud and the configuration of the cowl lip. Unlike a conventional bell nozzle there is no fixed outer boundary. While the cowl lip defines the outer periphery of the annular throat, there isn't an outer boundary. So all you have to do is alter the cowl lip angle to adjust the throat area, which will vector the thrust (that's what Mr. Crouch meant when he was talking about varying rβ and β).

In the diagram above, variable throat segments A, B, C, and D are sections of the cowl which are hinged (so as to allow one to alter the lip angle). This will allow Yaw and Pitch rotations.

If the pilot wanted to pitch the ship's nose up, they would decrease the mass flow through segment A while simultaneously increasing the mass flow through segment C. Segment A would have its lip angle increased which would choke off the throat along its edge, while Segment C's lip angle would be decreased to open up its throat section. The increased thrust in segment C would force the ship to pitch upwards.

It is important to alter the two segments such that the total thrust emitted remains the same (i.e., so that segment A's thrust lost is exactly balanced by segment C's gain). Otherwise some of the thrust will squirt out among the other segments and reduce the amount of yaw or pitch thrust. With this arrangement, it is also possible to do yaw and pitch simultaneously.

The moment arm of thrust vectoring via a plug nozzle is greater than that of thrust vectoring from a conventional bell nozzle. This is because the thrust on a bell nozzle acts like it is coming from the center, along the thrust axis. But with a plug nozzle, the thrust is coming from parts of the annular throat, which is at some distance from the center. This increases the leverage.

Nozzle close-off means when thrusting is over, you can shut the annular throat totally closed. This keeps meteors, solar proton storms, and hostile weapons fire out of your reactor.

Pivoting each section of cowl lips is a problem, because as you pivot inwards you are reducing the effective diameter of the circle that defines the edge of the lips. The trouble is that the lip is not made of rubber. The solution used in jet fighter design is called "turkey feathers" (see images above). It allows the engine exhaust to dialate open and close without exposing gaps in the metal petals.

Cascade Vanes

With chemical rockets, retrothrust is achieved by flipping the ship until the thrust axis is opposite to the direction of motion, then thrusting. This is problematic with a nuclear rocket, since it might move another object out of the shadow of the shadow shield and into the radiation zone. For example, the other object might be the space station you were approaching for docking. Ideally you'd want to be able to perform retrothrust without changing the ship's orientation. What you want to do is redirect the primary thrust stream.

Jet aircraft use "thrust reversers." These are of two type: clam shell and cascade vanes. For complicated reasons clam shell reversers are unsuited for nuclear thermal rockets so Mr. Crouch focused on cascade vanes reversers. The main thing is that the actuators for cascade vanes are simpler than clam shell, and unlike clam shells a cascade vane reverser surface is segmented. There are five to ten vanes in each surface.

Note that the maximum reverse thrust is about 50% of the forwards thrust.

Each vane is a miniature partial nozzle. It takes its portion of the propellant flow and bends it backwards almost 180°. In the "cascade reverser end view" in the right diagram above, there are eight reversers, the wedge shaped surfaces labeled A, A', B, B', C, C', D, and D'. Each reverser is normally retracted out of the propellant stream, so their rear-most edge is flush with the tip of the cowl lip. When reversal is desired, one or more reversers are slid into the propellant stream. At maxmimum extension, the rear-most edge makes contact with the plug body.

Vane segmentation of the reverser surface eases the problem of center-of-pressure changes as the reverser's position is varied in the propellant stream.

Inserting all eight reversers causes retrothrust (see "Full Reverse" in below left diagram). Inserting some but not all reversers causes thrust vectoring. You'd expect that there would be a total of four reversers instead of eight (due to the four rotations Yaw+, Yaw-, Pitch+, Pitch-), but each of the four were split in two for reasons of mechanical alignment and the desirablity of shorter arc lengths of the vanes. This means the reversers are moved in pairs: to pitch upward you'd insert reverser A and A' (see "Thrust Vectoring" in below left diagram).

I am unsure if using reversers means that it is unnecessary to use the variable throat segments for yaw and pitch rotations, Mr. Crouch is a little vague on that. And the engineering of reversers that can withstand being inserted into a nuclear rocket exhaust is left as an exercise for the reader. There will be temperature issues, supersonic vibration issues, and edge erosion issues for starters. These are desgined for a solid-core NTR, where the propellant temperatures are kept down so the reactor core remains solid. This is not the case in a gas-core NTR, where the propellant temperatures are so high that the "reactor core" is actually a ball of hot vapor. The point is that a gas core rocket might have exhaust so hot that no possible material cascade vane could survive. There is a possibility that MHD magnetic fields could be utilized instead.

But the most powerful feature of cascade vanes is their ability to perform "thrust neutralization". When all the reversers are totally out of the propellant stream, there is 100% ahead thrust. When all the reversers are totally in the propellant stream, there is 50% reverse thrust. But in the process of inserting the reversers fully in the propellant stream, the thrust smoothly varies from 100% ahead, to 75% ahead, to 50% ahead, to 25% ahead, to 25% reverse, and finally to 50% reverse.

The important point is that at a specific point, the thrust is 0%! The propellant is still blasting strong as ever, it is just spraying in all directions, creating a net thrust of zero.

Why is this important? Well, ordinarily one would vary the strength of the thrust while doing maneuvers. Including stopping thrust entirely. Trouble is, nuclear thermal rocket reactors and turbopumps don't like having their strength settings changed. They lag behind your setting changes, and the changes put stress on the components.

But with the magic of thrust neutralization, you don't have to change the settings. You put it at a convenient value, then leave it alone. The cascade vanes can throttle the thrust to any value from 100% rear, to zero, to 50% fore. And do thrust vectoring as well.

Mr. Crouch also notes that while using thrust vectoring for maneuver, the rocket will have to be designed to use special auxiliary propellant tanks. The standard tanks are optimized to feed propellant while acceleration is directed towards the nose of the ship. This will not be true while manuevering, so special "positive-expulsion" tanks will be needed. These small tanks will have a piston or bladder inside, with propellant on the output tube side of the piston and some neutral pressurized gas on the othe side of the piston.

I was having difficulty visualizing the cascade reversers from the diagrams. I used a 3D modeling program called Blender to try and visualize them.

Discovery II

RocketCat sez

This should happen more often. A team of rocket scientist at the Glenn Research Center were inspired by the Disovery from the movie 2001. So they designed one with modern technology that would actually work!

Discovery II
PropulsionHelium3-Deuterium Fusion
Specific Impulse35,435 s
Exhaust Velocity347,000 m/s
Wet Mass1,690,000 kg
Dry Mass883,000 kg
Mass Ratio1.9
ΔV223,000 m/s
Mass Flow0.080 kg/s
Thrust18,000 newtons
Initial Acceleration1.68 milli-g
Payload172,000 kg
Length240 m
Diameter60 m wide

This design for a fusion propulsion spacecraft is from the NASA report TM-2005-213559 by Craig H. Williams, Leonard A. Dudzinski, Stanley K. Borowski, and Albert J. Juhasz of the Glenn Research Center (2005). The goal was to produce a modern design for the spacecraft Discovery from the movie 2001 A Space Odyssey. The report has all sorts of interesting details about where the movie spacecraft design was correct, and the spots where things were altered in the name of cinematography. The movie ship had no heat radiators, and the diameter of the centrifuge was too small. Arthur C. Clark was well aware of this, but was overruled by the movie people.

Exacting Class Starfighter

Exacting Class Starfighter
PropulsionICF Fusion
Thrust3,000,000 newtons
Thrust power9 terawatts
Exhaust velocity6,000,000 m/s
Dry Mass20 metric tons
Wet Mass40 to 65 metric tons
depending upon fuel
Length60 meters
Width
(Whipple shield)
5 meters
Width
(Internal hull)
4 meters
Heat radiator
width
(deployed)
30 meters
Heat radiator
width
(collapsed)
5 meters
Power plant50 MW Braydon-cycle
w/argon working fluid
ArmamentUV laser (3 turrets)
Missiles
Spinal coilgun (2)
Exhaust plume

This is a design by Artist Zach Hajj (a.k.a. Zerraspace), which I found astonishingly good. Personally I cannot find anything scientifically inaccurate with it. The artist mentioned that he used this website as a resource, and I'd say he did his homework.

The structural components of the spacecraft are composed of high-emissivity graffold (folded graphene) scaffolding. The skin is armored with low absorptivity + high emissivity alloy for anti-laser armor, and a Whipple shield to defend against kinetic attacks. For sensors it has frontal and rear IR batteries and several antennae incorporated into the skin.

This is a departure from my regular work towards something more speculative; a true “spacefighter”, a small vessel capable of operating both in space and in an atmosphere. Each one of these is an enormously demanding task on its own, hence the hybrid craft must make a number of compromises to fully operate.

A military vessel first and foremost, the starfighter is not a comfortable ride. Variable thrust and gravity will send the pilot rocking, which the gyroscopic cockpit can only do so much to accommodate, and it has no life support, so he must remain in his space suit at all times. The craft is not meant to hold him for more than a few hours — ideally it is only operated from carriers or planetary bases during skirmishes. That being said, the frontal module can be ejected in case of an emergency, at which solar panels unfurl to provide enough power to operate antenna and coordinate a rescue mission. The starfighter’s minimal design lends to easy conversion to a drone or smart-ship, as this only requires putting a decent computer in place of the cockpit.

In battle, the starfighter serves chiefly as an interceptor or assault craft. As an interceptor, it shoots down incoming missiles and directs fire away from more vital ships. When on the attack, the onboard lasers might not be powerful enough to do significant damage to larger ships, but equipped nukes allow it take down a limited number of opponents of any size. Some militaries even prefer them to capital ships, as many can be built for the same cost as a larger vessel and each loss is less of a hit to the fleet, yet in their numbers they are harder to take down.


Firstly, I set up the ship so as to handle a continuous 24 hours of 5 G acceleration with a mass ratio of 2 when exhaust velocity is 2% c (maximum delta-v 1.5% c), which is probably well beyond how it'll generally operate. I figured it could moderate exhaust velocity by only partially igniting the fuel, letting it get that incredible thrust when needed. If helium-3 fuel is used at maximum exhaust velocity, delta-v is tripled, but then power limits acceleration to 1.5 G at most.

Second, the radiators are deliberately shaped to form a delta-wing when fully unfolded, as NASA pages I found on the matter suggested this was best suited for supersonic flight, and the flaps and slats on the side are used to increase lift at lower speeds where this configuration doesn't work so well. The radiators are also used as an aerobrake while landing, and directly dispose of much of the heat built up.

Lastly, the length required for the coilguns made me think they would have to be stationary mounts, making them somewhat less useful than the ship's missile and laser retinues, so they'd likely more often be used for accelerating missiles than as weapons in their own right. To help compensate, they're open on both ends. When the coilguns are to fire backwards, the projectile is moved to the front end, then accelerated back along the full length, letting it be used both ways.

From Exacting Class Starfighter by Zerraspace

First Men to the Moon

This design is from a book called First Men to the Moon (1958) written by a certain Wernher von Braun, aka "The Father of Rocket Science" and the first director of NASA. The book came out shortly after the Sputnik Crisis.

Gasdynamic Mirror

Gasdynamic Mirror
PropulsionDT Fusion
Specific Impulse200,000 s
Exhaust Velocity1,960,000 m/s
Wet Mass? kg
Dry Mass? kg
Mass RatioWet/Dry
ΔV1,960,000 * ln(MassRatio) m/s
Mass Flow0.0240 kg/s
Thrust47,000 newtons
Initial Acceleration(47,000/wet)/9.81 g
Payload? kg
Length? m
Diameter? m wide

There are problems with attempting to confine ionized plasma in a reaction chamber long enough for most of it to undergo nuclear fusion. In the Gasdynamic Mirror propulsion system, they attempt to avoid that by making the reaction chamber a long and skinny tube, so the plasma just travels in a straight line. The trouble is that it has to be really long.

GCNR Liberty Ship

RocketCat sez

Ho, ho! This brute kicks butt and takes names! You want to boost massive amounts of payload into orbit? Freaking monster rocket has eight times the payload of a Saturn V rocket. It can haul three entire International Space Stations into LEO all at once!

But to do this it packs seven honest-to-Heinlein nuclear lightbulb engines! The only rocket that could come close to this beast is a full blown Orion drive rising on a stream of nuclear explosions at about one Hertz.

Liberty Ship
PropulsionNTR-GAS/closed
Specific Impulse3060 s
Exhaust Velocity30,000 m/s
Wet Mass2,700,000 kg
Dry Mass1,600,000 kg
Mass Ratio1.6875
ΔV15,000 m/s
Mass Flow1246 kg/s
Thrust37,380,000 newtons
Initial Acceleration1.4 g
Payload900,000 kg
Length105 m
Diameter20 m wide

Anthony Tate has an interesting solution to the heavy lift problem, lofting massive payloads from the surface of Terra into low Earth orbit. In his essay, he says that if we can grow up and stop panicking when we hear the N-word a reusable closed-cycle gas-core nuclear thermal rocket can boost huge amounts of payload into orbit. He calls it a "Liberty Ship." His design has a cluster of seven nuclear engines, with 1,200,000 pounds of thrust (5,340,000 newtons) each, from a thermal output of approximately 80 gigawatts. Exhaust velocity of 30,000 meters per second, which is a specific impulse of about 3060 seconds. Thrust to weight ratio of 10. Engine with safety systems, fuel storage, etc. masses 120,000 pounds or 60 short tons (54 metric tons ).

Using a Saturn V rocket as a template, the Liberty Ship has a wet mass of six million pounds (2,700,000 kilograms). Mr. Tate designs a delta V of 15 km/s, so it can has powered descent. It can take off and land. This implies a propellant mass of 2,400,000 pounds (1,100,000 kilograms). Using liquid hydrogen as propellant, this will make the propellant volume 15,200 cubic meters, since hydrogen is inconveniently non-dense. Say 20 meters in diameter and 55 meters long. It will be plump compared to a Saturn V.

Design height of 105 meters: 15 meters to the engines, 55 meters for the hydrogen tank, 5 meters for shielding and crew space, and a modular cargo area which is 30 meters high and 20 meters in diameter (enough cargo space for a good sized office building).

A Saturn V has a dry mass of 414,000 pounds (188,000 kilograms).

The Liberty Ship has seven engines at 120,000 pounds each, for a total of 840,000 pounds. Mr. Tate splurges and gives it a structural mass of 760,000 pounds, so it has plenty of surplus strength and redundancy. Add 2,400,000 pounds for reaction mass, and the Liberty Ship has a non-payload wet mass of 4,000,000 pounds.

Since it is scaled as a Saturn V, it is intended to have a total mass of 6,000,000 pounds. Subtract the 4,000,000 pound non-payload wet mass, and we discover that this brute can boost into low earth orbit a payload of Two Million Pounds. Great galloping galaxies! That's about 1000 metric tons, or eight times the boost of the Saturn V.

The Space Shuttle can only boost about 25 metric tons into LEO. The Liberty Ship could carry three International Space Stations into orbit in one trip.

Having said all this, it is important to keep in mind that a closed-cycle gas-core nuclear thermal rocket is a hideously difficult engineering feat, and we are nowhere near possessing the abilty to make one. An open-cycle gas-core rocket is much easier, but there is no way it would be allowed as a surface to orbit vehicle. Spray charges of fissioning radioactive plutonium death out the exhaust nozzle at fifty kilometers per second? That's not a lift off rocket, that's a weapon of mass destruction.

There is an interesting analysis of the Liberty Ship on Next Big Future.

HELIOS

HELIOS Stage One
PropulsionChemical
Thrust12,000,000 newtons
Wet Mass700 metric tons
not including
Stage 2
Dry Mass32 metric tons
Body Diameter6 meters
Wingspan27 meters
HELIOS Stage Two
PropulsionSolid Core NTR
Thrust981,000 newtons
Reactor Power2,600 MW
Wet Mass100 metric tons
Payload6.8 metric tons

HELIOS stands for Heteropowered Earth-Launched Inter-Orbital Spacecraft. Unfortunately "HELIOS" became a catch-all term for quite a few post-Saturn studies around 1963. This entry is about the 1959 version from Krafft Ehricke at Convair.

As you should recall, when dealing with a radioactive propulsion system the three anti-radiation protection methods are Time, Distance, and Shielding. A rocket cannot shorten the time, a burn for specific amount of delta V takes as long as it takes. Most designs use shielding, even though the regrettable density of shielding savagely cuts into payload mass.

But some designers wondered if distance could be substituted. The advantage is that distance has no mass. The disadvantage is it makes the spacecraft design quite unwieldy. You'd have to either put the propulsion system far behind the habitat module on a long boom, or more alarmingly have the propulsion system in front with the habitat module trailing on a cable. In theory the exhaust plume is not radioactive, so in theory the habitat module can survive being hosed like that.

There is no way this design would work as a warship. It would be like trying to run through a maze while carrying a ladder.

The break-even point is where the mass of the boom or cable is equal to the mass of the shadow shield.

This is the Waterskiing school of spacecraft design.


Dr. Ehricke design was two-staged. It has a liftoff mass of 800 metric tons, a diameter of 6 meters (omitting the delta wings) and a length of 60 meters.

The first stage was chemical powered since even in 1959 they knew nobody was going to allow a nuclear propulsion system to lift off from the ground. The lower stage has a delta wing, and will glide back to base after stage separation to be reused on future missions. The lower stage has a diameter of 6 meters, and a wingspan of 27 meters. Wet mass of 700 metric tons, dry mass of 32 metric tons, twin chemical engines with a combined thrust of 12,000,000 newtons. The first stage pilot rides in a little red break-away rocket in case the first stage has an accident.

The first stage separates from the second at an altitude of about 50 kilometers when the velocity reaches 4.5 km/s. The corrugated coupler that held the two stages together falls away.

The second stage will use retrorockets to lower the habitat module on cables about 300 meters below the nuclear stage, then let'er rip. The second stage has a wet mass of 100 metric tons, the nuclear reactor has a power of 2,600 Megawatts, and a thrust of 981,000 newtons. Initial acceleration is 1 g.

When it comes to Lunar landing, the habitat module touches down, then the nuclear stage move down and sideways so it stays 300 meters away as it lands. HELIOS can deliver about 6.8 metric tons of payload to the Lunar surface, and stil carry enough propellant to make it back to LEO.

Dr. Ehricke does not give details above the return trip, but it would need to involve some sort of ferry rocket to retrieve the crew from Terra orbit. There is no way anybody would allow that radioactive doom rocket to actually land. Even if it could carry enough propellant. Dr. Ehricke Convair Space Shuttle would do nicely to retrieve the crew.


Nowadays most experts agree that a 300 meter separation from a 2,600 MW reactor is totally inadequate to protect the astronauts from a horrible radioactive death. I've heard estimates of a minimum 1,000 meter separation from a 1 MW reactor. For 2,600 MW you'd want a separation more like 14,000 meters, which probably has more mass than a conventional radiation shadow shield.

HOPE

Human Outer Planet Exploration (HOPE) is from the NASA report TM-2003-212349 (PDF) (PDF file) by Melissa McGuire, Stanley Borowski, Lee Mason, and James Gilland (2003). Revolutionary Concepts for Human Outer Planet Exploration (HOPE) (PDF file). Revolutionary Concepts for Human Outer Planet Exploration (HOPE) { slide show } (PDF).

This is for a hypothetical mission to the Jovian moon Callisto. There are three spacecraft: a one-way tanker, a one-way cargo ship, and a round-trip manned ship. Note the manned ship uses an inflatable TransHab for the habitat module.

The Jovian moon Calllisto was choosen as a destination because it is outside of Jupiter's radiation belts, and it has water ice on the surface for propellant production. The purpose of the mission was to establish an outpost and propellant production facility near the Asgard impact site on Callisto. The In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) propellant processing plant will turn water ice into oxygen and hydrogen fuel for the lander. It and the surface habitat will be powered by a 250 kW nuclear reactor. The plant can produce enough fuel for one lander sortie mission between the base and the orbiting ship every 30 days.

The cargo vehicle is unmanned. It transports to Callisto a reusable crew lander, a surface habitat, and the ISRU propellant processing plant.The tanker is unmanned. It transports to Callisto orbit propellant tanks full of propellant the manned ship will need for the trip back to Terra. Both will be dispatched on a slow low-energy trajectory to Calliso.

Only after the unmanned vessels arrive at Callisto (especially the tanker) will the Piloted Callisto Transfer Vehicle (PCTV) be dispatched. It will arrive with most of its propellant expended. It will replenish its propellant from the tanker. The crew will explore Callisto for 120 days, then depart back home to Terra.

Several spacecraft were designed for the mission, each around a different propulsion system for comparision purposes.

HOPE (FFRE)

HOPE (FFRE)
PropulsionFission Fragment
Payload60,000 kg
Wet Mass303,000 kg
Dry Mass295,000 kg
Propellant Mass4,000 kg
Length120 m
Span62 m
Radiator area6,076 m2
Total Power1 GW
Thrust43 N
Isp527,000 s
Acceleration3×10-4

Final Report: Concept Assessment of a Fission Fragment Rocket Engine (FFRE) Propelled Spacecraft (PDF file). This HOPE spacecraft was designed using a Fission Fragment Rocket Engine.

HOPE (MPD)

This HOPE spacecraft was designed using Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). The habitat module is surrounded by tanks for radiation shielding. The tail radiators are cut in a triangular shape, and the outer heat radiators are arc shaped to keep them inside the shadow shield's radiation free zone, to prevent them from scattering radiation into the ship.

HOPE Cargo vehicle

HOPE Cargo vehicle
PropulsionMPD thrusters
Specific Impulse8,000 s
Exhaust Velocity78,500 m/s
Wet Mass242,000 kg
Dry Mass182,000 kg
Mass Ratio1.3
ΔV20,600 m/s
Mass Flow1.4 x 10-4 kg/s
Thrust11 n
Initial Acceleration4.6 x 10-6 g
Payload120,000 kg
Length130 m
Diameter55 m

HOPE Tanker

OPE Tanker
PropulsionMPD thrusters
Specific Impulse8,000 s
Exhaust Velocity78,500 m/s
Wet Mass244,000 kg
Dry Mass184,000 kg
Mass Ratio1.3
ΔV20,600 m/s
Mass Flow1.4 x 10-4 kg/s
Thrust11 n
Initial Acceleration4.6 x 10-6 g
Payload103,000 kg
Length135 m
Diameter55

HOPE Crew vehicle

Piloted Callisto Transfer Vehicle
PropulsionMPD thrusters
Specific Impulse8,000 s
Exhaust Velocity78,500 m/s
Wet Mass262,000 kg
Dry Mass188,000 kg
Mass Ratio1.4
ΔV26,400 m/s
Mass Flow3.6 x 10-4 kg/s
Thrust28 n
Initial Acceleration1.1 x 10-5 g
Payload79,000 kg
Length117 m
Diameter52 m

Stuhlinger Ion Rocket

Note the similarity to this 1962 Ernst Stuhlinger design for a Mars ion-drive rocket.

HOPE (VASIMR)

Revolutionary Concepts for Human Outer Planet Exploration (HOPE) (PDF file).

The third option utilizes Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) propulsion for all vehicles. VASIMR systems heat hydrogen plasma by RF energy to exhaust velocities up to 300 km/s producing low thrust with a specific impulse ranging from 3,000 to 30,000 seconds.

There is significant debate in the advanced propulsion community with respect to the complexity of the engineering challenges associated with the VASIMR system and hence for the purposes of the HOPE study, VASIMR was viewed at a lower state of TRL than MPD thrusters.

VASIMR performance potential was utilized in this option to improve upon the previous option. A single VASIMR propelled vehicle is used to transport the surface systems and return propellant to Callisto as opposed to two. As in the previous scenarios, the tanked/cargo vehicle remains in orbit around Callisto to be used a future propellant depot.

The piloted VASIMR vehicle was fitted with a second TransHab and configured with its main tanks clustered around the rotation axis. The two TransHabs balance each other and are connected by a pressurized tunnel so that the crew can move between them. Like the previous option, there are hydrogen tanks protecting the crew but they do not begin to empty till the last few months of the return mission. The resulting configuration reduces risk by having two crew habitats, the ability to generate artificial gravity throughout the entire mission plus significantly improved radiation protection.

The down side is that the payload masses have gone up due to combining the cargo and tanker vehicles and the piloted vehicle enhancements. The 10 MW that was used for the MPD option is not enough power for the VASIMR option to meet mission requirements. The VASIMR option does close assuming 30 MW on each vehicle resulting in a piloted mission round trip time of around 4.9 years with 32 days at Callisto. The total mission mass is between the previous two options with the benefits of increased safety and robustness.

From the report

HOPE (Z-Pinch Fusion)

Z-Pinch HOPE ship
PropulsionZ-Pinch fusion
Specific Impulse19,346 s
Exhaust Velocity189,780 m/s
Mass Flow0.2 kg/s
Thrust38,120 N
Dry Mass552,000 kg
Payload150,000 m
Length126 m
Diameter47 m
Mars 90 day mission
Wet Mass635,227 kg
Mass Ratio1.15
Total ΔV27,500 m/s
Mars 30 day mission
Wet Mass887,300 kg
Mass Ratio1.61
Total ΔV93,200 m/s
Jupiter mission
Wet Mass663,100 kg
Mass Ratio1.20
Total ΔV36,100 m/s
550 AU mission
Wet Mass738,400 kg
Mass Ratio1.34
Total ΔV57,200 m/s

Z-Pinch Pulsed Plasma Propulsion Technology Development Final Report (PDF). Like all the others, they started with the HOPE study, replaced the HOPE Magnetized Target Fusion engine with their own engine, and compared the two.

ICAN-II

ICAN-II
PropulsionAntimatter Catalyzed Micro-Fission
Specific Impulse13,500 s
Exhaust Velocity132,000 m/s
Wet Mass707,000 kg
Dry Mass345,000 kg
Mass Ratio2
ΔV100,000 m/s
Mass Flow1.36 kg/s
Thrust180,000 newtons
Initial Acceleration0.255 g
Payload82,000 kg
Length72 m
Diameter190 m wide

This design for an antiproton-catalyzed microfission/fusion propulsion spacecraft is from the University of Pennsylvania.

Fuel pellets have 3.0 grams of nuclear fuel (molar ratio of 9:1 of Deuterium:Uranium 235) coated with a spherical shell of 200 grams of lead. The lead shell is to convert the high energy radiation into a form more suited to be absorbed by the propellant. Each pellet produces 302 gigajoules of energy (about 72 tons of TNT) and are fired off at a rate of 1 Hz (one per second). The pellet explodes when it is struck by a beam containing about 1×1011 antiprotons.

A sector of a spherical shell of 4 meters radius is centered on the pellet detonation point. The shell is the solid propellant, silicon carbide (SiC), ablative propellant. The missing part of the shell constitutes the exhaust nozzle. Each fuel pellet detonation vaporizes 0.8 kilograms of propellant from the interior of the shell, which shoots out the exhaust port at 132,000 meters per second. This produces a thrust of 106,000 newtons.

The Penn State ICAN-II spacecraft was to have an ACMF engine, a delta-V capacity of 100,000 m/s, and a dry mass of 345 metric tons. The delta-V and exhaust velocity implied a mass ratio of 2.05. The dry mass and the mass ratio implied that the silicon carbide propellant shell has a mass of 362 metric tons. The wet mass and the thrust implied an acceleration of 0.15 m/s2 or about 0.015g. It can boost to a velocity of 25 km/sec in about three days. At 0.8 kilograms propellant ablated per fuel pellet, it would require about 453,000 pellets to ablat the entire propellant shell.

It carries 65 nanograms of antiprotons in the storage ring. At about 7×1014 antiprotons per nanogram, and 1×1011 antiprotons needed to ignite one fuel pellet, that's enough to ignite about 453,000 fuel pellets.

Kuck Mosquito

RocketCat sez

This thing looks really stupid, but it could be the key to opening up the entire freaking solar system. Orbital propellant depots will make space travel affordable, and these water Mosquitos are just the thing to keep the depots topped off.

Kuck Mosquito
PropulsionH2-O2 Chemical
Specific Impulse450 s
Exhaust Velocity4,400 m/s
Wet Mass350,000 kg
Dry Mass100,000 kg
Mass Ratio3.5
ΔV5,600 m/s
Mass Flow49 kg/s
Thrust220,000 newtons
Initial Acceleration0.06 g
Payload100,000 kg
Length12.4 m
Diameter12.4 m

Kuck Mosquitoes were invented by David Kuck. They are robot mining/tanker vehicles designed to mine valuable water from icy dormant comets or D-type asteroids and deliver it to an orbital propellant depot.

They arrive at the target body and use thermal lances to anchor themselves. They drill through the rocky outer layer, inject steam to melt the ice, and suck out the water. The drill can cope with rocky layers of 20 meters or less of thickness.

When the 1,000 cubic meter collection bag is full, some of the water is electrolyzed into hydrogen and oxygen fuel for the rocket engine (in an ideal world the bag would only have to be 350 cubic meters, but the water is going to have lots of mud, cuttings, and other non-water debris).

The 5,600 m/s delta-V is enough to travel between the surface of Deimos and LEO in 270 days, either way. 250 metric tons of H2-O2 fuel, 100 metric tons of water payload, about 0.3 metric tons of drills and pumping equipment, and an unknown amount of mass for the chemical motor and power source (probably solar cells or an RTG).

100 tonnes of water in LEO is like money in the bank. Water is one of the most useful substance in space. And even though it is coming 227,000,000 kilometers from Deimo instead of 160 kilometers from Terra, it is a heck of a lot cheaper.

Naturally pressuring the interior of an asteroid with live steam runs the risk of catastrophic fracture or explosion, but that's why this is being done by a robot instead of by human beings.

In the first image, ignore the "40 tonne water bag" label. That image is from a wargame where 40 metric tons was the arbitrary modular tank size.

There are more details here.

Lighter and Tanker

Lighter
PropulsionH2-O2
Chemical
Specific Impulse450 s
Exhaust Velocity4,410 m/s
Wet Mass56,300 kg
Dry Mass25,898 kg
Inert Mass898 kg
Payload25,000 kg
Mass Ratio2.17
ΔV3,410 m/s
Mass Flow31.8 kg/s
Thrust140 kiloNewtons
Initial Acceleration1.9 g
Length18.3 m+engine
Diameter≈4.57 m
Tanker
PropulsionOpen-cycle
gas core NTR
Specific Impulse3,600 s
Exhaust Velocity35,000 m/s
Wet Mass433,000 kg
Dry Mass268,000 kg
Mass Ratio1.61
ΔV16,730 m/s
Inert Mass
(dry mass - payload)
108,000 kg
Payload Mass total160,000 kg
Payload Mass Hydrogen
(less tankage)
139,000 kg
Mass Flow100 kg/s
Thrust3,500 kiloNewtons
Initial Acceleration0.6 g
Length37 m+engine
Diameter≈18 m

These two designs are from The Resources of the Solar System by Dr. R. C. Parkinson (Spaceflight, 17, p.124 (1975)). The Lighter ferries tanks of liquid hydrogen from an electrolyzing station on Callisto into orbit where waits the Tanker. Once the Tanker has a full load of tanks it transports them to LEO. All the ships are drones or robot controlled, there are no humans aboard. The paper makes a good case that shipping hydrogen from Callisto to LEO would eventually be more economically effective than shipping from the surface of Terra to LEO, with the break-even point occurring at 7.8 years. Please note that this study was done in 1975, before the Lunar polar ice was discovered, and probably before the ice of Deimos was suspected.

Warning: most of the figures in the table are my extrapolations from the scanty data in the report. Figures in yellow are sort of in the report. Use at your own risk.

The tanker uses a freaking open-cycle gas-core nuclear thermal rocket. This is an incredibly powerful true atomic rocket, but it is only fractionally more environmentally safe that an Orion nuclear bomb rocket. The report says it should be possible to design it so the amount of deadly fissioning uranium escaping out the exhaust is kept down to as low as one part per 350 of the propellant flow (about 300 grams per second), but I'll believe it when I see it. Since it is used only in deep space we can allow it, this time. The report gives it an exhaust velocity of 35,000 m/s, which is about midway to the theoretical maximum.

The lighter can get by with a more conventional hydrogen-oxygen chemical rocket. It will need an acceleration greater than Callisto's surface gravity of 1.235 m/s2, for safety make it 1.5x the surface gravity, or about 1.9 m/s (0.6g).

The four major Galilean moons are within Jupiter's lethal radiation belt, except for Callisto. The black monolith from 2010 The Year We Make Contact only told us puny humans to stay away from Europa, so Callisto is allowed. If you want ice that isn't radioactive, you've come to the right place. It is almost 50% ice, and remember this is a moon the size of planet Mercury. That's enough ice to supply propellant to the rest of the solar system for the next million years or so. Europa has more, but it is so deep in the radiation belt it glows blue. Callisto is also conveniently positioned for a gravitational sling shot maneuver around Jupiter to reduce the delta-V required for the return trip to Terra.

The report says that the requirements for an economically exploitable resource are:

  1. It is not available in the Terra-Luna system
  2. It must provide more of it than the mass originally required to be assembled in Terra orbit at the outset of the expedition
  3. It must be done within a reasonably short time (the break-even time)

Hydrogen fits [1], or at least it did until the Lunar ice was discovered. [2] and [3] depend upon the performance of the vehicle.

There are three parts. First is the Tanker, which is an orbit-to-orbit spacecraft to transport the hydrogen back to LEO and brings the expedition to Callisto in the first place. Next is an electrolysis plant capable of mining ice, melting it into water, cracking it into oxygen and hydrogen, and liquefying the hydrogen. Last is a Lighter which is an airless lander that ferries liquid hydrogen from the plant on Callisto to the orbiting Tanker.

For no particular reason the report decided to use modular cryogenic hydrogen tanks that would fit in the Space Shuttle's cargo bay (its not like we would be using the Shuttle to ship hydrogen to California). They would have to be about 18.3 meters x 4.57 meters, about 300 cubic meters capacity. The report has a filled tank massing at 25,000 kg. Robert Zubrin says that as a rule of thumb, the mass of a fuel tank loaded with liquid hydrogen will be about 87% hydrogen and 13% tank. Applying Zubrin's rule of thumb, that would make a filled tank about 21,750 kgs of liquid hydrogen and 3,250 kgs of tank structural mass. Examining the drawing of the tanker, the front cluster is composed of four tanks while the rear has nine, for a total of thirteen. The tanker will have a length of two tanks plus the length of the rocket engine, 37 meters plus rocket. The rear has tanks arranged in a triangular array about four tanks high. So a diameter roughly 18 meters or so.

The lighter carries a single tank, so it is roughly one tank in diameter, and one tank long plus the fuel tanks+engine length. It will need a large enough liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen chemical fuel capacity to lift off from Callisto to the tanker and land back on Callisto.

The report figures that the electrolysis plant can produce hydrogen for about 39 kW-h/kg, that is, each kilogram of hydrogen in the plant requires 39 kilowatt-hours. Figure it needs more electricity to liquefy the hydrogen, and more to produce the liquid oxygen needed by the lighter, for a total cost of 50 kW-hr/kg for liquid hydrogen delivered to the orbiting tanker. So a 2 megawatt nuclear reactor could produce 350 metric tons of hydrogen per year. Launch windows back to Terra occur every 398.9 days.

Once the lighter has made enough trip to fully load the tanker, the tanker departs for LEO. It will use some of the hydrogen for propellant, some will be the payload off-loaded at LEO, and enough will be left to return the tanker to Callisto. The amount of payload is specified to have a mass equal to 37% of the fully loaded mass of the tanker. It also specifies that the inert mass fraction of the tanker is 25% of the tankers fully loaded mass.

The report had an esoteric equation that calculated the mass of the lighter and electrolysis plant as a percentage of the tanker mass in order to be economically viable. It turns out to be 13% of the fully loaded mass of the tanker. When the expedition is launched the tanker will carry the lighter, the electrolysis plant, and enough propellant so that the total mass is 52.9% of the fully loaded mass (i.e., it departs half empty). The lighter will have its tanks full.

Five years later, upon arrival at Callisto, the lighter lands the electrolysis plant on a prime patch of ice. It then starts the cycle: patiently waiting for the plant to fill the payload tank and the fuel tanks, boost the payload to the tanker, then land back at the plant to start again.


All the other figures I've extrapolated from the few figures given in the report.

A plausible figure for nuclear power generation is 0.12 Megawatts per ton of generator. This would make the electrolysis 2 MW power reactor have a mass of 16,000. This is close to the 25,000 kg mass of a payload tank. So to simplify, assume the electrolysis rig with liquefaction gear and all masses a total of 25,000. This also ensures that the lighter is capable of landing it.

The tanker's inert mass fraction is 25%, and hydrogen payload is 37%. This means the dry mass is 62%, which means the mass ratio is 1.61. With an exhaust velocity of 35,000 m/s, this yields a total delta-V of 16,730 m/s. I am unsure if this is enough for a Callisto orbit-LEO mission followed by a LEO-Callisto orbit mission. Not without a heck of a gravitational sling-shot it isn't. Or I could have made a mistake in math.

Note both the payload and the propellant is hydrogen, stored in the same array of tanks. If the inert mass fraction is 25%, then the payload+propellant mass fraction is 75%. If there are 13 tanks each of 25,000 kg, then the total is 325,000 kg. If this is 75% of the wet mass, the actual wet mass is 433,000 kg. If the payload is 37% of the wet mass, it is 160,000 kg. If a hydrogen tank is 87% hydrogen and 13% tankage, the amount of hydrogen payload is 139,000 kg.

On the initial trip, the tanker carries the electrolysis plant and the lighter (with no payload, but with full fuel tanks). This is 13% of the wet mass or 56,300 kg. If the electrolysis plant is 25,000 kg, the lighter (with no payload) must be 31,290 kg. The lighter payload is one payload tank at 25,000 kg. So the lighter wet mass is 56,290 kg.

The lighter needs a delta-V of 3,414 m/s (Callisto-surface-to-orbit + orbit-to-Callisto-surface). Chemical fuel has exhaust velocity of 4,410 m/s. This means the mass ratio has to be 2.17. This implies the dry mass is 25,898 kg. Subtract the 25,000 kg payload, and there is 898 kg for the structure and the engine. Seems a little flimsy to me, perhaps 25,000 kg is a bit to generous for the payload tank.

Mars Expedition Spacecraft

This is from a NASA Manned Spaceflight Center (renamed the Johnson Space Center in 1973). The study was done in 1963. I have not been able to find lots of hard details, but there is some information in David Portree's monograph Humans to Mars on pages 15 to 18, available here.

It travels in a Hohmann transfer to Mars, separated into two parts spinning like a bola for artificial gravity. In Mars orbit, the heat shield, laboratory, and rendezvous ship separate and land. After a forty day stay, the astronauts use the rendezvous ship to climb back into orbit and travel to the mother ship. After the journey back to Terra, the astronauts land via the re-entry module.

Mars Umbrella Ship

RocketCat sez

There is just something about this surreal design that gets to you. People who briefly saw the deep space umbrella in 1957 still remember it. Totally unlike any other spacecraft you've ever seen. That is, except for science fiction ships from artist who also were haunted by the blasted thing.

Not a bad ship either. Except that pathetic one-lung ion drive is so weak that it takes a third of a year to reach orbit halfway between Terra and Luna. I'm sure we can do better than that today. Swap it out for a VASIMR or something and you'll have a ship that can go places and do things!

Umbrella Ship
PropulsionIon
Specific Impulse8,200 s
Exhaust Velocity80,000 m/s
Wet Mass660,000 kg
(730,000 kg)
Dry Mass328,000 kg
Mass Ratio2.0
ΔV55,000 m/s
Thrust490 Newtons
Initial Acceleration7.6×10-5 g
(6.7×10-5 g)
Payload136,000 kg
(150,000 kg)
Crew size20
Length102 m
Diameter152 m
Hab ring Dia39 m

Unusual spacecraft designed by Ernst Stuhlinger in 1957, based on a US Army Ballistic Missile Agency study. It made an appearance in a Walt Disney presentation "Mars and Beyond". 4 December 1957. David S. F. Portree, noted space history researcher and author of Wired's Beyond Apollo blog, managed to uncover the identity of Dr. Stuhlinger's report for me, it is NASA TMX-57089 Electrical Propulsion System for Space Ships with Nuclear Power Source by Ernst Stuhlinger, 1 July 1955. Thanks, David!

Detailed blueprints of this spacecraft can be found in the indispensable Spaceship Handbook by Jack Hagerty and Jon C. Rogers, or are available separately.

The spacecraft resembled a huge umbrella, with the parasol part being an enormous heat radiator.

At the very bottom is a 100 megawatt (thermal power) fast neutron nuclear reactor, mounted on a 100 meter boom to reduce the radiation impact on the crew habitat. A fast neutron reactor design was chosen because they can be built will a smaller mass and smaller size (reducing the size of the shadow shield). The reactor is capped with a shadow shield broad enough to cast a shadow over the entire heat radiator array. The part of the shadow shield closest to the reactor is 1.8 meters of beryllium. This stops most of the gamma rays, and slows down the neutrons enough that they can be stopped by an outer layer of boron. The shadow shield has a mass of 30 metric tons, and coupled with the boom distance it reduces the radiation flux at the habitat ring to 10 fast neutrons per second per cm2 and 100 gamma rays per second per cm2.

The liquid sodium will be carried in pipes constructed of molybdenum. The reactor will have a specific power around 0.1 kW per kg. It contains 0.6 cubic meters of uranium enriched 1.7%, and has a mass of 12 metric tons. No moderator or reflector is required. "Cool" liquid sodium (500° C) enters the reactor and leaves the reactor hot (800° C) at the rate of 300 kg/sec. The reactor contains 600 molybdenum pipes with an inner diameter of 1.8 cm and a length of 1 meter. Electromagnetic pumps move the liquid sodium, since it is metallic. Such pumps are used since the only way to make pumps that will operate continuously for over a year with high reliability is to have no moving parts. The pumps will consume about 100 kW.

The hot sodium enters the heat exchanger, where it heats up the cool silicon oil working fluid. The now cool liquid sodium goes back to the reactor to complete the cycle. The heat exchanger is used because silicon oil is more convenient as a working fluid, and because the liquid sodium becomes more radioactive with each pass through the reactor. The heat exchanger contains 3000 tubes for liquid sodium, with a total length of 1,800 meters and an inner diameter of 1.3 cm. The silicon oil is boiled into a vapor at 500° C under 20 atmospheres of pressure.

The hot oil vapor travels up the boom to a point just below the umbrella. There it runs a turbine which runs a generator creating electricity. The turbine is a low-pressure, multi-stage turbine with a high expansion ratio. Silicon oil was selected since it can carry heat and simultaneously lubricate the turbine, since this has to run continuously for over a year. Silicon oil is also liquid at 10° C, allowing the power plant to be started in space with no preheating equipment. The oil has a specific heat of about 0.4 cal per g per degree C, a heat of vaporization of 100 cal per g, a density of 1 g per cm3. If the umbrella heat radiator is at a temperature of 280° C, this implies that about 100 kg/sec must flow through the turbine. The feed pumps will consume about 200 kW. The total mass of the working fluid in the entire system will be about 8 metric tons.

Newton's third law in the turbine causes the section of the spacecraft from turbine upwards to rotate, including the ring habitat module and the umbrella heat radiator. The spin rate is about 1.5 rotations per minute. The generator is cooled by small square heat radiators mounted on the habitat ring.

The boom below the turbine is counter-rotated so it remains stationary. This is because the boom has the ion engine. If the boom was not counter-rotated, the ion engine would also rotate. The result would be a stationary ship behaving like a merry-go-round, spinning in place while spraying ions everywhere like an electric Catherine wheel.

The hot silicon oil vapor is injected into the central part of the rotating umbrella heat radiator (the radiator feed), and centrifugal force draws it through the radiator. The cooled oil is collected at the rim of the radiator, and pumped back to the reactor to complete the cycle. The rotation of the ring habitat module provides artificial gravity for the crew. The habitat ring is in the central part of the umbrella.

The umbrella heat radiator will have a temperature of 280° C. The silicon oil vapor will be reduced to the low pressure of 0.1 atmosphere, to reduce the required mass of heat radiator. The ship will be oriented so that the umbrella is always edge on to the Sun, for efficiency. The diameter of the umbrella will be about 100 meters, constructed of titanium. The wall thickness is 0.5 mm, the thickness of the disk is 6 cm near the center and 1 cm near the rim. The umbrella is composed of sectors, each with an inlet valve near the center and an outlet valve at the rim. If any sector is punctured by a meteorite, the valve will automatically shut until repairs can be made. The other sectors will have to take up the slack.

The electricity runs an ion drive, mounted on the lower boom at the ship's center of gravity. The ion drive uses cesium as propellant since that element is very easy to ionize. Cesium jets have a purplish-blue color. The umbrella section and the reactor have about the same mass, since the reactor is composed of uranium. The habitat ring has a bit more mass, this is why the ion drive is a bit above the midpoint of the boom.

Cesium has a density of 1930 kilograms per cubic meter. The spacecraft carries 332,000 kilograms of cesium reaction mass. This works out to 172 cubic meters of reaction mass, which would fit in a cube 5.6 meter on a side. Which is about the size of the block in between the ion drive and the landing boat, the one with the boom stuck through it. (ah, as it turns out my deduction was correct, now that I have the original report to read)

However, cesium propellant is now considered obsolete, nowadays ion thrusters instead use inert gases like xenon. Cesium and related propellants are admittedly easy to ionize, but they have a nasty habit of eroding away the ion drive accelerating electrodes. Xenon is inert and far less erosive, it is now the propellant of choice for ion drives.

Mounted opposite the ion drive is the Mars landing boat. It is attached so its center of gravity is along the thrust axis. This ensures that the umbrella ship's center of gravity does not change when the landing boat detaches. The landing boat uses a combination of rockets and parachutes to reach the surface of Mars. The upper half lift off to return to the orbiting umbrella ship.

The habitat ring has an outer radius of 19.5 meters, an inner radius of 15 meters, and a height of 6 meters (according to the blueprints). If I am doing my math properly, this implies an internal volume of 2,900 cubic meters, less the thickness of the walls. At a spin rate of 1.5 rotation per minute, that would give an artificial gravity of about 0.05g.

Above the umbrella and habitat ring is an airlock module containing two "bottle suit" space pods. Above that is a rack of four sounding rockets with instruments to probe the Martian atmosphere. At the top is the large rectangular antenna array.

The spacecraft is much lighter than an equivalent ship using chemical propulsion, and has a jaw-droppingly good mass ratio of 2.0, instead of 5.0 or more. However, the spacecraft's minuscule acceleration is close to making the ship unusable. It takes almost 100 days to reach an orbit only halfway between Terra and Luna. At day 124 it finally breaks free of Terra's gravity and enters Mars transfer orbit. It does not reach Mars capture orbit until day 367, but it takes an additional 45 to lower its orbit enough so that the landing boat can reach Mars. All in all, the umbrella ship takes about 142 days longer than a chemical ship for a Mars mission, due to the low acceleration. Which is bad news if you are trying to minimize the crew's exposure to cosmic radiation and solar proton storms.

The design might be improved by replacing the ion drive with an ion drive with more thrust, or with a magnetoplasmadynamic, VASIMR or other similar drive invented since 1957.

In his paper, Dr. Stuhlinger proposed that the Mars expedition be composed of a fleet of several ships. The Mars exploration equipment would be shared among all the ships. In addition, there would be some "cargo" ships. These would only carry enough propellant for a one-way trip, so they could transport a payload of 300 metric tons instead of 150. They would be manned by a skeleton crew, who would ride back to Terra on other ships.


Master artist Nick Stevens has recreated the umbrella ship in a series of images. Click to enlarge.


I am not quite the artist that Nick Stevens is, but I had to try my hand at it. Click to enlarge.

Mini-Mag Orion

Mini-Mag Orion
PropulsionMini-Mag Orion
Thrust1,870,000 n
Exhaust Velocity157,000 m/s
Thrust Power147 GW
Pulse Unit Energy340 GJ
Nozzle Efficiency87.1%
Nozzle Mass199.6 metric tons

Data is from Mini-Mag Orion Program Document: Final Report (PDF file) from Ralph Ewig's website.

The nuclear pulse Orion drive propulsion system had both reasonably high exhaust velocity coupled with incredible amounts of thrust, a rare and valuable combination. A pity it was driven by sequential detonation of hundreds of nuclear bombs, and required two stages of huge shock absorbers to prevent the spacecraft from being kicked to pieces.

Andrews Space & Technology tried to design a variant on the nuclear Orion that would reduce the drawbacks but keep the advantages. The result was the Mini-Mag Orion.

First off, they crafted the explosive pulses so each was more 50 to 500 gigajoules each, instead of the 20,000 gigajoules typically found in the nuclear Orion. Secondly they made the explosions triggered by the explosive charge being squeezed into critical mass using an external power source instead of each charge being a self-contained easily-weaponized device. Thirdly they made the blast thrust against the magnetic field of a series of superconducting rings (Magnetic Nozzle) instead of the nuclear Orion's flat metal pusher plate.



In the standard nuclear pulse Orion, the pulse units are totally self-contained, that is, they are bombs. Since this makes it too easy to use the pulse units as impromptu weapons (which alarms the people in charge of funding such a spacecraft) a non-weaponizable pulse unit was designed. The Mini-Mag Orion pulse unit has the fissionable curium-245 nuclear explosive, an inexpensive Z-pinch coil to detonate it, but no power supply for the coil. The Z-pinch power comes from huge capacitor pulse power banks mounted on the spacecraft, i.e., the pulse unit ain't anywhere near being "self contained". The banks have a mass of a little over seven metric tons, far too large to use in a weapon (especially one that explodes with a pathetic 0.03 kilotons of yield). The Z-pinch coil should be inexpensive since it will be destroyed in the blast.

For a 50 gigajoule yield (with a burn fraction of 10%), the nuclear explosive is 42.9 grams of curium-245 in the form of a hollow sphere 1.27 centimeters radius (yes, I know the diagram above says the compression target is 0.47 centimeters radius. I think they mean the compressed size). This is coated with 15.2 grams of beryllium to act as a neutron reflector. According to the table below, a 120.7 gigajoule yield uses 21 grams of curium, which does not make sense to me. Usually you need more nuclear explosive to make a bigger burst. I guess the pulse units in the table have a larger burn fraction. The Z-pinch will squeeze the curium sphere from a radius of 1.27 centimeter down to 0.468 centimeters, leading to a chain reaction and nuclear explosion. Since curium-245 has a low spontaneous fission rate, the pulse unit will need a deuterium/tritium diode to provide the triggering neutrons. The pulse units will be detonated about one per second (1 Hz).

The Z-pinch needs 70 megaAmps of electricity. This is 70 million amps, which is a freaking lot of amps. The trouble is that you cannot lay big thick cables to the Z-pinch coil in the pulse unit. The cable will be vaporized by the nuclear explosion, which is OK. But a vaporized massive cable composed of heavy elements will drastically lower the exhaust velocity. This is very not OK. Remember that one of the selling points of the Mini-Mag Orion is the high exhaust velocity. Reduce the exhaust velocity and Mini-Mag Orion becomes much less attractive.

So instead of heavy cables the pulse unit uses gossamer thin sheets of Mylar (20 μ thick). I know that Mylar is usually considered an insulator, but 70 megaAmps does not care if it is an insulator or not. The report calls these Mylar cables Low Mass Transmission Lines (LMTL). They have a total mass of only 2 kilograms, which is good news for the exhaust velocity.

The 70 megaAmps go from the pulse power banks to permanent electrodes mounted on the magnetic nozzle. These take the form of five meter diameter metal rings. Two rings, positive and negative, just like the two slots in an electrical wall socket. The pulse unit proper is a minimum of 0.0244 meters diameter (double the 1.27 centimeter radius). So the LMTL has to stretch from the permanent electrodes to the pulse unit. This makes a five meter diameter disk of Mylar with with the grape sized pulse unit in the center. Actually two stacked Mylar disks (positive and negative) separated by about 2 centimeters of space (g0 in diagram above) so they won't short circuit. Ordinarily you'd use an insulator to prevent a short, something like, for instance, Mylar. Unfortunately here you are using Mylar as the conductor so instead you need a gap. The edge of each Mylar disk has an aluminum rim, each making contact with one of the magnetic nozzle's two permanent electrodes.

To place the pulse unit in the proper detonation point inside the magnetic nozzle, the pulse unit has to be five meters lower than the permanent electrodes in the nozzle. This forces the Mylar LMTL to be an upside down cone instead of a flat disk.

The pulse unit, Mylar LMTL and the aluminum rims are all vaporized during detonation. The magnetic nozzle with its permanent electrodes remain.


There are two power supplies: the steady-state reactor and the pulse power banks.

The reactor is the "charger." It charges up the superconducting magnetic nozzle, and gives the pulse power banks their initial charge. Finally it supplies power to the payload (including the habitat module). In the reference designs below, it outputs 103 kilowatts, has a mass of 9 metric tons, and is expected to supply 50 kilowatts to the payload. It takes 1 hour to give the pulse power banks (main and backup) their initial charge, and takes 39 hours to charge up the superconducting magnetic nozzle. Since the nozzle uses superconductors, its charge will last a long time before it leaks out.

The reactor has to supply 192 megajoules over one hour to charge up the main and backup pulse power banks. The reactor has to supply 7,446 megajoules over 39 hours to charge up the superconducting nozzle.

The tiny bombs need 70 megaAmps in 1.2 microseconds in order to detonate, but the reactor can only produce that many amps in one hour. The standard solution is to use capacitors, which can be gradually filled up but can dump all their stored energy almost instantly. This is the pulse power banks, a Marx bank of capacitors.

The reactor takes half an hour to charge up one pulse power bank, one hour to charge up the bank and the backup bank. The bank discharges all that energy into the pulse unit to detonate it. A separate system in the magnetic nozzle converts about 1 percent of the explosion into electricity and totally recharges the pulse power bank. For subsequent detonations, the reactor is not needed, the detonating bombs supply the power.

In the reference design, the pulse power banks hold 96 megaJoules per bank, there is a main bank and a backup bank for a total of 192 megaJoules, each bank has a mass of 3.5 metric tons, main and backup bank have a combined mass of 7.1 metric tons. The banks have to sustain a pulse unit detonation rate of 1 per second (1 Hz).

The backup bank is in case of a misfire, resulting in a lack of a recharge for the main bank. The still-full backup bank takes over energizing the pulse detonations while the reactor starts slowly re-charging the main bank.


Since the electrical system will be operating at megawatt levels, it will need a sizable set of heat radiators (Thermal Management System). By "sizable" we mean "up to 30% of the spacecraft's dry mass." In the first reference mission, the radiators have to handle 2,576 kW of waste heat, with the radiators having a mass of 15,456 kg and a surface area of 7,728 square meters.

The heat radiators are tapered in order to keep them inside the shadow cast by the radiation shadow shield. This keeps the radiators relatively free of neutron activation and neutron embrittlement. It also prevents the radiators from backscattering deadly nuclear radiation into the crew compartment.


The engine core and feed mechanism will have to inject the pulse units into the detonation point at rates of up to 1 Hz. It too will need redundancy and a minimum of moving parts.

In the second diagram above:

  1. Cycle begins. A pulse unit is at the detonation point with its LMTL contact rings touching the magnetic nozzle's permanent electrodes. Both blast doors are closed. The nozzle is fully extended.
  2. 70 megaAmps detonates the pulse unit. The explosion transmits force into the magnetic nozzle, producing thrust. 1% of the blast energy is converted into electricity which re-charges the pulse power bank. The nozzle moves upward along the feed system as part of the compression cycle. Meanwhile, the upper blast door opens to allow the next pulse unit to enter the feed system.
  3. The explosion plasma dissipates. The nozzle continues to move upward. As the next pulse unit enters the feed system, the upper blast door closes.
  4. The lower blast door opens. The nozzle reaches its highest position. The fresh pulse unit is injected into nozzle at the detonation point with a velocity matching the nozzle, LMTL contact rings of pulse unit touching nozzle's permanent electrodes. The lower blast door closes as the nozzle starts to travel downward along the feed system. When the nozzle reaches it lowest point, a new cycle begins.

The report had three sample "Design Reference Missions", and created optimal spacecraft using MiniMag Orion propulsion. As it turns out, the spacecraft for mission 1 and mission 2 were practically identical, so they only showed the two ship designs.

Design Reference Missions

DRM-1: Crewed Mars Mission:
50 kWe, 100 km/s Δv, 100 ton payload, 90 to 100 days one way trip time.
DRM-2: Crewed Jupiter Mission:
50 kWe, 100 km/s Δv, 100 ton payload, 2 years one way trip time.
DRM-3: Robot Pluto Sample Return:
50 kWe, 150 km/s Δv, 5 ton payload, 8 years one way trip time.

DRM-1/DRM-2 Spacecraft

DRM-1 Mass Budget
Mission delta-v100 km/s
Payload Mass100,000 kg
Specific Impulse9,500 sec
Exhaust Velocity93,000 m/s
Power System Mass (Charge)9,038 kg
Power System Mass (Pulse Banks)7,115 kg
Heat Radiators15,456 kg
Magnetic Nozzle Mass102,893 kg
Propellant Mass481,625 kg
Dry Mass (no remass, no payload)150,300 kg
Burnout Mass (no remass)250,300 kg
Ignition (Wet) Mass731,924 kg
Payload Fraction0.137
Propellant Fraction0.66
Dry Mass Fraction0.21
Power System - Pulse Banks
Peak Compression Current89 MA
Capacitor Voltage170 kV
Energy per Bank96 MJ
Capacitor Energy Density54 kJ/kg
Capactior Mass (one bank)1,779 kg
Pulse Bank Mass (total for 2 banks)7115 kg
Power System - Charge Power
Pulse Bank Charge Time60 minutes
Nozzle Charge Time39 hours
Pulse Banks Energy Content192 MJ
Nozzle Energy Content7,446 MJ
Payload Power Requirement50 kW
Power Output Electric103 kW
System Power Density11.4 W/kg
Thermal to Electric Efficiency0.04 fraction
Total Mass9,038 kg
Heat Radiators
Waste Heat Load2,576 kW
Area per Watt3 m2/kW
Mass per Area2 kg/m2
Radiator Area7,728 m2
Radiator Mass15,456 kg
Engine Performance
Specific Impulse9,500 sec
Exhaust Velocity93,164 m/s
Nozzle Efficiency0.45 fraction
Coupling Efficiency0.55 fraction
Pulse Yield120.7 GJ
Pulse Unit Mass6.9 kg
Standoff Distance5.9 m
Fission Assembly Mass21 g
Firing Rate1 Hz
Mass Flow6.9 kg/s
Thrust642 kN
Power29,894 MW
Gain563,631 ratio
Alpha (specific power)222,251 W/kg
Maximum Acceleration0.26 g's
Minimum Acceleration0.09 g's

DRM-3 Spacecraft

DRM-3 Mass Budget
Mission delta-v150 km/s
Payload Mass5,000 kg
Specific Impulse9,500 sec
Exhaust Velocity93,000 m/s
Power System Mass (Charge)9,067 kg
Power System Mass (Pulse Banks)7,115 kg
Heat Radiators15,505 kg
Magnetic Nozzle Mass102,895 kg
Propellant Mass630,963 kg
Dry Mass (no remass, no payload)152,723 kg
Burnout Mass (no remass)157,723 kg
Ignition (Wet) Mass788,686 kg
Payload Fraction0.006
Propellant Fraction0.8
Dry Mass Fraction0.19
Power System - Pulse Banks
Peak Compression Current89 MA
Capacitor Voltage170 kV
Energy per Bank96 MJ
Capacitor Energy Density54 kJ/kg
Capactior Mass (one bank)1,779 kg
Pulse Bank Mass (total for 2 banks)7115 kg
Power System - Charge Power
Pulse Bank Charge Time60 minutes
Nozzle Charge Time39 hours
Pulse Banks Energy Content192 MJ
Nozzle Energy Content7,447 MJ
Payload Power Requirement50 kW
Power Output Electric103 kW
System Power Density11.4 W/kg
Thermal to Electric Efficiency0.04 fraction
Total Mass9,038 kg
Heat Radiators
Waste Heat Load2,576 kW
Area per Watt3 m2/kW
Mass per Area2 kg/m2
Radiator Area7,752 m2
Radiator Mass15,505 kg
Engine Performance
Specific Impulse9,500 sec
Exhaust Velocity93,164 m/s
Nozzle Efficiency0.45 fraction
Coupling Efficiency0.55 fraction
Pulse Yield120.7 GJ
Pulse Unit Mass6.89 kg
Standoff Distance5.9 m
Fission Assembly Mass21 g
Firing Rate1 Hz
Mass Flow6.89 kg/s
Thrust642 kN
Power29,894 MW
Gain560,167 ratio
Alpha (specific power)222,122 W/kg
Maximum Acceleration0.41 g's
Minimum Acceleration0.08 g's

NASA Space Tug

RocketCat sez

This is a spiffy design for giant robot fans. Those titanic mecha arms will immediately grab the attention anybody who adores Jaegers.

NASA Space Tug
PropulsionChemical
Specific Impulse450 s
Exhaust Velocity4,400 m/s
Wet Mass32,000 kg
Dry Mass14,000 kg
Mass Ratio2.3
ΔV3,800 m/s
Mass Flow5 kg/s
Thrust22,400 n
Initial Acceleration0.17 g (lunar g)
Payload5,900 kg
Length?
Diameter?

This is a 1970's era NASA concept for a modular space tug. The "waldo" arms on the crew module are interesting. The Grumman image said that the space tug had a wet mass of 70,000 pounds, 40,000 pounds of fuel (oxygen-hydrogen), and 13,000 pounds of payload (presumably implying 17,000 pounds of structural mass). This implies a mass ratio of about 2.3, and 3,800 m/s of ΔV. You need about 2,370 m/s to land on Luna.

Images courtesy of NASA. Magazine cover by David Hardy. Two images following magazine cover by Robert McCall.

Nuclear DC-X

Nuclear DC-X
Propulsionpebble-bed NTR
PropulsionLANTR
NTR Specific Impulse1000 s
LANTR Specific Impulse600 s
NTR Exhaust Velocity9,810 m/s
LANTR Exhaust Velocity5,900 m/s
Wet Mass460,000 kg?
Dry Mass? kg
Mass Ratio?
ΔV? m/s
Mass Flow? kg/s
NTR Thrust per engine1,112,000 n
LANTR Thrust per engine3,336,000 n
NTR Thrust total5,560,000 n
LANTR Thrust total16,680,000 n
NTR Acceleration12 g?
LANTR Acceleration38 g?
Payload100,000 kg
Length103 m
Diameter10 m

This is from a report called AFRL-PR-ED-TR-2004-0024 Advanced Propulsion Study (2004). It is a single stage to orbit vehicle using a LANTR for propulsion. They figure it can put about 100 metric tons into orbit at a cost of $150 per kilogram. You can read the details in the report.

Nuclear OTV Light Commercial Transport

Light Freighter for intraorbital service between space colonies and industrial platforms, designed for the System States Era of my Orion’s Arm future history setting.

A timeline for my future history is to be found here: Timeline


In the System States Era asteroid mining operations thrive throughout the asteroid belt and among the moons of Jupiter and Saturn the Martian terraforming program has left legacy: a sprawling archipelago of island stations and industrialized moons, Bernal Sphere's and O'Neill Cylinders, Spindle and Wheel cities, and a population of humanity growing into the millions. Space colonies are independent city-states and trade is their lifeblood. Entire generations are born and live their lives in spinning cylinders, bubbles, and torus shaped habitats, harvesting, mining, and fabricating all they need from the environment of the outer solar system.

Orion and Medusa style nuclear pulse freighters haul payloads of raw materials across interplanetary distances, while nuclear orbital transfer vehicles (OTV’s) provide light freight and passenger service between space habitats in Jupiter and Saturn orbit.

For a table of Delta V required for travel using Hohmann orbits among the moons of Saturn see
Why Saturn on Winchell Chung’s Atomic Rockets site. Scroll a little further down the page and you will find a Synodic Periods and Transit Times for Hohmann Travel table for Moons of Saturn.

Nuclear propulsion Systems: Operational Constraints

The abundance of various chemical ices for use as reaction mass among the moons of the outer system gas giants makes NERVA an excellent option for commercial application. Nuclear thermal rockets provide excellent efficiency; they also impose certain operational restrictions. The engine emits significant levels of radiation while firing and even after shut-down, and while passengers and crew are protected by the engines shadow-shield and hydrogen tanks, you wouldn’t want to point the engine at other spacecraft or space platforms. During the U.S. nuclear thermal rocket engine development program NFSD contractors had recommended that no piloted spacecraft approach to within 100 miles behind or to the sides of an operating NERVA I engine. The only safe approach to a spacecraft with a NERVA engine is through the conical “safe-zone” within the radiation shadow created by its shadow-shield and hydrogen tanks. Docking NERVA propelled spacecraft to a space station or habitat is problematic because structures protruding outside the conical safe-zone can reflect radiation back at the spacecraft, irradiating the passengers and crew.  

These facts impose a set of mandatory operational parameters and flight rules for nuclear operation. An exclusion zone for nuclear propulsion (60 kilometers minimum) is imposed around every orbital platform. Orbital Guard units would hold broad discretionary powers—violate an exclusion-zone or disregard traffic-control and the local guard will cheerfully vaporize your spacecraft. No warning shots, no second chances. A crew that violates flight rules doesn’t live long enough to worry about fines or attorney fees, and the public’s time and funds are not wasted with trials of incompetent captains and crew.
 
Nuclear Freighters “park” propulsion modules in station-keeping orbit with their destination, and the freight/passenger module undocks, separating from its nuclear propulsion module, proceeding to birthing under thrust of a chemical maneuvering unit.

Because the nuclear propulsion modules are valuable, and are potentially deadly missiles if mishandled — codes to access the autonomous flight computer and possession of the nuclear propulsion module are temporarily handed over to the local orbital-guard for safe keeping.

For a good example of Space traffic control see the entry on Winchell Chung’s Atomic Rockets site here and scroll down to quote from Manna by Lee Correy.

At this point in my future history, 750 years post Martian colonization, spacecraft are essentially stacks of common modules which can be swapped out to suit application.

Independent Operators, like today’s truckers, might “own” only the CMOD (Command Module) with other units being leased per flight.  The Freight Carrying Structural Spine, essentially a rigid frame with mountings for cargo modules, might be leased by the shipper and loaded with cargo (but owned by a separate freight transport supplier) and since different payloads mass differently it might be the responsibility of the shipper to lease suitable nuclear and chemical propulsion modules rated to the task. Passenger transport services might likewise lease passenger modules of varying capacity and Transport Brokerage firms  would coordinate freight and passenger payloads assigned to same destinations and offer these in an open-bid market.    

Propulsion Modules
 
Different payload masses require different propulsion module configurations, the light freighter detailed here requires only a single Solid-Core nuclear thermal rocket. A heavy payload freighter might use clusters of solid-core, or Open-Cycle Gas-Core, nuclear thermal rockets.

Design

3D models are my own conception based on various real-world proposals.

As research for the passenger/crew module I studied the POTV (Personnel Orbital Transfer Vehicle) pages 86-96 from NASA Technical Memorandum 58238 Satellite Power System: Concept Development and Evaluation Program Volume VI1 -Space Transportation available: here.

Propulsion for my light freighter is a Solid-Core NERVA Derivative, details available here.

In conversation Winchell Chung suggested the modification Cascade-Vanes: details available here.

Related Image: Nuclear OTV Commercial Transport

 

PARTS Plasma Accelerated Resuable Transport System

P.A.R.T.S. (PDF file) is a 2002 study by the Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University for a resuable Earth-Mars cargo spacecraft utilizing a VASIMR propulsion system powered by an on-board nuclear reactor. The report has lots of juicy details, especially about the reactor. Thanks go out to William Seney for bringing this study to my attention.

RMBLR (Rotating Multi-Megawatt Boiling Liquid-Metal Reactor) "Rambler" System. Fuel: Blocks with coolant channels UN+Moly alloy with Rhenium & hafnium, Primary coolant : Potassium, Reactor outlet temperature:1440K, power conversion: Direct Rankine, Specific Mass: 1-2kg/kWe @ 20 MWe assuming a bubble membrane radiator.

Pilgrim Observer

RocketCat sez

Another blast from the past! Rocket fans who built this plastic model back in the 1970's agree it makes the needle of their Nostalgia-meter slam over and wrap itself around the end peg. But what is more astonishing is the real-world roots of the blasted thing. Sure it has a couple of design problems, but it makes far more scientific sense than 99% of the other plastic models.

Pilgrim Observer
PropulsionNERVA 2b
PropulsionUprated J2 chemical
NERVA Specific Impulse850 s
J2 Specific Impulse~450 s
NERVA Exhaust Velocity8,300 m/s
J2 Exhaust Velocity4,400 m/s
Wet Mass? kg
Dry Mass? kg
Mass Ratio?
ΔV? m/s
NERVA Mass Flow13 kg/s
J2 Mass Flow25 kg/s
NERVA Thrust110,000 newtons
J2 Thrust110,000 newtons
Initial Acceleration? g
Payload? kg
Length30 m + boom
Diameter46 m

The Pilgrim Observer was a plastic model kit issued by MPC back in 1970 (MPC model #9001) designed by G. Harry Stine. Many of us oldster have fond memories of the kit. It was startlingly scientifically accurate, especially compared its contemporaries (ST:TOS Starship Enterprise, ST:TOS Klingon Battlecruiser, Galactic Cruiser Leif Ericson).

The model kit included a supplemental booklet just full of all sorts of fascinating details. NERVA engine design, mission plan, all sorts of goodies with the conspicuous absence of the mass ratio and the total delta-V.

The kit has been recently re-issued, and those interested in realistic spacecraft design could learn a lot by building one. If you do, please look into the metal photoetched add-on kit, and alternate decals. Round 2 Models (the company who re-issued the kit) have some detailed kit building instructions here.

The Pilgrim makes a cameo appearance in Jerry Pournelle's short story "Tinker", in the role of the Boostship Agamemnon, and in Allen Steele's short story The Weight as the Medici Explorer.

The design is interesting, and has a lot of innovative elements. For one, it uses a species of gimbaled centrifuge to deal with the artificial gravity problem. It also uses distance to augment its radiation shielding, in order to save on mass and increase payload. This is done by mounting the NERVA solid core nuclear rocket on a telescoping boom.

One major flaw with the Pilgrim's design is the fact that one of the three spinning arms is the power reactor. This means that all the ship's power supply has to be conducted through a titanic slip-ring, since there can be no solid connection between the spin part and the stationary part. Another flaw is if you are going to all the trouble to put the NERVA reactor on a boom to get the radiation far away from the crew, why would you put the radioactive power reactors on an arm right next to the crew?

Anyway, the Pilgrim is an orbit-to-orbit spacecraft that is incapable of landing on a planet. It has a ten man crew (four crew and six scientists), and has enough life support endurance to keep them alive for five years. It could also be used as a space station, in LEO, GEO, or lunar orbit. In launch configuration the NERVA boom is retracted and the spinning arms are locked down. In this configuration it is 100 feet long and 33 feet wide, which fits on top of the second stage of a Saturn V booster. A disposable shroud is placed over the top of the spacecraft to make it more aerodynamic during launch.

LevelGravity
Level 60.05g
Level 50.06g
Level 40.07g
Level 30.08g
Level 20.09g
Level 10.10g

After launch, the shroud is jettisoned, the spinning arms deploy, and the NERVA engine's boom telescopes out. The spinning arm array has a diameter of 150 feet. The arms will rotate at a rate of two revolutions per minute (safely below the 3 RPM nausea limit). This will produce about one-tenth Earth gravity at the tips of the arms (Level 1), which fades to zero gravity at the rotation axis. Not much but better than nothing. The spherical center section does not spin, a special transfer cabin is used to move between the spin and non-spin sections.

One arm is the crew quarters, one is a hydroponic garden for the closed ecological life support system, and the third is a stack of advanced Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) reactors using Brayton cycle nuclear power units.

The center section is divided into the Main Control Center at the top and the Service Section at the bottom. The very top of the Control Center has the large telescope, radar, and other sensors. By virtue of being mounted on the non-spin section, the astronomers and astrogators can make their observations without having to cope with all the stars spinning around. Also mounted here is the antenna farm for communications and telemetry.

The Pilgrim carries two auxiliary vehicles: a modified Apollo command and service module, and a one-man astrotug similar to the worker pods seen in the movie 2001 A Space Odyssey. They mate with Universal Docking Adaptors on the non-spin section.

The chemical propulsion system consists of three up-rated J-2 rocket engines with a thrust of 250,000 lbs, fueled by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen.

The nuclear thermal propulsion system consists of one solid-core NERVA 2B, using liquid hydrogen as propellant. The NERVA has a specific impulse of 850 seconds, a thrust of 250,000 pounds, and an engine mass of 35,000 pounds (the fact that both the J-2 and the NERVA have identical thrust makes me wonder if that is a misprint). It uses a de Laval type convergent-divergent rocket nozzle. The reactor core has a temperature of 4500°F. The core of the reactor is encased in a beryllium neutron reflector shell. Inside the reflector and surrounding the reactor core are twelve control rods. Each rod is composed of beryllium with a boron neutron absorber plate along one side. By rotating the control rods, the amount of neutrons reflected or absorbed can be controlled, and thus control the fission chain reaction in the reactor core.

There is a dome shaped shadow shield on top of the NERVA to protect the crew from radiation. In addition, the NERVA is on a long boom, adding the inverse square law to reduce the amount of radiation. And finally, the cosmic ray shielding around the crew quarters provides even more protection.

Various attitude control and ullage rockets are located at strategic spots, they are fueled by hypergolic propellants.

The mission will start in June of 1979. Mission is an Earth-Mars-Venus-Earth swing-by. It will have a mission duration of 710 days, as compared to the 971 days required for a simple Mars orbiting round trip. This is done with clever gravitational sling-shots, and use of the NERVA 2B.

Mission starts with an orbital plane change to a 200 nautical mile circular Earth orbit inclined 23°27' (i.e., co-planar with the ecliptic). Transarean insertion burn is made with the three J-2 chemical engines (D+0). At this point the Pilgrim 1 becomes the Pilgrim-Observer space vehicle. It will coast for 227 days. Then it will perform a retrograde burn with the NERVA to achieve a circumarean orbit (Mars orbit) with a periapsis of 500 nautical miles and a high point of 5,800 nautical miles (D+227).

The Pilgrim-Observer will spend 48 days in Martian orbit (including several close approaches to Phobos). Then the NERVA will thrust into a transvenerian trajectory (D+275). It will coast for 246 days, including a close approach and fly-by of the asteroid Eros occurring 145 days after transvenerian burn (D+320).

The NERVA will burn into a circumvenarian orbit of of 500 nautical miles (D+521). It will spend 55 days studying Venus.

The NERVA will thrust into a transearth injection (D+576). It will coast for 140 days. Upon Earth approach, it will burn into a 200 nautical mile Earth orbit (D+710). The crew will be out shipped by a shuttle craft following extensive debriefing.


I did some back of the envelope calculations, and the numbers look fishy to me. An Earth-Mars Hohmann and Mars capture orbit will take a delta V of about 5,200 m/s. This is done with the J-2 chemical engine, and will require a mass ratio of 3.3. That is not a problem.

The problem comes with the NERVA burns. The Mars-Venus burn and the Venus-Earth burns have a total of about 14,800 k/s. With a NERVA exhaust velocity of 8,300 m/s, this implies a mass ratio of 5.9. I'm sorry but without staging you are going to be lucky to get a mass ratio above 4.0.

The plastic model kit is allegedly 1:100 scale according to the kit instructions. However, expert model builders who did measurements figured out that various parts are clumsily in different scales. The "arms folded mode" diameter is supposed to be 33 feet, to fit on top of a Saturn V, that is 1:127 scale. The rotating arms and the Apollo M are more like 1:144 to 1:200 scale. At 1:100 the arms have a deck spacing of a cramped 5 feet, the passage connecting the arm to the ship proper is only 2.5 feet in diameter, and the command module on the Apollo M is 20% smaller than the real Apollo CM. So the scale of the plastic model kit is a mess.

BoostShip Agamemnon

The Agamemnon is basically the Pilgrim Observer with the NERVA solid core NTR swapped out for an ion drive powered by a deuterium fusion reactor.

A Step Farther Out
IBS Agamemnon
Total ΔV280,000 m/s
Thrust Power1,100 GW
Exhaust velocity220,000 m/s
Thrust10,000,000 n
Wet Mass100,000 mt
Dry Mass28,000 mt
Mass Ratio3.57
Ship Mass8,000 mt
Cargo Mass20,000 mt
Length400 m
Length spin arm100 m
T/W >1.0no

IBS Agamemnon (Interplanetary Boost Ship) masses 100,000 tons as she leaves Earth orbit. She carries up to 2000 passengers with their life support requirements. Not many of these will be going first-class, though; many will be colonists, or even convicts, headed out steerage under primitive conditions.

Her destination is Pallas, which at the moment is 4 AU from Earth, and she carries 20,000 tons of cargo, mostly finished goods, tools, and other high-value items they don't make out in the Belt yet. Her cargo and passengers were sent up to Earth orbit by laser-launchers; Agamemnon will never set down on anything larger than an asteroid.

She boosts out at 10 cm/sec2, 1/100 gravity, for about 15 days, at which time she's reached about 140 km/second. Now she'll coast for 40 days, then decelerate for another 15. When she arrives at Pallas she'll mass 28,000 tons. The rest has been burned off as fuel and reaction mass. It's a respectable payload, even so.

(ed note: in reality, the maximum amount of thrust a single ion drive could put out is about 10,000 newtons, not 10,000,000 like the Agamemnon is cranking out.)

The reaction mass must be metallic, and it ought to have a reasonably low boiling point. Cadmium, for example, would do nicely. Present-day ion systems want cesium, but that's a rare metal—liquid, like mercury—and unlikely to be found among the asteroids, or cheap enough to use as fuel from Earth.

In a pinch I suppose she could use iron for reaction mass. There's certainly plenty of that in the Belt. But iron boils at high temperatures, and running iron vapor through them would probably make an unholy mess out of the ionizing screens. The screens would have to be made of something that won't melt at iron vapor temperatures. Better, then, to use cadmium if you can get it.

The fuel would be hydrogen, or, more likely, deuterium, which they'll call "dee." Dee is "heavy hydrogen," in that it has an extra neutron, and seems to work better for fusion. We can assume that it's available in tens-of-ton quantities in the asteroids. After all, there should be water ice out there, and we've got plenty of power to melt it and take out hydrogen, then separate out the dee.

(ed note: 1,100 gigawatts requires burning about 0.014 kilograms of deuterium per second. For 30 days total burn time this will require about 36 metric tons of deuterium.)

If it turns out there's no dee in the asteroids it's not a disaster. Shipping dee will become one of the businesses for interplanetary supertankers.

From Life Among the Asteroids by Jerry Pournelle, collected in A Step Farther Out (1975)
Tinker

MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY. THIS IS PEGASUS LINES BOOSTSHIP AGAMEMNON OUTBOUND EARTH TO PALLAS. OUR MAIN ENGINES ARE DISABLED. I SAY AGAIN, MAIN ENGINES DISABLED. OUR VELOCITY RELATIVE TO SOL IS ONE FOUR ZERO KILOMETERS PER SECOND, I SAY AGAIN, ONE HUNDRED FORTY KILOMETERS PER SECOND. AUXILIARY POWER IS FAILING. MAIN ENGINES CANNOT BE REPAIRED. PRESENT SHIP MASS IS 54,000 TONS. SEVENTEEN HUNDRED PASSENGERS ABOARD. MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY.


The other screen lit, giving us what the Register knew about Agamemnon. It didn't look good. She was an enormous old cargo-passenger ship, over thirty years old—and out here that's old indeed. She'd been built for a useful life of half that, and sold off to Pegasus Lines when P&L decided she wasn't safe.

Her auxiliary power was furnished by a plutonium pile. If something went wrong with it, there was no way to repair it in space. Without auxiliary power, the life-support systems couldn't function.


I switched the comm system to Record. "Agamemnon, this is cargo tug Slingshot. I have your Mayday. Intercept is possible, but I cannot carry sufficient fuel and mass to decelerate your ship. I must vampire your dee and mass, I say again, we must transfer your fuel and reaction mass to my ship.

"We have no facilities for taking your passengers aboard. We will attempt to take your ship in tow and decelerate using your deuterium and reaction mass. Our engines are modified General Electric Model five-niner ion-fusion. Preparations for coming to your assistance are under way. Suggest your crew begin preparations for fuel transfer. Over."


The Register didn't give anywhere near enough data about Agamemnon. I could see from the recognition pix that she carried her reaction mass in strap-ons alongside the main hull, rather than in detachable pods right forward the way Slinger does. That meant we might have to transfer the whole lot before we could start deceleration.

She had been built as a general-purpose ship, so her hull structure forward was beefy enough to take the thrust of a cargo pod—but how much thrust? If we were going to get her down, we'd have to push like hell on her bows, and there was no way to tell if they were strong enough to take it.


The refinery crew had built up fuel pods for Slinger before, so they knew what I needed, but they'd never made one that had to stand up to a full fifth of a gee. A couple of centimeters is hefty acceleration when you boost big cargo, but we'd have to go out at a hundred times that.


They launched the big fuel pod with strap-on solids, just enough thrust to get it away from the rock so I could catch it and lock on. We had hours to spare, and I took my time matching velocities. Then Hal and I went outside to make sure everything was connected right.


Slingshot is basically a strongly built hollow tube with engines at one end and clamps at the other. The cabins are rings around the outside of the tube. We also carry some deuterium and reaction mass strapped on to the main hull, but for big jobs there's not nearly enough room there. Instead, we build a special fuel pod that straps onto the bow. The reaction mass can be lowered through the central tube when we're boosting.

Boost cargo goes on forward of the fuel pod. This time we didn't have any going out, but when we caught up to Agamemnon she'd ride there, no different from any other cargo capsule. That was the plan, anyway. Taking another ship in tow isn't precisely common out here.

Everything matched up. Deuterium lines, and the elevator system for handling the mass and getting it into the boiling pots aft; it all fit.


Ship's engines are complicated things. First you take deuterium pellets and zap them with a big laser. The dee fuses to helium. Now you've got far too much hot gas at far too high a temperature, so it goes into an MHD system that cools it and turns the energy into electricity.

Some of that powers the lasers to zap more dee. The rest powers the ion drive system. Take a metal, preferably something with a low boiling point like cesium, but since that's rare out here cadmium generally has to do. Boil it to a vapor. Put the vapor through ionizing screens that you keep charged with power from the fusion system.

Squirt the charged vapor through more charged plates to accelerate it, and you've got a drive. You've also got a charge on your ship, so you need an electron gun to get rid of that.

There are only about nine hundred things to go wrong with the system. Superconductors for the magnetic fields and charge plates: those take cryogenic systems, and those have auxiliary systems to keep them going. Nothing's simple, and nothing's small, so out of Slingshot's sixteen hundred metric tons, well over a thousand tons is engine.

Now you know why there aren't any space yachts flitting around out here. Slinger's one of the smallest ships in commission, and she's bloody big. If Jan and I hadn't happened to hit lucky by being the only possible buyers for a couple of wrecks, and hadn't had friends at Barclay's who thought we might make a go of it, we'd never have owned our own ship.

When I tell people about the engines, they don't ask what we do aboard Slinger when we're on long passages, but they're only partly right. You can't do anything to an engine while it's on. It either works or it doesn't, and all you have to do with it is see it gets fed.

It's when the damned things are shut down that the work starts, and that takes so much time that you make sure you've done everything else in the ship when you can't work on the engines. There's a lot of maintenance, as you might guess when you think that we've got to make everything we need, from air to zweiback. Living in a ship makes you appreciate planets.

Space operations go smooth, or generally they don't go at all.


When we were fifty kilometers behind, I cut the engines to minimum power. I didn't dare shut them down entirely. The fusion power system has no difficulty with restarts, but the ion screens are fouled if they're cooled. Unless they're cleaned or replaced we can lose as much as half our thrust—and we were going to need every dyne.


His face didn't change. "Experienced cadets, eh? Well, we'd best be down to it. Mr. Haply will show you what we've been able to accomplish." They'd done quite a lot. There was a lot of expensive alloy bar-stock in the cargo, and somehow they'd got a good bit of it forward and used it to brace up the bows of the ship so she could take the thrust. "Haven't been able to weld it properly, though," Haply said. He was a young third engineer, not too long from being a cadet himself. "We don't have enough power to do welding and run the life support too."

Agamemnon's image was a blur on the screen across from my desk. It looked like a gigantic hydra, or a bullwhip with three short lashes standing out from the handle. The three arms rotated slowly. I pointed to it. "Still got spin on her."

"Yes." Ewert-James was grim. "We've been running the ship with that power. Spin her up with attitude jets and take power off the flywheel motor as she slows down."

I was impressed. Spin is usually given by running a big flywheel with an electric motor. Since any motor is a generator, Ewert-James's people had found a novel way to get some auxiliary power for life-support systems.


Agamemnon didn't look much like Slingshot. We'd closed to a quarter of a klick, and steadily drew ahead of her; when we were past her, we'd turn over and decelerate, dropping behind so that we could do the whole cycle over again.

Some features were the same, of course. The engines were not much larger than Slingshot's and looked much the same, a big cylinder covered over with tankage and coils, acceleration outports at the aft end. A smaller tube ran from the engines forward, but you couldn't see all of it because big rounded reaction mass canisters covered part of it.

Up forward the arms grew out of another cylinder. They jutted out at equal angles around the hull, three big arms to contain passenger decks and auxiliary systems. The arms could be folded in between the reaction mass canisters, and would be when we started boosting. All told she was over four hundred meters long, and with the hundred-meter arms thrust out she looked like a monstrous hydra slowly spinning in space.


The fuel transfer was tough. We couldn't just come alongside and winch the stuff over. At first we caught it on the fly: Agamemnon's crew would fling out hundred-ton canisters, then use the attitude jets to boost away from them, not far, but just enough to stand clear.

Then I caught them with the bow pod. It wasn't easy. You don't need much closing velocity with a hundred tons before you've got a hell of a lot of energy to worry about. Weightless doesn't mean massless.

We could only transfer about four hundred tons an hour that way. After the first ten-hour stretch I decided it wouldn't work. There were just too many ways for things to go wrong.

"Get rigged for tow," I told Captain Ewert-James. "Once we're hooked up I can feed you power, so you don't have to do that crazy stunt with the spin. I'll start boost at about a tenth of a centimeter. It'll keep the screens hot, and we can winch the fuel pods down."

He was ready to agree. I think watching me try to catch those fuel canisters, knowing that if I made a mistake his ship was headed for Saturn and beyond, was giving him ulcers.

First he spun her hard to build up power, then slowed the spin to nothing. The long arms folded alongside, so that Agamemnon took on a trim shape. Meanwhile I worked around in front of her, turned over and boosted in the direction we were traveling, and turned again.

The dopplers worked fine for a change. We hardly felt the jolt as Agamemnon settled nose to nose with us. Her crewmen came out to work the clamps and string lines across to carry power. We were linked, and the rest of the trip was nothing but hard work.

We could still transfer no more than four hundred tons an hour, meaning bloody hard work to get the whole twenty-five thousand tons into Slinger's fuel pod, but at least it was all downhill. Each canister was lowered by winch, then swung into our own fuel-handling system, where Singer's winches took over. Cadmium's heavy: a cube about two meters on a side holds a hundred tons of the stuff. It wasn't big, and it didn't weigh much in a tenth of a centimeter, but you don't drop the stuff either.

Finally it was finished, and we could start maximum boost: a whole ten centimeters, about a hundredth of a gee. That may not sound like much, but think of the mass involved. Slinger's sixteen hundred tons were nothing, but there was Agamemnon too. I worried about the bracing Ewert-James had put in the bows, but nothing happened.

Three hundred hours later we were down at Pallasport.

From Tinker by Jerry Pournelle (1975)

Wayfarer

The Wayfarer is basically a stock Pilgrim Observer, all the way down to the NERVA engine. Except that the arms do not extend and rotate for artificial gravity.

Exiles To Glory

Their first impression was of a bundle of huge cigars. Those were the big fuel tanks almost a hundred meters long. They were so large that they dwarfed the rest of the ship, and ran the entire length of midsection. Behind the "cigars" was a solid ring that held three rocket motors. Then at the end of a spine as long as the main body of the ship was the nuclear reactor and another rocket motor.

This was the real drive. The three chemical rockets were only for steering and close maneuvering. Wayfarer's power came from her atomic pile. The cigar-shaped tanks held hydrogen, which was pumped back to the reactor where it was heated up and spewed out through the rear nozzle. A ring of heavy shielding just forward of the reactor kept the pile's radiation from getting to the crew compartment. The rest of the pile wasn't shielded at all.

Despite the large size of the ship, the crew and cargo sections seemed quite small. There were some structures reaching back from the forward ring where the control room was. Two of those were passenger quarters. The other was another nuclear power unit to make electricity to run the environmental control equipment, furnish light for the plants, power to reprocess air, and all the other things the ship and passengers and crew would need. There was a big telescope and a number of radar antennae on the forward section.

The scooter pilot was careful not to get near the reactor in the ship's "stinger."


The ship had been designed for sixty passengers. She carried twice that number plus eight crew.


The internal space was constructed in a series of circular decks. Each deck had an eight-foot hole in its center, so that from the forward end, just aft of the separately enclosed control cabin, Kevin could look all the way aft to the stern bulkhead. Although there was a long and rather flimsy-appearing steel ladder stretching from aft to forward bulkhead, no one used it.


"F deck," the crewman said "A deck is the bridge. B is the wardroom. C, D, and E are the three aft of that. E happens to be the recreation and environmental control. Yours is the one beyond that. They're marked."


Finally he reached F deck, which he found to be sectioned into slice-of-pie compartments arranged in a ring around the central well, fifteen of them in all. He found the one marked "12" and went in.

His "stateroom" was partitioned off with a flexible, bright blue material that Kevin thought was probably nylon. The door was of the same stuff and tied off with strings. It didn't provide much privacy.

Inside the cramped quarters were facilities for two people. There were no bunks, but two blanket rolls strapped against the bulkhead indicated the sleeping arrangements. It made sense, Kevin thought. You didn't need soft mattresses in space. "Sleeping on a cloud" was literally true here. You needed straps to keep you from drifting away, but that was all.

One viewscreen with control console, a small worktable, and two lockers about the size of large briefcases completed the furnishings.


The incident reminded Kevin that he was in free fall, and his stomach didn't like it much. He gulped hard. "I'll be glad when we're under way," he said. "It won't last long, but it will be nice to have some weight again. Even for a day or so."

Norsedal frowned and rolled his eyes upward for a moment. "Not that long, I'm afraid," he said. "Let's see, total velocity change of about five kilometers a second, at a tenth of gravity acceleration—five thousand seconds." He took a pocket computer off his belt and punched numbers. "An hour and a half. Then we're back in zero-gravity."


Weight felt strange. The ship boosted at about ten percent of Earth's gravity, but Kevin found that quite enough. All over the ship loose objects fell to the decks.


Ninety minutes later the acceleration ended. Wayfarer was now in a long elliptical orbit that would cross the orbit of Ceres. Left to itself, the ship would go on past, more than halfway to Jupiter, before the Sun's gravity would finally turn it back to complete the ellipse and return it to its starting point. In order to land on Ceres, the ship would have to boost again when it got out to the orbit of the asteroid.

There would also be minor course-correction maneuvers during the trip, but except for those the ship's nuclear-pile engine wouldn't be started up until they arrived at Ceres's orbit. Then the ship would accelerate to catch up with the asteroid. That wouldn't happen for nine months.


The heart of the system was a series of large transparent tanks filled with green water and tropical fish. Once Wayfarer was under way the crew erected large mirrors outside the hull. The mirrors collected sunlight and focused it through Plexiglas viewports onto the algae tanks. A ventilation system brought the ship's air into the tanks as a stream of bubbles. Other pumping systems collected sewage and forced it into chemical processors; the output was treated sewage that went to the algae tanks as fertilizer.


Wayfarer had two airlocks. One was right in the bows, a large docking port that allowed smaller space capsules to link up with the ship, and could also be used to link with an airtight corridor connecting the ship with the Ceres spaceport, or even with another ship. The other was a smaller personnel lock on the side of the hull just aft of the bows. Kevin and Ellen went out that way. There was a small ladder leading forward. It wasn't needed as a ladder, but it provided handholds.


The telescope was large, over a foot in diameter, with flexible seals that let it pass through the ship's hull and into the control bridge.


The ship's engines started. There was no sound and no flame. Hydrogen was pumped from the tanks and into the nuclear pile on its sting at the end of the ship. The nuclear reactor heated the hydrogen and forced it back through nozzles. The ship drove forward at a tenth of a gravity.

From Exiles to Glory by Jerry Pournelle (1977)

Medici Explorer

The Weight

(ed note: the Medici Explorer is basically the Pilgrim Observer with the NERVA solid core NTR swapped out for a gas-core NTR)

The Medici Explorer was fifty-six meters in length, from the gunmetal-grey nozzle of its primary engine to the grove of antennae and telescopes mounted on its barrel-shaped hub module; at the tips of its three arms—which were not yet rotating—the spacecraft was about forty-six meters in diameter. Pale blue moonlight reflected dully from the tube-shaped hydrogen, oxygen, and water tanks clustered in tandem rows between the hub and the broad, round radiation shield at the stern. Extended on a slender boom aft of the shield, behind the three gimbal-mounted maneuvering engines, was the gas-core nuclear engine, held at safe distance from the crew compartments at the forward end of the vessel. Although the reactor stack in Arm Three was much closer to the hub, it was heavily shielded and could not harm the crew when it was in operation.

The Medici Explorer was already awake and thriving. Two days earlier, it had departed from Highgate, the lunar-orbit spacedock where it had been docked since the completion of its last voyage six months ago. During the interim, while its crew rested at Descartes City and the precious cargo of Jovian helium-3 was unloaded from the freighters and transported to Earth, the Medici Explorer had undergone the routine repairs necessary before it could make its next trip to Jupiter. Now, at long last, the giant spacecraft had been towed by tugs to a higher orbit where it was reunited with its convoy.

The shuttle made its final approach toward the vessel’s primary docking collar on the hub module. On the opposite side of the docking collar, anchored to a truss which ran through a narrow bay between the outboard tanks, was the Marius, a smaller spacecraft used for landings. The fact that the ship’s boat was docked with the larger vessel was evidence that the Medici Explorer’s crew had returned from shore leave; more proof could be seen from the lights which glowed from the square windows of Arm One and Arm Two.

Red and blue navigational beacons arrayed along the superstructure illuminated more details: an open service panel on the hub where a robot was making last-minute repairs; a hardsuited space worker checking for micrometeorite damage to the hull; the round emblem of Consolidated Space Industries, the consortium which owned the vessel, painted on the side of the hub. Then the shuttle slowly yawed starboard, exposing its airlock hatch to the docking collar, and the Medici Explorer drifted away from its windows.


So on and so forth, barely pausing for breath, as we dropped down the hub’s access shaft to the carousel which connects the hub to the ship’s three arms. Since the arms were not presently rotating, we didn’t need to make the tricky maneuver of reorienting ourselves until the appropriate hatchway swung past us. The carousel’s hatches were aligned with their appropriate arms, so all we had to do was squirm through the upward-bending corridor—passing the sealed tiger-striped hatch which led to the reactor stack in Arm Three—until we reached the open hatch marked Arm 1.

The arm’s central shaft resembled a deep well, fifteen meters straight down to the bottom. Although I consciously knew that I couldn’t fall in zero-gee, I instinctively rebelled at the thought of throwing myself into a neck-breaking plummet. While I paused at the edge of the hatch, still visually disoriented by the distance, Young Bill dove headfirst through the hatch, scarcely grabbing the rungs of the ladder which led down the blue-carpeted wall of the shaft. I shut my eyes for a moment, fighting a surge of nausea, then I eased myself feet-first into the shaft, carefully taking each rung a step at a time.

There were six levels in Arm One, each accessed by the long ladder. Still babbling happily about rain forests and South American Indian tribes, Young Bill led me past Level 1-A (the infirmary and life sciences lab) Level 1-B (the Smith-Tate residence), Level 1-C (Smith-Makepeace) and Level 1-D (Smith-Tanaka). The hatches to each deck were shut, but as we glided past Level 1-D, its hatch opened and a preadolescent boy recklessly rushed out into the shaft and almost collided with Young Bill.


Young Bill shut the hatch, then led me down one more level to Deck 1-E, the passenger quarters.


He opened the hatch to Deck 1-E and pulled himself inside, hauling my duffel bag behind him. The deck was divided into four passenger staterooms, along with a common bathroom; not surprisingly, it was marked Head, retaining the old nautical term. The small compartment Bill led me to had its own foldaway bed, desk, data terminal and screen, along with a wide square window through which I could see the Moon.

Don’t bother making yourself at home,” he said as he stowed my duffel bag in a closet. “After we launch, you won’t see this place again for nine months.”

I nodded. “The other passengers… they’re already in hibernation?”

Yep. I helped Uncle Yoshi dope ’em up a few hours ago. They’re zombified already. You’ll be joining them after we—”


The Medici Explorer’s command center was shaped like the inside of a Chinese wok. Located on the top deck of the hub, Deck H-1 was the largest single compartment in the vessel: about fifteen meters in diameter, the bridge had a sloping, dome-shaped ceiling above a shallow, tiered pit. Two observation blisters, each containing an optical telescope, were mounted in the ceiling at opposite ends of the pit; between them were myriad computer flat-screens and holographic displays, positioned above the duty stations arranged around the circumference of the pit. In the center of the bridge, at the bottom of the pit between and slightly below the duty stations, was the captain’s station, a wingback chair surrounded by wraparound consoles. On one side of the bridge was the hatch leading to the hub’s access tunnel; on the opposite side was a small alcove, a rest area furnished with three chairs and a small galley.

It may sound claustrophobic and technocratic, but the bridge was actually quite spacious and comfortable. The floors were carpeted, allowing one to comfortably walk on them provided that one was wearing stikshoes, and the holoscreens provided a variety of scenes from outboard cameras as well as the main telescope, giving the illusion of cathedral windows looking out upon the grand cosmos.


The major technological breakthrough which made Jupiter reachable was made in 2028 by a joint R&D project by Russian and American physicists at the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: the development of a gas-core nuclear engine, resulting in an impulse-per-second engine thrust ratio twice as high as even the thermal-fission engines used by Mars cycleships.


He went out in the ship’s service bug, a tiny gumdrop-shaped vehicle with double-jointed RWS arms, used for in-flight repair operations. Bill had been thoroughly trained and checked out for the bug; indeed, this was the third time he had piloted it during a flight. While Betsy, his dad, and Saul monitored from the bridge, he took the bug out from its socket on the hub, jetted around the ship’s rotating arms, and gently maneuvered the little one-person craft until he reached the maneuvering engines behind the radiation shield.

From The Weight by Allen Steele (1995)

Pilgrim Observer Roots

When creating the Pilgrim Observer, G. Harry Stine started with a 1960's study on creating a self deploying space station. Mr. Stine added the propellant tanks and the NERVA NTR to make it into a spacecraft. You will note the box cover says "Space Station", not "Spacecraft". David Portree identified the space station study in question. Actually studies plural, the Pilgrim was based on an amalgam of several.


MSC Station
total weight manned
& supplied
250,000 lbs
diameter (deployed)150 ft
diameter of
pressurized cabin
15.25 ft
diameter of
access tubes
5 ft
diameter of hub33 ft
length of spoke50 ft
# of decks
in spokes
6
height of
one deck
8'4"
rate of
rotation
~4 x/min
launch vehicle2-stage Saturn V
orbit260-n-mi, 29.5° incl
mission
duration
5 yrs
launch date1968-1970
crew size24-36
Spin Gravity
Level2 rpm3 rpm4 rpm
Level 60.05g0.10g0.18g
Level 50.06g0.13g0.23g
Level 40.07g0.15g0.27g
Level 30.08g0.18g0.32g
Level 20.09g0.21g0.36g
Level 10.10g0.23g0.41g

David Portree said the design below is from an NASA Manned Spacecraft Center team under Owen Maynard and dates from 1962. The pressurized cabins and the access tubes are covered with a meteor bumper for protection (0.99 probability of not more than one penetration per month).

GE came up with a modified 35-kw SNAP-8 power system for this design in 9/64. They looked at placing the reactor at the center of rotation, down below the hub, or at the end of one of the arms. Oddly enough (from a balance standpoint), they favored placing the reactor at the end of one of the arms. I think they did this because the nadir surface of the hub was supposed to carry Earth-observation instruments.

You will notice that locating the reactor in one of the arms was copied in the design for the Pilgrim. This is foolish, since unlike the space station the Pilgrim has no Earth-observation instruments on its nadir surface. As a matter of fact, the Pilgrim already has a reactor on its nadir, inside the NERVA.

If was to re-design the Pilgrim Observer, I would not waste an entire rotating arm on the reactor. Instead I'd make the NERVA into a Bimodal NTR, and use the third arm for extra labs or something. The NERVA is not going to be thrusting during the months the ship coasts, so it might as well do something useful. The Bimodal switch would require the addition of some heat radiators, a turbine, a generator, and a condensor, but that should not be hard to incorporate.

However, the fact that the Pilgrim also had the reactor in one of the arms is yet more proof it was copied from the design of this space station.

The 150 foot diameter of the rotating section is the same figure quoted in the Pilgrim plastic model booklet. The Pilgrim however only rotated at 2 rpm, instead of 4 rpm. The patent #3300162 specfied 3 rpm (citing the spin nausea limit). Take your pick.

In the pressurized cabin, each level had an internal floor to ceiling height of 84 inches, an external deck to deck spacing of 100 inches, and the floor had a diameter of 183 inches.

The patent notes that the advantage of the folding arms is that when the station is boosted into orbit the direction of acceleration is the same as when the arms are spinning. This means that the cargo does not shift. I'm sure G. Harry Stine noted that thrust can occur in a deep space exploration ship as well as a station being boosted into orbit.


Project Orion Battleship

RocketCat sez

This thing rulz. Period.

It can stomp both the Michael and the Thuktun Fishithy into the dirt and still have enough firepower left over to blow the Soviet Union into the Stone Age.

When the Orion nuclear pulse propulsion concept was being developed, the researchers at General Atomic were interested in an interplanetary research vessel. But the US Air Force was not. They thought the 4,000 ton version of the Orion would be rightsized for an interplanetary warship, armed to the teeth. And when they said armed, they meant ARMED. It had enough nuclear bombs to devastate an entire continent (500 twenty-megaton city-killer warheads), 5-inch Naval cannon turrets, six hypersonic landing boats, and several hundred of the dreaded Casaba Howitzer weapons — which are basically ray guns that shoot nuclear flame (the technical term is "nuclear shaped charge").

Keep in mind that this is a realistic design. It could actually be built.

The developers made a scale model of this version, which in hindsight was a big mistake. It had so many weapons on it that it horrified President Kennedy, and helped lead to the cancellation of the entire Orion project. The model (which was the size of a Chevrolet Corvette) was apparently destroyed, and no drawings, specifications or photos have come to light.

Scott Lowther has painstakingly done the research to recreate this monster. If you want all the details, run, do not walk, and purchase a copy of Aerospace Projects Review vol2, number 2. He also made a model kit of the battleship for Fantastic Plastic, you can order one here.

Reusable Nuclear Shuttle

Reusable Nuclear Shuttle
PropulsionNTR-solid
Specific Impulse816 s
Exhaust Velocity8,000 m/s
Wet Mass170,000 kg?
Dry Mass30,000 kg?
Mass Ratio5.3?
ΔV13,000 m/s?
Mass Flow41.7 kg/s
Thrust344,000 n?
Initial Acceleration0.16 g
Payload 8-burn45,000 kg?
Payload 4-burn58,000 kg?
Length49 m
Diameter33 m

This is a 1970's era NASA concept for a nuclear shuttle. Note that in many of the images the shuttle has a Space Tug crew module perched on top. Design is very similar to the Basic Solid Core NTR. David Portree wrote a nice history of the nuclear shuttle: The Last Days of the Nuclear Shuttle.

Phase I design was for an expendable vehicle with a 200,000-pound-thrust NERVA II engine. It was to be used for several rocket stages on their planned Mars mission vehicle.

The Phase II design is what is pictured below. Specifically the Phase II class 1 hybrid model. Phase II design was for a reusable vehicle with a 75,000-pound-thrust NERVA I engine and a payload capacity of 50 tons. This was dubbed the Reusable Nuclear Shuttle (RNS). NASA had an optimistic RNS traffic model calling for 157 Terra-Luna flights between 1980 and 1990 by a fleet of 15 RNS vehicles. The shadow shield casts a 10 degree half-angle shadow, shielding was intended to reduce the radiation exposure to 10 REM per passenger and 3 REM per crew member per round trip to Luna and back.

The little attachable crew module has a mass of 9,000 kg. The NERVA engine is 18 meters long and 4.6 meters wide, intended to fit inside a Space Shuttle's cargo bay (the propellant tank can be lofted into orbit on a big dumb booster, but a nuke requires the human supervision). The propellant tank is 31 meters long and 10 meters wide.

The NERVA has a 1360 kilogram shadow shield on top, but it also relied upon propellant, structure, and distance to provide radiation shielding for the crew. Obviously as the propellant was expended, the shielding diminished. North American Rockwell tried to solve the problem with a "stand-pipe", in which a cylindrical “central column” running the length of the main tank stood between the crew and the NERVA I engine. The central column would remain filled with hydrogen until the surrounding main tank was emptied.

McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company dealth with the radiation problem by developing a “hybrid” RNS shielding design that included a small hydrogen tank between the bottom of the main tank and the top of the NERVA I engine. In the first diagram below, you can see the small tank included in the propulsion module length.

D. J. Osias, an analyst with Bellcomm, pointed out that the radiation dosage received by the astronauts riding the RNS was unacceptable. Osias stated that the maximum allowable radiation dose for an astronaut from sources other than cosmic rays of between 10 and 25 REM per year (0.1 and 0.25 Sievert). But the luckless astronaut on board the RNS would get 0.1 Sieverts every time the NERVA did a burn. Any external astronauts (not in the cone of safety cast by the shadow shield) at a range of 16 kilometers from a RNS operating at full power would suffer a radiation dose from 0.25 to 0.3 Sieverts per hour. Osias suggested that external astronauts not approach a burning RNS closer than 160 kilometers.

Nowadays the yearly limit of radiation exposure for astronauts is set at 3 Sieverts, with a career limit of 4 Sieverts. Which means an astronaut piloting a RNS through 40 total burns would be permanently grounded by reaching his career limit of radiation.

The RNS is assumed to have an operational life of 10 Terra-Luna round trips. After that the RNS is attached to a chemical booster and thrown into the Sun or somewhere remote.

You will find more information than you ever wanted to know about the RNS in these PDF files here, and here.

There are two mission types: the 8-burn mission and the 4-burn mission.

8-burn mission disadvantage: requires 4 extra burns for change-of-plane maneuvers. This increases the required ΔV to 8,495 m/s, and reduces the payload size to 45,000 kg. Advantage: you do not have to wait for a launch window, you can launch anytime you want.

4-burn mission disadvantage: mission launch windows occur only at 54.6 day intervals. Advantage: since you are not required to perform change-of-plane maneuvers the required ΔV is reduced to 8,256 m/s and the payload size is increased to 58,000 kg.

In both of these missions, it is assumed that the full payload is carried to Luna, where the payload is dropped off EXCEPT for the 9,000 kg that is the crew module. Presumably the crew wants something to live in for the trip back to Terra.

Interpretation by master artist William Black
Interpretation by master artist Tom Peters

Lunar Ferry

Lunar Ferry
PropulsionNTR-solid
Specific Impulse1000 s
Exhaust Velocity9,810 m/s
Wet MassM kg
Dry MassM/4.6 kg
Mass Ratio4.6
ΔV15,000 m/s
Mass Flow? kg/s
Thrust? n
Initial Acceleration? g
Payload< M/4.6 kg
Length?
Diameter?

This is a 1965 design from NUCLEAR SPACE PROPULSION by Holmes F. Crouch. It seems to be the father of the NASA Nuclear Shuttle design. According to the book, it would have a single solid-core NTR engine with a specific impulse of 1000 seconds (i.e., an exhaust velocity of 9,810 m/s) and a ΔV capability of 15,000 m/s (which implies a mass ratio of about 4.6, which is a bit over the rule-of-thumb maximum of 4.0). The book estimates that an Terra to Luna Hohmann trajectory would take about 12,000 m/s ΔV, after you add in all the change-of-plane maneuvers and added an abort reserve. This would require about 60 hours to travel from the Terra to Luna, but that can be reduced to 20 hours by spending an extra 900 m/s.

In the second diagram, the ship is shown docked to something that looks suspiciously like the Space Tug. Note that they dock nose-to-nose so the lunar shuttle vehicle can stay inside the radiation shadow area.

One really exciting nuclear rocket potiential lies in Earth-Moon transport. The Moon is 208,000 n mi from the Earth. The mission concept simply is one of ferrying back and forth between Earth and Moon terminal orbits. We can think of the ferry terminals as 300 n mi Earth orbits and 100 n mi lunar orbits.

The essence of the lunar ferry concept is presented in Figure 11-8 (the one with the Earth-Moon orbits). the lunar vehicle would do all the propulsive legwork in the the terminal orbits and between the terminal orbits. Chemical systems would be employed as shuttle vehicles at the Earth terminius and at the lunar terminus. This would permit specialization in chemical systems where they are most capable: planetary launch and entry.

The nuclear ferry would have one rocket reactor with capability for multiple reuses, in-orbit replenishment, multiple restarts, and full nozzle maneuverability. We would expect the reactor to have a proven Isp on the order of 1000 seconds. It would have proven reliability, man-rating, pilot control, and long life. We would not expect the ultimate in solid-fueled reactor technology but we should be headed in that direction.

Note in Figure 11-8 that the ferry trajectory is in the form of a "figure-8." This is because it is necessary to transfer from one gravitational force center to another. Each section of the figure-8 can be thought of as an elliptical orbit: one focus at Earth and one focus at the Moon. The two ellipses "join" each other at a transfer region which is about 85% of the distance from Earth (the crossover occurs at about 180,000 n mi from Earth or about 28,000 n mi from the Moon). When going from Earth to Moon, the transfer point is called translunar injection. When going from the Moon to Earth, the transfer is called transearth injection. The injection maneuvers actually start well in advance of the trajectory crossover.

Caution is required when interpreting Figure 11-8. It gives the impression that the launching/entry trajectories, the rendezvous/docking orbits, and translunar/transearth ellipses are all in the same orbit plane with each other. This is not the case. We are dealing with noncoplanar orbit trajectories. Furthermore, they are variable noncoplanar trajectories which change from day to day and from month to month. As a consequence, the target plane — that plane connecting the Earth and Moon centers — "corkscrews" around the major axis of the figure-8 flight path. The corkscrewing of the ferry trajectory introduces fluctuations in the ΔV requirements.

Table 11-4 Nuclear Ferry ΔV Requirements
ManeuverFeet per second
Earth Orbit Docking1,750
Earth-Space Plane Changes3,500
Earth to Translunar Injection10,000
Translunar to Lunar Orbit3,500
Lunar-Space Plane Changes1,500
Lunar Orbit Docking750
Lunar to Transearth Injection3,500
Transearth to Earth Orbit10,000
Midcourse Corrections500
Abort Reserve5,000
Total ΔV40,000

A representative summary of the round trip ΔV requirements is given in Table 11-4. This listing includes all contingencies (a lunar mission can be performed with less ΔV than table 11-4 but the risk-potential increases). Note that total ΔV is 40,000 feet per second (fps). A single stage nuclear vehicle with an Isp of 1000 sec would have a ΔV capability of nearly 50,000 fps. Hence, there is some excess ΔV available.

The unused nuclear ΔV can be applied to reducing the trip time. The normal one-way trip time for a chemical propulsion system is about 60 hours (2 ½ days). Because chemical lunar missions border on marginal ΔV capabilities, the chemical trip time cannot be reduced much below 60 hours. In the case of nuclear systems, for an additional expenditure of 3,000 fps, the one-way trip time can be reduced to 20 hours. The effect of other ΔV expenditures on trip time is shown in Figure 11-9 (not shown), It can be seen that if an attempt is made to reduce the trip time below 20 hours, the extra ΔV requirements are disproportionate to the time gained. Therefore, a value of 20 hours will be selected as the nuclear ferry time base.

If the lunar terminal orbit is 100 n mi altitude, the orbit period is about 2 hours. If the lunar terminal activities necessitate as much as two orbit periods fur completion, the nuclear ferry turnaround could be made within 24 hours of Earth departure. If two nuclear ferry vehicles were used, we could have daily service to the moon and back! All-chemical lunar rocket systems could not possibly compete with this schedule.

The advantages of reduced lunar trip time are self-evident There is reduced time of confinement of astronaut, scientific, and technical personnel to the limited quarters of spacecraft. In-transit boredom and monotony are reduced. Less life support equipment is required: less oxygen, less food, less waste disposal. There is less exposure to weightlessness and less exposure to space radiation. The less the life protection equipment required, the more transport capacity for lunar basing supplies.

In the lunar terminal orbit, all exchange activities would take place at the pilot end of the nuclear ferry. This is because the propulsion reactor would be kept idling. The major features involved are presented in Figure 11-10 (middle image above). One feature not always self-evident is the need to off-load chemical propellants from the nuclear ferry to the lunar shuttle. To make the propellaut transfer, special cargo tanks on the nuclear ferry and special piping on the chemical shuttle would be required, It is assumed that chemical propellants for the shuttle vehicle probably could not be manufactured on the Moon and therefore would have to be transported from Earth.

From NUCLEAR SPACE PROPULSION by Holmes F. Crouch (1965)

Rocketpunk Large Fast Transport

The deep space ship above (click on the image for full sized view) was inspired by the Travel Planner spreadsheet in the previous post, and modeled in the wonderfully simple and handy DoGA 3D modeler. The shuttle alongside is a rough approximation of the NASA shuttle, and thus a thorough anacronism in this image, but provided as a scale reference.

Of course you want some specifications of the ship. Even if you don't, you get them anyway:

Length Overall300 meters
Departure Mass10,000 tons
Propellant Load H25000 tons
Drive Mass2000 tons
Keel and Tankage1000 tons
Gross Payload2000 tons
Flyway Cost$5 billion (equivalent)

The payload includes a hab with berthing space for 50-200 passengers and crew, depending on mission duration, and a pair of detachable pods for 500 tons of express cargo, plus service bays and the like.

What this ship can do depends on its drive engine performance. If the drive puts out 2 gigawatts of thrust power — my baseline for a Realistic [TM] nuke electric drive — the ship can reach Mars in three months, give or take. (The sim gave 92 days for a 0.8 AU trip in flat space.) With a later generation drive putting out 20 gigawatts it can reach Mars in a little over a month, or Saturn in eight months.

The general arrangement of this ship is driven by design consideration — a nuclear drive that needs to be a long way from the crew, with large radiators to shed its waste heat; tanks for bulky liquid hydrogen; and a spinning hab section. Most serious proposals for deep space craft in the last 50 years have had more or less this arrangement — the movie 2001 left off the radiator fins, because in those days the audience would have been puzzled that a deep space ship had 'wings.'

A large, long-mission military craft, such as a laser star, might not look much different overall — replace the cargo pods with a laser installation and side-mounted main mirror, and perhaps a couple of smaller mirrors on rotating 'turret' mounts. Discussions here have persuaded me that heavy armor is of little use against the most likely threats facing such a ship.

Within these broad constraints, however, spaceships offer a great deal of design freedom, more than most terrestrial vehicles. Ships, planes, and faster land vehicles are all governed by fluid dynamics, and even movable shipyard cranes must conform to a 1-g gravity field. A spaceship, unless built for aerobraking, will never encounter fluid flow, and the forces exerted by high specific impulse drives — even torch level drives — are relatively gentle.

This ship might have had two propellant tanks, or half a dozen, instead of four. And the entire industrial assemblage of tanks and girders might be concealed, partly or entirely, within a 'hull' of sheeting no thicker than foil, protecting tanks and equipment from shifting heat exposure due to sunlight and shadow. Much of the ISS keel girder has a covering of some sort — in close-ups it looks a lot like canvas — that in more distant views gives the impression of a solid structure.

In fact the visual image of the ISS is dominated by its solar wings and radiators. The hab structure is fairly inconspicuous by comparison, like the hull of a sailing ship under full sail. This would be true to an extreme of solar electric ships; a 1-gigawatt solar electric drive would need a few square kilometers of solar wings. Even nuclear drives, fission or fusion, require extensive radiators — probably more than I showed — with other ship systems needing their own radiators, at varied operating temperatures. Unless the ship has an onboard reactor it must also have solar collectors for use when the drive is shut down.

All of which may do more to catch the eye than heavier but smaller structures such as the hab or even propellant tankage. And then there is color: the gold foil of the main ISS solar wings, for example.

Hollywood knows nothing of this (though I'm surprised they haven't picked up on the gold foil). Hollywood is no more interested in what real spaceships look like than it is in how they maneuver. This is only natural, even though we hard SF geeks complain. Hollywood doesn't care because its audience has almost no clue of what spaceships look like, or act like, getting most of their impressions from Hollywood itself.

The one actual spacecraft to have iconic visual status, the Shuttle, essentially looks like an airplane. The ISS has not yet acquired iconic status, though it may, especially after the Shuttle is retired. And perhaps it looks so unlike terrestrial vehicles that our eye does not yet know quite what to make of it.

As a point of comparison, watch aviation scenes in old movies, especially from before World War II. You'll see airplanes whooshing past (sometimes in pretty unconvincing special effects shots), but you will rarely see what is now a standard shot — a plane filmed from another plane in formation, hanging 'motionless' on the screen, clouds and distant landscape rolling slowly past, until perhaps the plane banks and turns away.

It is a standard shot because it is so very effective. But older movies rarely used it, because audiences would have had no idea what they were seeing. Everyone knew that airplanes were fast, and had at least some idea that their speed is what kept them in the air. A plane apparently hanging in midair would make no sense.

What changed all this, I would guess, is World War II. A flood of newsreel footage included many formation shots, and audiences gradually absorbed a feeling for what midair footage really looks like. When a postwar Jimmy Stewart enlisted for Strategic Air Command (1955), Hollywood — and its audience — were ready to see the B-36 and B-47 showcased in all their glory, including airborne formation shots.

I know what you bloodthirsty people are thinking — one good space war, and everyone will grok the visual language of space travel. Shame on you. Given enough civil space development, and time, people will get the hang of it.

The beauty of spaceships is in the eye of the beholder. The familiar aesthetics of terrestrial vehicles are as irrelevant to them as to Gothic cathedrals (which in some broad philosophical sense are themselves spaceships of a sort). General principles of design will provide some guidance. Even in making the quick thrown-together model above I found that slight changes in proportion could make the difference between a jumble of parts and a unity.

But the real visual impact of spaceships is something we will only learn from experience, by the glint of a distant sun.

From The Aesthetics of Space Travel by Rick Robinson (2010)

Rocketpunk Patrol Ship

Payload
Crew25
Hab Module100 tons
Consumables25 tons
Other Payload75 tons
Total Payload200 tons
Propulsion Bus
Engine+Radiator200 tons
Tankages+Keel100 tons
Stats
Dry Mass475 tons
Loaded Mass500 tons
Propellant Mass500 tons
Wet Mass1000 tons

The discussion thread about 'Industrial Scale of Space' veered, among other things, into a discussion of patrol missions in space. My first reaction was that (so long as you aren't dealing with an interstellar setting) there is no place in space for wartime patrol missions. But the matter might be more complicated, and for story purposes probably should be.

According to The Free Dictionary, patrol is The act of moving about an area especially by an authorized and trained person or group, for purposes of observation, inspection, or security. This fits my own sense of the word, and is in fact a bit broader, 'security' including SSBN patrols, which are not observing or inspecting anything, just waiting for a launch order if it comes.

In a reductionist way you could say that all military spacecraft are on patrol, since they are all on orbit, and if they are orbiting a planet they have a very regular 'patrol area.' But this is not what most of us have in mind. We picture a patrol making a sweep through an area, looking for anything unusual, ready to engage any enemy they encounter, or report it and shadow it if they cannot engage it.

Back in the rocketpunk era it was plausible that, say, Earth might send a patrol past Ceres to see if the Martians had established a secret base there. But (alas!) telescopes 'patrolling' from Earth orbit can easily observe the large scale logistics traffic involved in establishing a base; watch it depart Mars and track it to Ceres. If you want a closer look you can send a robotic spy probe. If you engage in 'reconnaissance in force' by attacking Ceres, that is a task force, not a patrol.

In an all out interplanetary war there may be plenty of uncertainty on both sides, but very little of it can be resolved by sending out patrols.


But of course all-out war is not the context in which the Space Patrol became familiar. I associate it with Heinlein's Patrol; apparently the 1950s TV series had an independent origin (unlike Tom Corbett, who was Heinlein's unacknowledged literary child).

The rocketpunk-era Patrol, which in turn gave us Starfleet, was placed in the distinctly midcentury future setting of a Federation. This is as zeerust as monorails. But plausible patrolling is not confined to Federation settings. It can justified in practically any situation but all out war.

Orbital patrol in Earth orbital space will surely be the first space patrol, and could be imagined in this century. It might initially be a general emergency response force, because travel times in Earth orbital space are short enough for classical rescue missions. On the interplanetary scale, with travel times of weeks or more likely months, rescue is rarely possible. But eventually power players will want some kind of police presence or flag showing in deep space.

As so often in these discussions, I picture a complex and ambiguous environment in which policing, diplomacy, and sometimes low level conflict blur together. To take again our Earth-Mars-Ceres example, there are kinds of reconnaissance that cannot be carried out by robots (short of high level AIs). If Ceres closes its airlocks to liberty parties from a visiting Earth patrol ship, that conveys some important intelligence information.


The ships that perform these missions will be fairly large (and expensive). They must carry a hab pod providing prolonged life support for a significant crew: at least a commander and staff, SWAT team of espatiers, and some support for both.

Let us say a crew of 25—which is cutting the human presence very fine. Now we can venture a mass estimate. Allow 100 tons for the hab compartment plus 25 tons for crew and stores plus 75 tons other payload, for a total payload of 200 tons. Let the drive bus be 200 tons for the drive, including radiators, and 100 tons for tankage, keel, and sundry equipment.

Our patrol ship with a crew of 25 thus has a dry mass of 475 tons, mass fully equipped 500 tons, plus 500 tons propellant for a full load departure mass of 1000 tons. Cost by my usual rule of thumb is equivalent to $500 million, perhaps $1 billion after milspecking, expensive compared to military planes, cheaper than major naval combatants.

This is no small ship. If the propellant is liquid hydrogen the tanks have a volume of about 7000 cubic meters, equivalent to a 7000 ton submarine. The payload section is about two thirds the mass of the ISS and of roughly comparable size, though the hab is probably spun giving the prolonged missions.

Armament is necessarily modest. The 75 tons of additional payload allowance probably must include a ferry craft for the espatiers and an escort gunship or two, plus their service pod, leaving perhaps 15-20 tons each for kinetics and a laser installation. The laser might be good for 20 megawatts beam power, with plug power from the 200 megawatt drive engine.

This ship is no laser star, but the laser is respectable. Assuming a modest 5 meter main mirror and a near IR wavelength of 1000 nanometers, at a range of 1000 km it can burn through Super Nano Carbon Stuff at rather more than 1 centimeter of per second. Its armament is also rather 'balanced.' My model shows that this laser can just defeat a wave of about 1000 target seekers, each with a mass of 20 kg, closing at 10 km/s—thus a total mass of 20 tons, comparable to its kinetics payload allowance.

Deploying troops, or personnel in general, is impressively expensive: About three fourths of the payload and cost of a billion dollar ship goes to support and equip a crew of 25, with perhaps a dozen espatiers. For comparison the USS Makin Island (LHD-8) displaces 41,000 tons full load, carries a crew of 1200 plus 1700 Marines, and costs about $1.8. So by my model it costs about as much to deploy one espatier as 80 marines.

And this ship is about the minimum patrol package, so standing interplanetary patrol is a costly and somewhat granular business, something not everyone can afford.

From Space Patrols by Rick Robinson (2010)

Rocketpunk Solar-Electric Ship

Solar-electric deep space drive engines, according to Isaac Kuo at sfconsim-l, may soon achieve a power output density of about 400 watts per kilogram, when operating near Earth distance from the Sun. If you do not see what this sort of technical information could possibly have to do with so lovely an image as gossamer wings, you probably reached this blog by accident, have no poetry in you, or both.

What makes it potentially relevant as well as beautiful is that 400 watts/kg is in hailing distance of the 1 kw/kg that Isaac and I independently chose as a benchmark for nuclear-electric drive, and generally as needed for relatively fast interplanetary travel. A spacecraft using solar electric drive can thus reach the same interplanetary speeds as its cousin, though it will take somewhat longer to reach cruising speed, and somewhat longer to slow down. It is a fair prospect that with a few decades' further progress, by the time we're actually building interplanetary ships the performance of the two drives will be comparable.

This is a big deal, because solar-electric space drive is technically and operationally elegant, while nuclear-anything drive, and especially nuclear-electric drive, is not. A solar electric drive has almost no moving parts. A nuclear-electric drive has lots of complex internal plumbing to draw energy from the reactor and incidentally keep it from melting. This plumbing operates under very nasty conditions, radioactivity being nothing to sheer high temperatures.

Plumbing is a big part of what makes spaceships so expensive, because it is complicated, full of parts that can jam, and as there is never a plumber around when you need one, it has to work perfectly for months at a time. (Even if you have a plumber in the crew, taking a nuclear reactor apart en route is a pain.) Robinson's Second Law: For each gram of physics handwavium in futuristic space tech, expect about a ton of plumbing handwavium.

Nuclear drives are also full of nasty fissionable stuff, tricky and dangerous to work with, requiring heavy shielding to get anywhere near (and radiation goes a long ways in space), requiring extreme security measures in handling and storage, and socially uncomfortable no matter how careful your procedures are.

In short, anything that gets rid of nuclear reactors in space is a huge plus on every level of operation, from spacecraft construction and maintenance to obtaining funding. Solar electric drive with comparable performance banishes nuclear reactors from the inner Solar System. You don't need them for travel, and you certainly don't need them for anything else, because one thing the inner Solar System has an ample and endless supply of is sunshine. Those skies are never cloudy all day.

Solar electric power does gasp for air, or for sunshine, as you move outward from the Sun. At Mars, thrust is about half as much as near Earth. In the asteroid belt it is about a fifth to a tenth, at Jupiter one twenty-fifth, at Saturn one percent. To give this some context, a one-milligee drive, baseline performance near Earth, nudges a ship along at about 1 km/s per day, reaching orbital transfer speeds in a week or two. At Jupiter, the drive delivers some 40 microgees, and a ship puts on about 1 km/s per month, thus the better part of a year for orbital transfer burns.

The time lost due to sluggish acceleration is only half as much, some six months, and a Jupiter mission would likely be upwards of a year each way even for a nuke-electric ship. So until we have regular bus service to Jupiter, the time cost is not dreadful. The inner Solar System, through the asteroid belt, can be efficiently traveled by solar-electric drive, which ought to hold us through this century and into the next.

Of course nuclear-electric ships can be built, but Isaac also pointed out a subtle effect that could sideline them. Over the decades to come we will build solar-electric probes, and later ships, steadily developing the technology, while nuke-electric remains a paper tech, falling further and further behind. A serious advance into the outer system will require a faster drive in any case—by that time perhaps a fusion drive, which can still be two orders of magnitude below the magical performance level of a 'torch.'

Let's mentally sketch-design a solar electric ship. Departure mass with full propellant load is 400 tons, broken down as follows:

  • Payload, 100 tons
  • Structures and fitting, 50 tons
  • Drive engine, 100 tons
  • Propellant, 150 tons

The drive engine we make an advanced one, meeting the baseline standard of 1 kw/kg. Thus rated drive power is 100 megawatts. If the exhaust velocity is 50 km/s (specific impulse ~5000 seconds), 80 grams of propellant is shot out the back each second. Thrust is 4000 Newtons, about 1000 lbs, giving our ship the intended 1 milligee acceleration at full load. Mass ratio is 1.6, so total ship delta v available on departure is 23.5 km/s, enough for a pretty fast orbit to Mars.

We could 'overload' this ship with a much bigger payload, another 400 tons (thus 500 tons total payload). Max acceleration falls to half a milligee, and mission delta v to 10 km/s—still ample for the Hohmann trip to Mars, for slow freight service. Since we want to go there ourselves, we will stick with the faster version and configure it as a passenger ship. Each passenger/crewmember requires cabin space, fittings, life support equipment, provisions and supplies for the trip, plus the mass of the passenger and baggage—in all, say, about 3 tons per person, so our ship carries some 30-35 passengers and crew.

The cabin structure of this ship might be about the size of a 747 fuselage, divided into berthing compartments or roomettes, diner/lounge area, galley, storage spaces, and life support plant. If the propellant is hydrogen, the tankage will be about the same size; if other stuff is used, the tankage will be smaller. All in all, the hull portion of our ship is comparable in size and mass to a jumbo jet. As space liners go this is a modest-sized one, as its modest passenger/crew capacity shows.

Now, finally, the gossamer wings part. We accounted for the mass of the drive engine, including solar collectors, but have not yet looked at the physical size of the solar panals. They are big. Big. If we assume that about 35 percent of the sunlight that hits them is converted into thrust power, they capture some 500 watts per square meter at 1 AU—meaning that for a 100 megawatt drive you need 200,000 square meters of solar panels, a fifth of a square kilometer.

This trim little interplanetary liner is physically enormous, or at least its solar wings are. The 'wingspan' might well be one kilometer, 'wing chord' then being 200 meters. In sheer size our ship is much bigger than any vehicle ever built (though freight trains can be up to about 2 km long).

Angular, squared-off, an instrument of technology—but how can this ship be anything but a thing of beauty, an immense gleaming-black butterfly? If that is too fluttery, say a dragonfly, or to be prosaic an equally immense gleaming-black kite. Indeed the prototype configuration is much like a box kite, likely for later versions as well.

Something is magical about such ships and travel aboard them. The drive thrust and power performance is the same as for a nuke-thermal ship, but now the milligee acceleration feels appropriately gentle, not merely weak, as our ship glides from world to world on its great sun-wings. (This is not, however, solar sailing, but a sun-powered 'steamship.')

The modest capacity of this immense little ship adds to the charm. With only about 35 passengers and crew this is no tawdry impersonal cruise ship. It all has somewhat the flavor of airship travel as we imagine it—perhaps encouraged by the zeppelin-like proportions of the vehicle, the gondola dwarfed by the feather-light structure that carries it. In early decades the ship will be much more utilitarian, a transport rather than a liner—don't ring for the steward; it's your turn in the galley. But if we go to the planets we will eventually go in liners.

The scenery out the viewports* won't change much after the first week or so spiraling out from Earth. (In fact you probably ride a connecting bus up through the Van Allen belts.) By then it is time for reading, cards, conversation, and flirting, till Mars looms close and the ship begins its long graceful swoop down to parking orbit.

Bon voyage!

* I disagree with Winch. All but the most utilitarian spaceships will have a few viewports, because while there is often nothing to see, when there is it is breathtaking. And fundamentally, why else are we going into space?

From On Gossamer Wings by Rick Robinson (2008)

Slingshot

Cargo Tug Slingshot
Jefferson contract
Total ΔV6,000 m/s
Exhaust velocity280,000 m/s
Thrust5,460,000 n
Thrust Power760 GW
Wet Mass512,600 mt
Ship Mass1,600 mt
Payload Mass500,000 mt
Dry Mass501,600 mt
Mass Ratio1.02
Deuterium Fuel16 mt
Initial acceleration0.01 m/s2

The Cargo Tug Slingshot is from Jerry Pournelle's short story Tinker. In the story, it rescues the BoostShip Agamemnon.

The spacecraft's spine is a strong hollow tube built to transmit thrust from the aft engines to the fore array. The array is composed of detachable fuel pods of deuterium fuel and cadmium reaction mass. Fuel and remass are fed to the engines through the center of the ship's spine. The cargo goes fore of fuel pod. There are a couple of pods of fuel/remass attached to the hull.

Crew cabins are torus-shaped, arranged around the outside of the spine. Foremost torus is control deck. Next aftwards is living quarters for crew. Next comes deck with office and passenger quarters. Furthest aft is deck with shops, labs, and main entryway to the ship. Entryway doubles as a small store catering asteroid miners, to supplement the ship's income. Decks are connected by airlocks for safety.

There wasn't much doubt on the last few trips, but when we first put Slingshot together out of the wreckage of two salvaged ships, every time we boosted out there'd been a good chance we'd never set down again. There's a lot that can go wrong in the Belt, and not many ships to rescue you.


I shrugged and began securing the ship. There wasn't much to do. The big work is shutting down the main engines, and we'd done that a long way out from Jefferson (asteroid colony). You don't run an ion engine toward an inhabited rock if you care about your customers.


The entryway is a big compartment. It's filled with nearly everything you can think of: dresses, art objects, gadgets and gizmos, spare parts for air bottles, sewing machines, and anything else Janet or I think we can sell in the way-stops we make with Slingshot. Janet calls it the "boutique," and she's been pretty clever about what she buys. It makes a profit, but like everything we do, just barely.

(Nine tons of beef) I donated half a ton for the Jefferson city hall people to throw a feed with. The rest went for about thirty francs a kilo. That would just about pay for the deuterium I burned up coming to Jefferson.

(ed note: approimately 16,000 francs per metric ton of deuterium)


"I don't think you understand. You have half a million tons to boost up to what, five, six kilometers a second?" I took out my pocket calculator. "Sixteen tons of deuterium and eleven thousand reaction mass. That's a bloody big load. The fuel feed system's got to be built. It's not something I can just strap on and push off—"


I switched the comm system to Record. "Agamemnon, this is cargo tug Slingshot. I have your Mayday. Intercept is possible, but I cannot carry sufficient fuel and mass to decelerate your ship. I must vampire your dee and mass, I say again, we must transfer your fuel and reaction mass to my ship.

"We have no facilities for taking your passengers aboard. We will attempt to take your ship in tow and decelerate using your deuterium and reaction mass. Our engines are modified General Electric Model five-niner ion-fusion. Preparations for coming to your assistance are under way. Suggest your crew begin preparations for fuel transfer. Over."


The Register didn't give anywhere near enough data about Agamemnon. I could see from the recognition pix that she carried her reaction mass in strap-ons alongside the main hull, rather than in detachable pods right forward the way Slinger does. That meant we might have to transfer the whole lot before we could start deceleration.


The refinery crew had built up fuel pods for Slinger before, so they knew what I needed, but they'd never made one that had to stand up to a full fifth of a gee. A couple of centimeters is hefty acceleration when you boost big cargo, but we'd have to go out at a hundred times that.


They launched the big fuel pod with strap-on solids, just enough thrust to get it away from the rock so I could catch it and lock on. We had hours to spare, and I took my time matching velocities. Then Hal and I went outside to make sure everything was connected right.


Slingshot is basically a strongly built hollow tube with engines at one end and clamps at the other. The cabins are rings around the outside of the tube. We also carry some deuterium and reaction mass strapped on to the main hull, but for big jobs there's not nearly enough room there. Instead, we build a special fuel pod that straps onto the bow. The reaction mass can be lowered through the central tube when we're boosting.

Boost cargo goes on forward of the fuel pod. This time we didn't have any going out, but when we caught up to Agamemnon she'd ride there, no different from any other cargo capsule. That was the plan, anyway. Taking another ship in tow isn't precisely common out here.

Everything matched up. Deuterium lines, and the elevator system for handling the mass and getting it into the boiling pots aft; it all fit.


Ship's engines are complicated things. First you take deuterium pellets and zap them with a big laser. The dee fuses to helium. Now you've got far too much hot gas at far too high a temperature, so it goes into an MHD system that cools it and turns the energy into electricity.

Some of that powers the lasers to zap more dee. The rest powers the ion drive system. Take a metal, preferably something with a low boiling point like cesium, but since that's rare out here cadmium generally has to do. Boil it to a vapor. Put the vapor through ionizing screens that you keep charged with power from the fusion system.

Squirt the charged vapor through more charged plates to accelerate it, and you've got a drive. You've also got a charge on your ship, so you need an electron gun to get rid of that.

There are only about nine hundred things to go wrong with the system. Superconductors for the magnetic fields and charge plates: those take cryogenic systems, and those have auxiliary systems to keep them going. Nothing's simple, and nothing's small, so out of Slingshot's sixteen hundred metric tons, well over a thousand tons is engine.

Now you know why there aren't any space yachts flitting around out here. Slinger's one of the smallest ships in commission, and she's bloody big. If Jan and I hadn't happened to hit lucky by being the only possible buyers for a couple of wrecks, and hadn't had friends at Barclay's who thought we might make a go of it, we'd never have owned our own ship.

When I tell people about the engines, they don't ask what we do aboard Slinger when we're on long passages, but they're only partly right. You can't do anything to an engine while it's on. It either works or it doesn't, and all you have to do with it is see it gets fed.

It's when the damned things are shut down that the work starts, and that takes so much time that you make sure you've done everything else in the ship when you can't work on the engines. There's a lot of maintenance, as you might guess when you think that we've got to make everything we need, from air to zweiback. Living in a ship makes you appreciate planets.

Space operations go smooth, or generally they don't go at all.


When we were fifty kilometers behind, I cut the engines to minimum power. I didn't dare shut them down entirely. The fusion power system has no difficulty with restarts, but the ion screens are fouled if they're cooled. Unless they're cleaned or replaced we can lose as much as half our thrust—and we were going to need every dyne.


Agamemnon didn't look much like Slingshot. We'd closed to a quarter of a klick, and steadily drew ahead of her; when we were past her, we'd turn over and decelerate, dropping behind so that we could do the whole cycle over again.

Some features were the same, of course. The engines were not much larger than Slingshot's and looked much the same, a big cylinder covered over with tankage and coils, acceleration outports at the aft end. A smaller tube ran from the engines forward, but you couldn't see all of it because big rounded reaction mass canisters covered part of it.


Finally it was finished, and we could start maximum boost: a whole ten centimeters, about a hundredth of a gee. That may not sound like much, but think of the mass involved. Slinger's sixteen hundred tons were nothing, but there was Agamemnon too.

From Tinker by Jerry Pournelle (1975)

Super Nexus

Super Nexus
1st stage PropulsionChemical, plug nozzle
1st stage FuelLO2/LH2
1st stage Specific Impulse382 to 439 s
1st stage Exhaust Velocity3,750 to 4,310 m/s?
1st+2nd stage Wet Mass10,900,000 kg
1st+2nd stage Dry Mass5,940,000 kg?
1st stage Mass Ratio1.83?
1st stage ΔV2,440 m/s?
1st stage Mass Flow3,160 kg/s?
1st stage Thrust13,600,000 n
1st stage Initial Acceleration1.25 g?
Staging velocity2,440 m/s
2nd stage PropulsionOC Gas Core NTR
2nd Engine size3500K
2nd Number of engines4
2nd stage Specific Impulse2,000 s
2nd stage Exhaust Velocity19,600 m/s?
2nd stage Wet Mass5,940,000 kg
2nd stage Dry Mass2,190,000 kg?
2nd stage Mass Ratio2.7?
2nd stage ΔV19,500 m/s?
2nd stage Mass Flow324 kg/s?
2nd stage Thrust6,350,000 n
2nd stage Initial Acceleration1 g?
Total Wet Mass10,900,000 kg
total ΔV21,800 m/s
Payload453,000 kg
Total height134 m
1st stage Diameter45-52 m
2nd stage Diameter36 m

This is a heavy-lift vehicle designed to boost absurd amounts of payload from the surface of Terra, using deadly open-cycle gas-core nuclear thermal rockets in the second stage. If you want all the hard details, run and purchase a downloadable copy of Aerospace Projects Review vol. 3 no. 1. You get a lot of info for your downloading dollar.

This monster is the Uprated GCNR Nexus grown to three times the size. The document says that it can deliver 453 metric tons (one million pounds) not to LEO, but to Lunar surface. Doing some calculations on the back of an envelope with my slide rule, I estimate that it can loft 4,600 metric tons into LEO. But also with a proportional increase in radioactive exhaust. The data in the table is for the Terra lift-off to Lunar landing mission.

Translunar Space Patrol

This is from NUCLEAR SPACE PROPULSION by Holmes F. Crouch (1965). It is a solid-core nuclear thermal rocket used by the outer space version of the Coast Guard to rescue spacecraft in distress. In the diagram below, note how the rear fuel tanks are cut at an angle. This is to prevent any part of the tank from protruding outside of the shadow cast by the nuclear shadow shield. Also note that while the central tank must be load-bearing, the strap on tanks do not. This means the side tanks can be of lighter construction.

With the advent of lunar exploration and round trip lunar transport, both chemical and nuclear, there inevitably will arise malfunctions and emergencies. There will arise communication difficulties, navigational errors, propulsion breakdowns, and structural failures. There are possibilities of collisions between spacecraft and of fatal damage from matter in space. More likely, however, are onboard concerns of life-support malfunctions, auxiliary power irregularities, compartment over pressurization (in some cases, explosions), cargo shifting, and unforeseen disorders. These are the realities of increased space travel.

In anticipation of spaceflight realities, there would be need for a nuclear rescue ship operating in translunar space. The primary role of such a ship would be to save human life and those extraterrestrial specimens aboard any ill-fated lunar vehicle. A secondary role would be to salvage the spacecraft if at all possible.

This means that the rescue ship would require propulsive capability to drastically change orbit planes and altitudes. It would require excess ΔV to proceed with dispatch to rendezvous with a disabled spacecraft. In addition, capability would be required for transferring personnel and equipment, making repairs to a disabled vehicle, and even taking it in tow if conditions warranted. The latest advances in crew facilitation, passenger accommodations, repair shops, navigational devices, and communication equipment would be required. As an introductory concept, one arrangement of a nuclear rescue ship is presented in Figure 11-11 (see above).

A particular feature to note in Figure 11-11 is the use of two nuclear engines. Each engine would be of the lunar ferry vintage and, therefore, would be sufficiently well developed and man-rated for rescue ship design. These engines would be indexed by a nominal Isp of 1000 seconds; they would have a short time overrating of, perhaps 1100 seconds. This overrating implies conditional melting of nuclear fuel in the reactor for emergency maneuvers and dispatch.

A rescue ship would be characterized by a large inert weight compared to a regular transport vehicle. This means that large magnitudes of engine thrust would be required. However, during periods of non-emergencies, low thrusts could be used. The vehicle F/Wo characteristics (Thrust-to-weight ratio) would vary over a wide range: possibly from 0.1 during non-emergencies to 1 during emergencies. Two engines would provide the high thrust capacity for emergencies. During non-emergencies, one engine could be left idling; the other engine could provide low thrust for economic cruise. Furthermore, two engines would provide engine-out capability for take-home in the event of malfunction in one of the engines. For reactor control reasons, the two reactors would have to be neutronically isolated from each other. For this purpose, note the neutron isolation shield in Figure 11-11.

(ed note: Nuclear reactors are throttled by carefully controlling the amount of available neutrons within the reactor. A second reactor randomly spraying extra neutrons into the first reactor is therefore a Bad Thing. "Neutronically isolated" is a fancy way of saying "preventing uninvited neutrons from crashing the party.")

A suggested patrol region for the rescue ship is indicated in Figure 11-12 (see above). Note that a rendezvous orbit has been designated so that the rescue ship could replenish its propellant from the nuclear lunar transport system. By having rendezvous missions with nuclear ferry routes, rescued personnel, lunar specimens, and damaged spacecraft parts could be returned to Earth without the need for the rescue ship returning. Also, rescue ship crew members could be duty-rotated this way. This would increase the on-station time of a nuclear rescue ship.

From NUCLEAR SPACE PROPULSION by Holmes F. Crouch (1965)

Water Truck

Water Truck
PropulsionSolid core NTR
Specific Impulse198 s
Exhaust Velocity1,942 m/s
Wet Mass123,000 kg
Dry Mass30,400 kg
Mass Ratio4.1
Total ΔV2,740 m/s
Total Propellant92,600 kg
Boost Propellant75,700 kg
Landing Propellant16,900 kg
Boost ΔV1,859 m/s
Landing ΔV881 m/s
Mass Flow155 kg/s
Thrust301,000 newtons
Initial Acceleration0.25 g
Payload20,000 kg
Tank Length8.5 m
Total Length11.9 m
Diameter3.38 m
Structural Mass
Guidance Package0.45 tons
Tank1.6 tons
Thrust Structure
and Feed Lines
0.91 tons
Primary and
Secondary Structure
1.82 tons
Landing System0.68 tons
25% Growth Factor2.09 tons
Reactor1.82 tons
Turbopumps and
Rocket Nozzles
0.23 tons
Reaction Control
Nozzles
0.68 tons
Total10.3 tons

The Lunar ice water truck is a robot propellant tanker design by Anthony Zuppero. Its mission is to boost 20 metric tons of valuable water from lunar polar ice mines into a 100 km Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) cheaply and repeatably. It is estimated to be capable of delivering 3,840 metric tons of water into LLO per year.

This design uses a nuclear thermal rocket with currently available materials, and using water as propellant (a nuclear-heated steam rocket or NSR) instead of liquid hydrogen). This limits it to a specific impulse below 200 seconds which is pretty weak. However, numerous authors have shown that a NSR could deliver 10 and 100 times more payload per launched hardware than a H2-O2 chemical rocket or a NTR using liquid hydrogen. This is despite the fact that the chemical and NTR have much higher specific impulses. NSR work best when [1] the reactor can only be low energy, [2] there are abundant and cheap supplies of water propellant, and [3] mission delta-Vs are below 6,500 m/s.

The original article describes the water extraction subsystem at the lunar pole. It is a small reactor capable of melting 112.6 metric tons of ice into water (92.6 metric tons propellant + 20 metric tons payload) in about 45 hours. This will allow the water truck to make 192 launches per year, delivering a total of 3,840 metric tons of water per year.

Since the water truck is lifting off under the 0.17 g lunar gravity, its acceleration must be higher than that or it will just vibrate on the launch pad while steam-cleaning it. The design has a starting acceleration of 0.25 g (about 1.5 times lunar gravity).

The landing gear can fold so the water truck will fit in the Space Shuttle landing bay, but under ordinary use it is fixed. The guidance package mass includes radiation shielding. In addition, the guidance package is on the water truck's nose, to get as far as possible away from the reactor. The thrust structure and feed lines support the tank and anchor the reactor. The 25% growth factor is to accommodate future design changes without having to re-design the rest of the spacecraft. The reaction control nozzles perform thrust vector control. They take up more mass than a gimbaled engine, but by the same token they are not a maintenance nightmare and additional point of failure.

The reactor supplies about 120 kilowatts to the tank in order to prevent the water from freezing. The reactor mass is 50% more than minimum. The lift-off burn is about 20 minutes durationa and consumes 0.7 kg of Uranium 235.

Water Ship

Water Ship
PropulsionSolid core NTR
Specific Impulse190 s
Exhaust Velocity1,860 m/s
Wet Mass299,030,000 kg
Water tank mass25,000 kg
Nuclear Engine+
structural mass
123,000 kg
Sans Payload Mass148,000 kg
Payload mass50,000,000 kg
Dry Mass50,148,000 kg
Mass Ratio5.96
ΔV[1] 802 m/s
[2] 1280 m/s
[3] 752 m/s
Mass Flow[1,2] 903 kg/s
[3] 2,684 kg/s
Thrust[1,2] 1,680 kiloNewtons
[1,2] 4,990 kiloNewtons
Nozzle Power[1,2] 4.9 gigawatts
[3] 1.6 gigawatts
Engine Power[1,2] 12.1 gigawatts
[3] 4.1 gigawatts
Initial Acceleration[1] 0.0006 g
[2] 0.0009 g
[3] 0.005 g
Payload50,000,000 kg
Length85 m
Diameter85 m

The Water Ship is a robot propellant tanker design by Anthony Zuppero. Its mission is to deliver 50,000 metric tons of valuable water from the Martian moon Deimos to orbital propellant depots in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) cheaply and repeatably. It is not much more than a huge water bladder perched on a NERVA rocket engine. It might have integral water mining equipment as does the Kuck Mosquito, or it might depend upon a seperate Deimos ice mine.

Mass of water bladder is 25 metric tons (rated for no more than 0.005 g). Mass of nuclear thermal rocket plus strutural mass is 123 metric tons (struture includes computers, navigation equipment, and everything else). Mass without payload is 25 + 123 = 148 metric tons. Payload is 50,000 metric tons of water. Dry mass is 148 + 50,000 = 50,148 metric tons. Propellant mass is 248,882 metric tons. Wet mass is 50,148 + 248,882 = 299,030 metric tons.

At Deimos, only about 4.55 megawatts will be needed to melt 299,000 metric tons of ice into water (50,000 tons for payload + 249,000 tons for propellant). The engine nuclear reactor can supply that with no problem. The water must be distilled, because mud or dissolved salts will do serious damage to the engine nuclear reactor. By "serious damage" I mean things like clogging the heat-exchanger channels to cause a reactor meltdown, or impure steam eroding the reactor element cladding resulting in live radioactive Uranium 235 spraying in the exhaust plume.

Nuclear thermal rocket was designed to be a very conservative 100 megawatts per ton of engine. Engine will have a peak power of 12,142 Megawatts (for stage [1] and [2]). This works out to a modest engine temperature of 800° Celsius, and a pathetic but reliable specific impulse of 190 seconds. A NERVA could probably handle 300 megawatts per ton of engine, but the designer wanted to err on the side of caution. This will require much more water propellant, but there is no lack of water at Deimos.

This design uses a nuclear thermal rocket using water as propellant (a nuclear-heated steam rocket or NSR) instead of liquid hydrogen). This limits it to a specific impulse below 200 seconds which is pretty weak. However, numerous authors have shown that a NSR could deliver 10 and 100 times more payload per launched hardware than a H2-O2 chemical rocket or a NTR using liquid hydrogen. This is despite the fact that the chemical and NTR have much higher specific impulses. NSR work best when [1] the reactor can only be low energy, [2] there are abundant and cheap supplies of water propellant, and [3] mission delta-Vs are below 6,500 m/s.

It is true that electrolyzing the water into hydrogen and oxygen then burning it in a chemical rocket will get you a much better specific impulse of 450 seconds. But then you need the energy to electrolyze the water, and equipment to handle cryogenic liquids. These are just more things to go wrong.

In the table, [1], [2], and [3] refer to different segments of the journey from Deimos to LEO.

  • [1] Start at Deimos. 497 m/s burn into Highly Eccentric Mars Orbit (HEMO). At apoapsis, 305 m/s burn into Low Mars Orbit (LMO)
  • [2] At LMO periapsis, 1,280 m/s burn using the Oberth Effect to inject the water ship into Mars-Earth Hohman transfer orbit
  • [3] 270 days later at LEO periapsis, 752 m/s burn using the Oberth Effect to capture the water ship into Highly HEEO
  • [x] Water ship does several aerobrakes until it reaches an orbital propellant depot in LEO

Total thrust time is about 10 hours.

Water ship's propellant has 15,137 metric tons extra as a safety margin. When it arrives, hopefully some of this will be available. It will take 322 metric tons of propellant for the empty water ship to travel from HEEO to Deimos, or 1,992 metric tons to travel from LEO to Deimos. Plus 0.139 gigawatts of engine power and 10 hours of thrust time.

Traveling from Deimos to LEO will consume about 12.7 kg of Uranium 235. Given the fact that Hohmann launch windows from Mars to Earth only occur every two years, the fuel in the engine nuclear reactor will probably last the better part of a century before it has to be replaced. The engine will be obsolete long before then.

For more details, refer to the original article.

Widmer Nuclear Mars Mission

RocketCat sez

Another ship that will give old rocket fans a sense of haunting familiarity. Whether you saw it in the old Life Science Library volume Man in Space or as the Project SWORD toy, it is another bit of your childhood that would actually work.

This is from a 1963 study called Application Of Nuclear Rocket Propulsion To Manned Mars Spacecraft by Thomas Widmer. Unfortunately I cannot seem to find a copy, so most of the data comes from abstracts. It is an expansion of an earlier 1960 Lewis Research Center study.

Lewis Study

Lewis Nuclear Mars Mission
PropulsionSolid core NTR
Delta V19,800 m/s
Mars lander mass40,000 kg
Terra lander mass13,600 kg
Terra lander wingspan6.7 m
Crew size7
Wet mass614,000 kg
Mass per crew102,000 kg

The Lewis vehicle would have a habitat module with two levels, and 35 square meters of floor per level (3.3 meter radius). The storm cellar is a cyliiner at the centerline, and doubles as a sleeping quarters. The mass of the storm cellar depended upon the maximum allowable radiation exposure for the 420 day mission:

Lewis storm cellar mass
Max 1 Sievert , no solar flares21,400 kg
Max 1 Sievert , one solar flare74,500 kg
Max 0.5 Sievert , no solar flares127,000 kg

I believe the Lewis design went with the 21,400 kg storm cellar.

The Lewis mission would use an opposition-class trajectory. Terra-Mars trajectory takes 150 days, Mars surface mission takes 40 days, Mars-Terra trajectory takes 240 days. Total mission time is 420 days. Spacecraft requires seven Saturn V launches to boost all components into orbit, each launch boosting 100,000 kg.

Widmer Study

Widmer Nuclear Mars Mission
PropulsionSolid core NTR
Specific Impulse820 s
Exhaust Velocity8,000 m/s
Thrust580,000 newtons
Wet Mass400,000 kg
Dry Mass150,000 kg
Mass Ratio2.7
Delta V>7,900 m/s
Num of propellant tanks12
Hydrogen per tank20,000 kg
Length80 meters
Crew size4

The Widmer vehicle was sized to have four crewmen for a 15 month mission to Mars. Just like the Bono Mars Glider, it was optimistically scheduled to depart in 1971, to take advantage of the next Hohmann launch window.

The solid core nuclear thermal rocket used a fast spectrum refractory metal core, with an inherent re-start capability and resistance to fuel cladding erosion allowing long burnning times. Long engine life and multiple restarts are extremely important factors in reducing gross vehicle weight, since they permit a low initial thrust to weight ratio (small engine), and eliminate the need for staging engines after each firing interval.

Furthermore, the smaller size of a fast metallic core provides an engine weight advantage of at least two to one over a thermal-graphite core engine of the same thrust rating. Smaller core frontal area also permits a similar reduction in shield weight. That is, the smaller the top of the nuclear reactor core, the smaller the anti-radiation shadow shield has to be, and thus the lower the shield mass.

The spacecraft components are boosted into orbit by four Saturn V boosters, one launch for the propulsion/payload module and three launches containing 4 loaded propellant tanks each. There will be a total of twelve propellant tanks. Each tank contains 20,000 kilograms of liquid hydrogen. A SNAP-9 or SNAP-50 nuclear power unit provides electricity to the cryogentic re-condensation system. The SNAP radiator is the cone shaped area just forward of the rocket engine.

The minimum delta V I hand calculated as 7,900 m/s. It will actually be larger, since the spacecraft jettisons spent propellant tanks and the first stage of the Mars excursion module.

Step 1

The propulsion and payload module is shown in its launch configuration. The hydrogen tank and crew compartment secions are 6.7 meters in diameter. Attached to the forward end of the tank, a chemically propelled Mars excursion module will permit the landing of a two man exploration party, after the spacecraft has attained Mars orbit.

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Step 2

One of the three tanker vehicles is shown in the launch configuration. A structural shell supports four nearly spherical tanks, each of which contains over 20,000 kilograms of liquid hydrogen. By employing auxiliary structure to reinforce the tanks during booster ascent, the weight of the tankage can be minimized. After installation on the nuclear rocket spacecraft, the light weight tanks will be exposed to only moderate acceleration (less than 1g), rather than the 7 or 8g experienced in attaining initial orbit.

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Step 3

The separate hydrogen tanks are being attached to the propulsion module in low Earth orbit. Each tank is insulated with multi-layer radiation foils to minimized hydrogen boil-off. In addition, a cryogentic re-condensation system may be employed for those tanks which are not emptied until the later phases of the mission. This system would be powered by a SNAP-9 or SNAP-50 type nuclear electric generating system located between the main propulsion reactor and the aft end of the central tank. The radiator for the SNAP powerplant can be seen just aft of the tank. In practice, it may be necessary to move this radiator into a position well to the rear of rocket engine during coast periods, so that head load on the hydrogen tank will be minimized. An attractive possibility exists for eliminating the auxiliary power reactor by integrating a liquid metal heat exchange loop with the rocket reactor core. This approach not only reduces system weight, but also tends to minimize the problem of after-heat removal from the engine.

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Step 4

In this view, the general arrangement of the crew quarters can bee seen. A two deck command module will contain the life support system, living accommodations, communications gear, experimental equipment, and a control center. Solar flare protection is provided by a vacuum jacketed capsule projecting downward into the main hydrogen tank. This "storm cellar" is lined with carbon shielding to augment the 2.4 meter thick annulus of liquid hydrogen which surrounds the capsule. Shielding is designed to restrict the integrated crew dose to less than 1 Sievert for the complete mission.

Note that the proposed configuration does not provide an artificial "g" capacity. If zero "g" cannot be tolerated for the long duration of an interplanetary mission, a rotating cabin section could be factored into the design. However, this approach would result in a substantial increase in spacecraft gross weight due to structural integration problems with an artificial "g" design.

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Step 5

The orbital launch maneuver is shown here. A total of six tanks will be emptied to depart from Earth orbit and achieve the Mars transfer ellipse. In the event of an abort during the escape maneuver, the chemically propelled Mars landing craft could be used for return to Earth orbit.

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Step 6

Staging of tanks during Earth escape propulsion is shown. Total propellant consumed up to injection for the Mars transfer is about 127 metric tons. In coast configuration two of the six tanks emptied during Earth escape will remain attached. This provides a degree of redundancy against the possibility of a meteoroid puncture in any of the loaded tanks, since propellant could be transferred into the remaining empty tanks. If no puncture occurs, the empty tanks are released immediately prior to the firing interval for Mars capture.

Transit time to Mars is about 180 days.

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Step 7

The Mars capture maneuver produces an eccentric orbit of about 560 kilometer perigee and about 5,000 kilometers apogee; thereby minimizing propellant requirements, while still providing a close view of the planet for final evaluation of landing sites. Four of the last six external propellant tanks are emptied during capture, but only two are jettisoned. Two are retained for meteoroid puncture redundancy until just before the Mars escape firing interval.

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Step 8

After transferring to the Mars excursion module, two of the four crew members fire braking rockets to bring the entry vehicle orbit perigee into the planetary atmosphere. The major portion of the deceleration is then accomplished by aerodynamic drag. After maneuvering to an altitude of about one kilometer, the landing craft is maneuvered into a vertical attitude for final approach. One minute of hovering capacity allows for some possible changes in landing site, and three shock absorbing struts are extended for the final touchdown. The winged entry vehicle represents one of several possible shapes, and lenticular or conical configurations might also be employed, depending upon the degree of aerodynamic maneuvering desired during entry.

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Step 9

The Mars excursion module is shown in its landing position. In addition to the two man crew capsule, approximately 2,300 kilograms of scientific equipment and portable life support gear can be transported to the Martian surface. Equipment will include a portable meteorological station, a powerful radio for communication with Terra, and a tracked car for exploration.

Gross weight of the excursion module prior to departure from orbit will be about 15,900 kilograms if hydrogen/oxygen propulsion is used. Stay time on the planet is restricted to about 5 days, due to limited payload and the rapid deterioration in launch window for the Earth return phase of the mission.

Note that the upper part of the Mars excursion module is a modified Gemini.

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Step 10

All equipment, except for the minimum life support capsule and 150 kilograms of soil samples, will be abandoned on the surface. The chemically propelled second stage of the landing vehicle uses the first stage structure as a launching platform for the return to Mars orbit.

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Step 11

After rendezvous with the nuclear rocket spacecraft, the excursion module second stage is abandoned in the eccentric parking orbit.

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Step 12

This illustration shows the Mars escape configuration of the spacecraft. During this maneuver, the last two external tanks are emptied, as is the aft compartment of the main tank. The forward end of the main tank, which surrounds the solar flare shelter, still contains hydrogen throughout the Mars-Earth transfer.

Transit time to Terra is about 200 days

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Step 13

Upon approaching Earth, the two empty tanks are released, and the nuclear rocket engine is used to brake the vehicle into a high altitude parking orbit. The crew will then transfer to a ferry vehicle for Earth re-entry. Alternatively, it would be possible to reduce the velocity increment required of the interplanetary spacecraft by employing direct re-entry from the Mars transfer ellipse. However, this would require that an Earth re-entry vehicle be transported through the entire mission, thereby increasing the weight carried on the spacecraft. Since direct re-entry alleviates the need for a large propulsion maneuver at the terminal end of the mission, little or no propellant would be available for solar flare shielding during the return flight coast period. The flare shield weight would then have to be increased to insure crew protection in the "empty" vehicle.

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