The Boom Table

Once you've calculated such-and-such has so many joules of energy, this table will give you various energetic events to compare it to.

Note in the table below, there is some controversy over the exact values of some of these figures. Note also that the largest SI prefix is "yotta-" which is 1 × 1024. For TNT equivalent, the energy of one gram of TNT was arbitrarily standardized by scientists to exactly 4184 joules (1000 thermochemical calories).

Joules (J)TNT EquivalentNotes
0.0 × 1000Big Bang (interpretation one)
2.0 × 10-221 far infrared photon (1,000,000 nanometers)
6.6 × 10-211 mid infrared photon (30,000 nanometers)
4.0 × 10-201 near infrared photon (5,000 nanometers)
1.6 × 10-191 electron volt
2.8 × 10-191 red photon (710 nanometers)
3.3 × 10-191 orange photon (600 nanometers)
3.5 × 10-191 yellow photon (570 nanometers)
3.6 × 10-191 green photon (550 nanometers)
4.2 × 10-191 blue photon (475 nanometers)
4.6 × 10-191 indigo photon (430 nanometers)
5.2 × 10-191 violet photon (380 nanometers)
6.2 × 10-191 ultraviolet A photon (320 nanometers)
6.9 × 10-191 ultraviolet B photon (290 nanometers)
9.9 × 10-191 ultraviolet C photon (200 nanometers)
2.0 × 10-171 extreme ultraviolet photon (10 nanometers)
2.0 × 10-141 x-ray photon (0.01 nanometers)
1.6 × 10-131 megaelectronvolt (MeV)
2.0 × 10-111 gamma-ray photon (1 × 10-5 nanometers)
2.0 × 10-081 cosmic-ray photon (1 × 10-8 nanometers)
1.0 × 10-071 erg
4.184 × 10001 calorie
8.0 × 10010.019 gram.22 short round
13mm Gyrojet round at 2 meters from muzzle (too close, little damage)
1.0 × 10020.024 gramFirecracker (50 mg of black powder)
4.75 × 10020.114 gram9mm Luger Parabellum round
5.2 × 10020.124 gram.38 Special round
5.4 × 10020.129 gram.45 ACP round (Colt M1911)
9.4 × 10020.225 gram.357 Magnum round
9.5 × 10020.227 gram13mm Gyrojet round at 18 meters from muzzle (rocket at full speed and maximum damage)
1.0 × 10030.239 gram1 kilowatt-second, heat 1 kg of rock 1° C
1.009 × 10030.241 gram.22 Centerfire Hornet round
1.2 × 10030.287 gramLaser bolt from a Luke Campbell light laser pistol (60 pulses of 20 J each, spaced 4 microseconds apart)
1.308 × 10030.313 gramM1 Carbine round
1.4 × 10030.335 gram3.5 g AK-74 bullet fired at 900 m/s
1.56 × 10030.373 gram.44 Magnum round (AutoMag)
1.6 × 10030.382 gramLaser bolt from a Luke Campbell medium laser pistol
1.822 × 10030.435 gram5.56mm Remington NATO round
2.045 × 10030.489 gram7.62mm Soviet AK-47 round
2.56 × 10030.612 gram.30-30 Winchester round
3.2 × 10030.765 gramLaser bolt from a Luke Campbell heavy laser pistol
3.3 × 10030.789 gram9.33 g NATO rifle cartridge fired at 838 m/s
3.469 × 10030.829 gram.303 Lee-Enfield round
3.744 × 10030.895 gram.308 Winchester round
7.62x51mm NATO round
4.184 × 10031 gram= 1 microton
4.8 × 10031.2 gramsLaser bolt from a Luke Campbell assault laser
6.822 × 10031.6 grams.458 Magnum Winchester "Africa" round
9.04 × 10032.2 grams.450 Magnum Dakota round
1.0 × 10042.39 gramsLaser bolt from a Luke Campbell battle laser (50 pulses of 200 J each, spaced 10 microseconds apart)
1.0187 × 10042.44 grams.460 Magnum Wetherby "elephant gun" round
1.7149 × 10044.1 grams.50 Browning machine gun round
3.0 × 10047 gramspower pack magazine of Luke Campbell light laser pistol (25 full power bolts)
4.0 × 10049.6 gramspower pack magazine of Luke Campbell medium laser pistol (25 full power bolts)
4.8 × 100411.5 gramspower pack magazine of Luke Campbell heavy laser pistol (15 full power bolts)
5.4 × 100412.9 grams20 mm autocannon round
1.3 × 100531 gramsAnti-personnel land mine
2.1 × 100550 gramsSingle round of depleted uranium from an A-10 Warthog's GAU-8 rotating cannon (1,800 rpm)
8.4 × 1005200 grams1 stick TNT
9.5 × 1005226 gramsHand grenade
1.0 × 1006239 gramspower pack magazine of Luke Campbell battle laser (100 full power bolts)
1.2 × 1006287 gramspower pack magazine of Luke Campbell assault laser (250 full power bolts)
3.0 × 10061 kg gunpowder
3.6 × 1006860 grams1 kilowatt hour
3.8 × 1006M112 demolition block (0.57 kg C-4 plastic explosive)
4.184 × 10061 kilogram= 1 milliton, 1 kg TNT (obviously)
6.1 × 10061.4 kg120mm Tank Gun KE Ammunition (KEW-A1)
6.7 × 10061 kg C-4 plastic explosive
7.4 × 10061 kg dynamite
2.1 × 10075 kgAnti-tank mine
3.9 × 10079.3 kgImpact energy of proposed Navy 64 megajoule railgun
4.7 × 10071 kg gasoline
6.0 × 1007M183 demolition charge assembly (9 kg C-4 plastic explosive, x16 M112 demolition blocks)
1.2 × 100828 kg1 gallon of gasoline
1.42 × 100828 kgVaporize a human body, leaving skeleton (turn all water into steam)
1.8 × 100843 kg1 microgram of antimatter + 1 microgram of matter
2.016 × 100848 kgJedi Knight light sabre
3.0 × 100872 kgThor's hammer redirecting a lighting bolt
5.3 × 1008127 kgBattleship Iowa 16 inch shell with 54 kg high explosive charge
8.5 × 1008203 kg1 second of output from an average commercial nuclear power reactor (850 MW)
1.21 × 10091 second power usage of the De Lorean time machine from the movie Back to the Future
1.9 × 1009454 kgTomahawk cruise missile (TLAM-C)
3.0 × 1009717 kgTotally vaporize a human body, including skeleton (break all atomic bonds)
3.0 × 1009717 kg1 second of output of Iron Man's first arc reactor
4.184 × 10091 ton
8.4 × 10092 t= 0.002 kiloton, Oklahoma City bombing
2.0 × 10104.8 tAverage lightning bolt
3.6 × 10108.6tAverage tornado
4.2 × 101010 t= 0.01 kiloton, Davy Crockett tactical nuclear weapon
4.8 × 101011.5 t1 Project Thor "Rod from God"
5.0 × 101012 tyield energy of a MOAB (Massive Ordnance Air Blast) bomb, the second most powerful non-nuclear weapon ever designed
1.8 × 101143 t1 milligram of antimatter + 1 milligram of matter
1.8 × 101144 tyield energy of a ATBIP (Aviation Thermobaric Bomb of Increased Power) bomb, the most powerful non-nuclear weapon ever designed
3.6 × 1012860 t1 gigawatt-hour
4.184 × 10121 kiloton= 1000 tons
6.276 × 10121.5 ktCasaba Howitzer bolt
1.08 × 1013Laser energy to launch 80 metric tons into orbit (3000 megawatt-hours)
1.5 × 10131 second of the total power consumption of the human world in the year 2004
2.0 × 10131 second of power generated between the surfaces of Jupiter and its moon Io due to Jupiter's magnetic field
3.6 × 10137 ktenergy released by an average thunderstorm
4.4 × 10131 second of total heat flux from earth's interior
4.6 × 101311 ktRelativistic weapon: 1 gram at 75% c
6.3 × 101315 kt1 Hiroshima "Little Boy"
6.997 × 101317 ktNuclear fusion of 1 kilogram of Hydrogen + Boron fuel
8.8 × 101321 ktNagasaki "Fat Man"
8.8068 × 101321 ktNuclear fusion of 1 kilogram of Deuterium + Deuterium fuel (average)
1.2 × 101429 ktRelativistic weapon: 1 gram at 90% c
1.8 × 101443 kt1 gram of antimatter + 1 gram of matter
2.075 × 101449 ktNuclear fusion of 1 kilogram of Helium-3 + Helium-3 fuel
3.3972 × 101481 ktNuclear fusion of 1 kilogram of Deuterium + Tritium fuel
3.5323 × 101484 ktNuclear fusion of 1 kilogram of Deuterium + Helium-3 fuel
4.2 × 1014100 ktW76 warhead
5.5 × 1014132 ktRelativistic weapon: 1 gram at 99% c
6.0 × 1014143 ktenergy released by an average hurricane in one second
6.4493 × 1014154 ktNuclear fusion of 1 kilogram of proton-proton fuel
1.3 × 1015300 ktW87 warhead
1.4 × 1015338 ktEarthquake 6.9 on the Richter scale
1.4 × 10151 second of total heat flux transported by the Gulf Stream
1.9 × 1015454 ktRelativistic weapon: 1 gram at 99.9% c
2.0 × 1015475 ktW88 warhead
2.0 × 1015477 ktEarthquake 7.0 on the Richter scale
2.1 × 1015500 ktIvy King device (largest pure fission device ever made)
4.0 × 10151 second of total heat flux transported by earth's atmosphere and oceans away from the equator towards the poles
4.184 × 10151 megaton67 Hiroshimas
5.0 × 10151.2 MtMaximum yield of B83 nuclear bomb (most powerful U.S. weapon in active service)
6.3 × 10151.5 MtRelativistic weapon: 1 gram at 99.99% c
1.5 × 10163.5 Mt1 Barringer Meteor Crater
3.8 × 10169 MtB53 nuclear bomb (most powerful US warhead; no longer in active service)
4.4 × 101610.4 MtEniwetok
4.6 × 101611 MtRelativistic weapon: 1 kilogram at 75% c
6.3 × 101615 MtCastle Bravo device (Bikini Atoll) (most powerful US test)
6.3 × 101615 Mt1 Tunguska event = 4.3 Barringer Meteor Craters
6.3 × 101615 MtEarthquake 8.0 on the Richter scale
1.0 × 101724 Mttotal energy output of a Type-I civilization (Kardashev scale) each second
1.1 × 101725 Mt1 "city killer" nuclear warhead
1.1 × 101725 MtMaximum yield of B41 bomb (most powerful US bomb; no longer in active service)
1.1 × 101725 MtMount St. Helens = 1.6 Tunguskas
1.2 × 101729 MtRelativistic weapon: 1 kilogram at 90% c
1.3 × 101731 Mtenergy released by an average hurricane in one day
1.7 × 101742 Mttotal energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each second
1.8 × 101743 Mt1 kilogram of antimatter + 1 kilogram of matter
2.1 × 101750 MtTsar Bomba device (USSR, most powerful nuclear test ever)
2.7 × 101764.3 MtStar Trek photon torpedo = 1.5 kg antimatter + 1.5 kg matter
3.6 × 101785 MtEarthquake 8.5 on the Richter scale
5.0 × 1017120 MtEarthquake 8.6 on the Richter scale
5.5 × 1017132 MtRelativistic weapon: 1 kilogram at 99% c
6.3 × 1017150 Mt1 Krakatoa = 6 Mount St. Helens
7.1 × 1017161 MtEarthquake 8.7 on the Richter scale
1.0 × 1018239 MtEarthquake 8.8 on the Richter scale
1.9 × 1018454 MtRelativistic weapon: 1 kilogram at 99.9% c
2.0 × 1018477 MtEarthquake 9.0 on the Richter scale
2.5 × 1018600 Mt1 Thera = 6 Krakatoas
2.8 × 1018674 MtEarthquake 9.1 on the Richter scale
4.0 × 1018952 MtEarthquake 9.2 on the Richter scale
4.0 × 1018energy released by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake (between 9.1 and 9.3 on the Richter scale)
4.184 × 10181 gigaton= 1000 megatons
6.3 × 10181.5 GtRelativistic weapon: 1 kilogram at 99.99% c
1.1 × 10193 GtEarthquake 9.5 on the Richter scale
7.2 × 101917.2 GtConverting the Voyager One probe's mass into energy, energy required by Alcubierre warp drive with doughnut shaped ring
1.8 × 102043 Gt1 metric ton of antimatter + 1 metric ton of matter
4.184 × 10211 teraton= 1000 gigatons = 1e6 megatons
1.5 × 10224 Tttotal energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each day
2.5 × 10226 Tt1 Shoemaker-Levy = 10,000 Theras
1.4 × 102333 Tttotal energy output of Wolf 359 each second (bolometric luminosity)
2.0 × 102348 TtSolar flare
5.43 × 1023120 Tt1 Chicxulub Crater = 1 Dinosaur Killer = 20 Shoemaker-Levys
3.0 × 1024720 Tt1 Wilkes Land crater = 6 Chicxulub Craters
4.184 × 10241 petaton= 1000 teratons
5.5 × 10241 Pttotal energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each year
3.2 × 102677 PtEnergy required blow off Terra's atmosphere into space
3.9 × 102692 Pttotal energy output of the Sun each second (bolometric luminosity)
4.0 × 102696 Pttotal energy output of a Type-II civilization (Kardashev scale) each second
6.6 × 1026158 PtEnergy required to heat all the oceans of Terra to boiling
4.184 × 10271 exaton= 1000 petatons
4.5 × 10271 EtEnergy required to vaporize all the oceans of Terra into the atmosphere
7.0 × 10272 EtEnergy required to vaporize all the oceans of Terra and dehydrate the crust
2.9 × 10287 EtEnergy required to melt the (dry) crust of Terra
1.0 × 102924 EtEnergy required blow off Terra's oceans into space
2.1 × 102950 EtEarth's rotational energy
1.5 × 1030359 EtEnergy required blow off Terra's crust into space
4.184 × 10301 zettaton= 1000 exatons
2.9 × 10317 ZtEnergy required to blow up Terra (reduce to gravel orbiting the sun)
3.3 × 10318 Zttotal energy output of the Sun each day
3.3 × 10318 Zttotal energy output of Beta Centauri each second (bolometric luminosity). 41,700 × luminosity of the Sun.
5.9 × 103114 ZtEnergy required to blow up Terra (reduce to gravel flying out of former orbit)
1.2 × 103229 Zttotal energy output of Deneb each second (bolometric luminosity)
2.9 × 103269 ZtEnergy required to blow up Terra (reduce to gravel and move pieces to infinity)
4.184 × 10331 yottaton= 1000 zettatons
1.2 × 10343 Yttotal energy output of the Sun each year
4.184 × 10361 × 1027 tons= 1,000 yottatons
5.0 × 10361.2 × 1027 tonstotal energy output of the Milky Way galaxy each second (bolometric luminosity)
4.0 × 10379.6 × 1027 tonstotal energy output of a Type-III civilization (Kardashev scale) each second
6.0 × 10371.4 × 1028 tonsNova Persei
1.0 × 10382.4 × 1028 tonsMax output of Death Star's super laser
1.2 × 10382.9 × 1028 tonstotal energy output of the Sun in ten thousand years
4.184 × 10391 × 1030 tons= 1,000,000 yottatons
1.0 × 10402.0 × 1030 tonsone second's worth of output from a quasar
1.0 × 10422.7 × 1032 tonsEnergy in photons from a type I supernova = 0.01 foe
1.0 × 10422.7 × 1032 tonstotal energy output of the Local Supercluster each second (bolometric luminosity)
4.184 × 10421 × 1033 tons= 1,000,000,000 yottatons
3.0 × 10437.0 × 1033 tonsEnergy needed to make the local superbubble (Supernova Geminga) = 0.3 foe
1.0 × 10441 Foe (ten to the Fifty-One Ergs, unit of supernova strength)
1.0 × 10442.4 × 1034 tonsEnergy in neutrinos from a type I supernova = 1 foe = 2.4 × 1034 tons
1.3 × 10443.1 × 1034 tonsTotal radiant energy from the Sun (approximately ten billion years worth)
3.0 × 10447.2 × 1034 tonsEnergy in photons from a type II supernova = 1.3 foes
1.0 × 10452.4 × 1035 tonsGamma-ray burster = 10 foes
4.184 × 10451 × 1036 tons= 1,000,000,000,000 yottatons = 41.84 foes
1.0 × 10462.0 × 1036 tonsEnergy in photons from a hypernova = 100 foes
3.0 × 10467.0 × 1036 tonsEnergy in neutrinos from a type II supernova = 300 foes
5.3 × 10471,3 × 1038 tonsGravitational energy of binary black hole merger detected as GW150914.
3 solar masses converted into energy. x50 power output of entire universe.
1.0 × 10482.4 × 1038 tonsEnergy in neutrinos from a hypernova = 10,000 foes
4.184 × 10481 × 1039 tons= 1,000,000,000,000,000 yottatons = 41,840 foes
2.0 × 10494.8 × 1039 tonstotal energy output of all the stars in the observable universe each second (bolometric luminosity)
3.0 × 1069Big Bang (interpretation two)

Time Duration

SecondsEquivalentNotes
5.39 × 10-44Planck time unitSmallest possible unit of time
1.0 × 10-241 yoctosecondOne septillionth of a second
1.0 × 10-211 zeptosecondOne sextillionth of a second
1.0 × 10-181 attosecondOne quintillionth of a second
1.0 × 10-151 femtosecondOne quadrillionth of a second
1.0 × 10-121 picosecondOne trillionth of a second
1.0 × 10-091 nanosecondOne billionth of a second
Time to execute 1 machine cycle by a 1 GHz microprocessor
Light travels 30 centimeters
1.0 × 10-061 microsecondOne millionth of a second
1.0 × 10-031 millisecondOne thousandth of a second
Time for a neuron in human brain to fire one impulse and return to rest
2.0 × 10-01150 millisecondsHuman reflex response to visual stimuli
2.0 × 10-01200 millisecondsBlink of an eye
1.0 × 1001 second
1.0 × 100110 seconds
6.0 × 10011 minute
1.0 × 1002100 seconds
1.0 × 100316.7 minutes1 kilosecond
3.6 × 10031 hour
8.64 × 10041 day
6.048 × 10051 week7 days
1.0 × 100611.6 days1 megasecond
2.592 × 10061 month30 days
3.1536 × 10071 year
6.3072 × 10072 years
9.4608 × 10073 years
1.26144 × 10084 years
1.5768 × 10085 years
1.89216 × 10086 years
2.20752 × 10087 years
2.52288 × 10088 years
2.83824 × 10089 years
3.1536 × 100810 years1 decade
6.3072 × 100820 years
7.884 × 100825 years1 generation
9.4608 × 100830 years
1.0 × 100932 years1 gigasecond
1.26144 × 100940 years
1.5768 × 100950 years
1.89216 × 100960 years
2.20752 × 100970 years
2.52288 × 100980 years
2.83824 × 100990 years
3.1536 × 1009100 years1 century
3.1536 × 10101000 years1 millennium
3.1536 × 101110,000 years
8.51472 × 101127,000 yearsLight travels from Terra to Galactic Center
1.0 × 101232,000 years1 terasecond
3.1536 × 1012100,000 yearsLight crosses diameter of galaxy
1.5768 × 1013500,000 yearsAverage interval between gamma-ray bursts in average galaxy
(100,000 to 1,000,000 years)
3.1536 × 10131 million years1 epoch
8.0038368 × 10132.538 million yearsLight travels from Terra to Andromeda Galaxy
1.5768 × 10145 million yearsAverage interval between gamma-ray bursts angled and close enough to affect Terra
Lower estimate to colonize entire galaxy
3.1536 × 101410 million years
1.0 × 101532 million years1 petasecond
1.5768 × 101550 million yearsUpper estimate to colonize entire galaxy
3.1536 × 1015100 million years
7.9 × 1015255 million yearsOne galactic year (revolution of sol around galactic center)
3.1536 × 10161 billion years1 aeon
1.43 × 10174.54 billion yearsAge of Terra
1.44 × 10174.568 billion yearsAge of Solar System and Sol
3.1536 × 101710 billion years
4.30 × 101713.798 billion yearsAge of the Universe

Historical Time Line

From "Now"
(Jan 1, 2000 CE)
DateNotes
-13.798 billion yearsBirth of the universe in the Big Bang
-13.6 billion yearsFirst stars begin to shine
-13.1 billion yearsGalaxies form
-12.7 billion yearsAge of quasar CFHQS 1641+3755
-9.0 billion yearsEarliest Population I stars
-4.57 billion yearsA supernova seeds our galactic neighborhood with
heavy elements that will be incorporated into Terra
-4.567 billion yearsBirth of Sol
-4.566 billion yearsSol in T Tauri stage, emits protoplanetary disc
-4.550 billion yearsProto-Terra forms
-4.533 billion yearsCollision between proto-Terra and Theia forms Terra-Luna system
-4.250 billion yearsEarliest evidence of life on Terra
-4.1 billion yearsLate Heavy Bombardment (Lunar Cataclysm)
-3.6 billion yearsSimple cells (prokaryotes)
-3.4 billion yearsCyanobacteria performing photosynthesis
-2.4 billion yearsOxygen Catastrophe extinction event
-2.0 billion yearsComplex cells (eukaryotes)
-1.2 billion yearsEukaryotes which sexually reproduce
-1.0 billion yearsMulticellular life
-600 million yearsSimple animals, ozone layer
-550 million yearsBilaterians
-500 million yearsFish and proto-amphibians
-475 million yearsLand plants
-443.4 million yearsOrdovician–Silurian mass extinction events
(two extinctions separated by 1 million years) Terra's second largest extinction.
Possible gamma-ray burst
-400 million yearsInsects and seeds
-374 million yearsLate Devonian extinction event (Kellwasser Event)
-358.9 million yearsLate Devonian extinction event (Hangenberg Event)
-360 million yearsAmphibians
-300 million yearsReptiles
-252 million yearsPermian-Triassic extinction event (Terra's largest extinction)
Possible impact event
Formation of Siberian Traps
-225 million yearsEarliest dinosaurs
-222 million yearsRecovery from Permian-Triassic extinction event
-200 million yearsMammals
Triassic-Jurassic extinction event
-195 million yearsFirst sauropod dinosaurs
-176 million yearsStegosauria dinosaurs
-163 million yearsPterodactyls
-150 million yearsBirds
-130 million yearsFlowers
-120 million yearsOntong Java Plateau formed
Early Aptian anoxic extinction event
-92 million yearsCenomanian-Turonian extinction event
-68 million yearsTyrannosaurus rex, triceratops
-66 million yearsCretaceous-Paleogene extinction event
(the Dinosaur Killer Asteroid)
-60 million yearsPrimates
-20 million yearsthe family Hominidae (great apes)
-7.6 million yearsOlder supernovae that created the Local Bubble
-3.4 million yearsEarliest known stone tool
-3 million yearsBlack monoliths create first proto-humans
-2.5 million yearsthe genus Homo (including humans and their predecessors)
Start of Lower Paleolithic
Pliocene-Pleistocene marine extinction
Newer supernovae that created the Local Bubble
-2.3 million yearsHomo Habilis
-1.8 million yearsHomo Erectus
-1.2 million yearsOldest known tool
-800,000 yearsControlled use of fire
-490,000 yearsOldest known symbolic marking
-300,000 yearsEnd of Lower Paleolithic
Start of Middle Paleolithic
Star Geminga goes supernova, possibly creating the Local Bubble
-250,000 yearsNeanderthal Man
-200,000 yearsAnatomically Modern Humans
-110,000 yearsStart of Last Glacial Period (the "Ice Age")
-75,000 yearsToba supereruption almost makes human species extinct
-70,000 yearsScholz's star passes within 0.82 light-years (52,000 AU) of Sol
-50,000 yearsEnd of Middle Paleolithic
Start of Upper Paleolithic
-30,000 yearsExtinction of Neanderthals
-25,600 years23,600 BCEPolaris is the Pole Star
-16,000 years14,000 BCEDomestication of dogs
-15,000 years13,000 BCEStart of Holocene extinction event
Earliest evidence of warfare
-12,000 years10,000 BCEEnd of Last Glacial Period (the "Ice Age")
-11,700 years9700 BCEBering land bridge from Siberia to North America disappears
-11,500 years9500 BCEStart of Quaternary extinction event
-11,000 years9000 BCEApproximately the sinking of Atlantis, according to Plato
-10,800 years8800 BCEClosest approach of Kapteyn's Star to solar system
-10,000 years8000 BCEEnd of Upper Paleolithic
Start of Mesolithic
domestication of animals
Start of Neolithic Revolution (agriculture)
End of Quaternary extinction event
Invention of scratch plough allows inventors to be supported
-9,500 years7500 BCEDomestication of cats
-8,440 years6440 BCEKurile volcano on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula has VEI 7 eruption
-8,194 years6194 BCESupernova SN 1006 explodes
Will not be seen on Terra until 1006 CE
-7,500 years5500 BCEFormation of Sahara desert pushes people into Nile delta
-7,446 years5446 BCESupernova SN 1054 (Crab Nebula) explodes
Will not be seen on Terra until 1054 CE
-7,000 years5000 BCEInvention of the wheel
Invention of metallurgy
-6,000 years4000 BCEEnd of Mesolithic
Start of Neolithic
Start of Uruk period in Mesopotamia
-5,900 years3900 BCEIntense aridification (5.9 kiloyear event) triggers
worldwide migration to river valleys
Rise of patriarchy
Rise of institutionalized warfare
Rise of anthropomorphic gods
Myth of the "fall of man"
-5,100 years3100 BCEFirst dynasty of Egypt
-5,000 years3000 BCESumerian cuneiform writing system
Construction of Stonehenge begins
Thuban is the Pole Star
-4,800 years2800 BCEThree Sovereigns and Five Emperors period in China
Impact event creates Burkle Crater causing flood myths
-4,700 years2700 BCEOld Kingdom begins in Egypt
-4,600 years2600 BCEMature Harappan phase of Indus Valley civilization
Maya culture of Yucatán Peninsula
-4,560 years2560 BCEKing Khufu completes Great Pyramid of Giza
-4,500 years2500 BCEMammoth goes extinct
-4,200 years2200 BCECompletion of Stonehenge
-4,070 years2070 BCEYu the Great established the Xia Dynasty in China
-4,000 years2000 BCEDomestication of the horse
Construction of the Ziggurat of Ur
-3,800 years1800 BCEInvention of alphabetic writing
Epic of Gilgamesh
-3,600 years1600 BCEApproximately the Minoan eruption
(destruction of Thera, possibly Atlantis)
Destrution of Minoan civilzation on Crete.
Mycenaean Greece
Shang Dynasty in China
Hittites
-3,400 years1400 BCEOlmec civilzation in Mexico
-3,300 years1300 BCEEnd of Neolithic
Start of Bronze Age
-3,200 years1200 BCEEnd of Bronze Age
Start of Iron Age
-3,190 years1190 BCETrojan War
Historical period of Homer's The Odyssey
-3,180 years1180 BCEend of Hittite Empire
-3,046 years1046 BCEZhou Dynaty in China
-3,000 years1000 BCEβ Ursae Minoris is the Pole Star
-2,850 years850 BCEApproximately the historical period of Homer's Iliad
-2,800 years800 BCERise of Greek city-states
-2,753 years753 BCEFounding of Rome
-2,500 years500 BCEEnd of Iron Age
Invention of "zero" and binary numbering system by Pingala
-2,480 years480 BCEBattle of Thermopylae (The 300)
-2,044 years44 BCEEnd of Roman Republic
Start of Roman Empire
-1,921 years79 CEDestruction of Pompeii by volcanic eruption
-1,715 years285 CERoman Empire splits into Eastern and Western Empires
-1,600 years400 CEα Ursae Minoris is the Pole Star
-1,524 years476 CEFall of Roman Empire
Start of the Middle Ages
Start of the "Dark Ages" (term not used anymore)
-1,300 years700 CEHorse stirrup spreads to Europe and helps start the feudal system
-1,226 years774 CEGamma-ray burst causes high levels of Carbon 14
in Japanese tree rings
-1,020 years920 CEHorse collar harness spreads from China to Europe
helps end the feudal system
-1,050 years950 CEStart of Medieval Warm Period
-1,000 years1000 CEEnd of the "Dark Ages" (term not used anymore)
-994 years1006 CESupernova SN 1006 observed on Terra
Actually exploded in 6194 BCE
-946 years1054 CESupernova SN 1054 (Crab Nebula) observed on Terra
Actually exploded in 5446 BCE
-750 years1250 CEEnd of Medieval Warm Period
-700 years1300 CEStart of the Renaissance
-685 years1315 CEStart of Great Famine of 1315-17
-654 years1346 CEStart of the Black Death (second bubonic plague pandemic)
-647 years1353 CEEnd of the Black Death (second bubonic plague pandemic)
-650 years1350 CEStart of the Little Ice Age
-550 years1450 CEJohannes Gutenberg invents movable type mechanical printing
-547 years1453 CEEruption of Kuwae in Pacific contributes to fall of Constantinople
-500 years1500 CEEnd of the Middle Ages
-350 years1650 CEStart of Age of Enlightenment
-300 years1700 CEEnd of the Renaissance
-240 years1760 CEStart of Industrial Revolution
-224 years1776 CEEnd of Age of Enlightenment
-170 years1830 CEEnd of Industrial Revolution
-150 years1850 CEEnd of the Little Ice Age
-92 years1908 CETunguska Explosion decimates a remote part of Siberia
-90 years1910 CEHot buzz-word is "Electric"
-86 years1914 CEStart of World War I
-85 years1915 CEThe Sin of the Scientist
-82 years1918 CEEnd of World War I
-80 years1920 CEHot buzz-word is "Radio"
-63 years1937 CEStart of World War II
-55 years1945 CEStart of World War II
Nuclear weapons used on Japan
Start of Atomic Age
Hot buzz-word is "Atomic"
-50 years1950 CEHot buzz-word is "Transistorized"
-43 years1957 CELaunch of Sputnik
Start of the Space Age
-42 years1958 CEStart of the Nuclear Age
-40 years1960 CEHot buzz-word is "Laser"
-39 years1961 CEYuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space
-37 years1963 CEPartial Test Ban Treaty outlaws Project Orion
-31 years1969 CENeil Armstrong becomes first man on Luna
-30 years1970 CEHot buzz word is "Computerized"
-10 years1990 CEHot buzz word is "Nanotechnology"
-5 years1995 CEStart of the Information Age
0Jan 1,
2000 CE
Now
+170 years2170 CEPolaris is the Pole Star
+10,000 yearsPioneer 10 passes within 3.8 light years of Barnard's Star
+25,000 yearsThe Arecibo message reaches globular cluster Messier 13
+25,800 yearsPolaris is the Pole Star
+32,000 yearsPioneer 10 passes within 3 light years of Ross 248
+36,000 yearsRed dwarf star Ross 248 passes within 3.024 light years of Earth,
becoming the closest star to the Sun.
+40,000 yearsVoyager 1 passes within 1.6 light years of AC+79 3888
+100,000 yearsProper motion of stars in Terra's sky will render many
constellations unrecognisable
+296,000 yearsVoyager 2 passes within 4.3 light years of Sirius
+350,000 yearsHIP 85605 closest approach to solar system.
+950,000 yearsMeteor Crater in Arizona, considered the "freshest" of its kind,
will be eroded away by this time.
+1 million yearsGreat Pyramid of Giza eroded away
On Luna Neil Armstrong's footpring eroded away.
+1.4 million yearsGliese 710 closest approach to solar system.
+1.93 million yearsComet barrage caused by Scholz's Star enters the inner Solar System
+2 million yearsPioneer 10 passes near Aldebaran
+2.35 million yearsComet barrage caused by HIP 85605 enters the inner Solar System
+3.4 million yearsComet barrage caused by Gliese 710 enters the inner Solar System
+5 million yearsLower estimate for mankind to colonize every star
in the Milky Way galaxy
+7.2 million yearsMount Rushmore eroded away
+10 million yearsPlanet WASP-12b fully devoured by its mother star
+50 million yearsUpper estimate for mankind to colonize every star
in the Milky Way galaxy
The Californian coast begins to be subducted into the Aleutian Trench
Africa's collision with Eurasia closes the Mediterranean Basin
+100 million yearsUpper estimate for lifespan of the rings of Saturn in their current state
+250 million yearsAll the continents on Earth may fuse into a supercontinent
Amasia, Novopangaea, or Pangaea Ultima
+255 million yearsFrom its present position, the Solar System completes one full orbit
of the Galactic center
+400 million yearsSupercontinent of Terra splits and drifts apart
+600 million yearsTidal acceleration moves the Moon far enough from Earth that
total solar eclipses are no longer possible.
+2.8 billion yearsTerra's surface temperature, even at the poles,
reaches an average of 147 °C
+3.5 billion yearsSurface conditions on Terra are comparable to those on Venus today
+4 billion yearsAndromeda—Milky Way galactic collision starts
+5 billion yearsSol's hydrogen core exhausted
Sol leaves main sequence and evolves into a red giant
+7.5 billion yearsTerra and Mars become tidally locked to expanding Sol
+7.9 billion yearsSol reaches tip of red-giant branch of Hertsprung-Russel diagram
is at maximum radius of 256 times present day value
Mercury, Venus, and probably Terra have been consumed
+8 billion yearsSol becomes a carbon-oxygen white dwarf
with about 54.05 percent its present mass.

Distance Table

MetersMeasureNotes
3.1 × 10-8 m 1 yoctoparsec (ypc)10-24 parsec
0.000031 mm
length of 160 bacterial laid end to end
3.1 × 10-5 m 1 zeptoparsec (zpc)10-21 parsec
0.031 mm
0.06 the diameter of a grain of salt
0.031 m1 attoparsec (apc)10-18 parsec
3.1 cm
2/3 the length of your finger
0.3 m1 light-nanosecondDistance a photon travels in 1 nanosecond. Popularized by Grace Hopper.
Roughly 1 foot.
1 m1.09361 yards
1.77 m5' 10"White male height in 50th percentile
1.9 mApproximate height of man wearing NASA space suit
2 mAverage range of a confrontation with a handgun
4 mAverage length of an automobile. One "car-length".
6 mHeight of a giraffe
7.6 mMaximum effective range of Taser X-26
9 mUpper range of most confrontations with a handgun
12 mLength of US city bus
18 mGyrojet round has accelerated to maximum velocity and maximum damage
23 mRule of thumb range, beyond which it would make more sense
to use a slugthrower long-arm instead of slugthrower handgun
27 mLength of Millennium Falcon from Star Wars
30 mLength of Pilgrim Observer with spine retracted
Effective focus range for a Luke Campbell light laser pistol
31 m1 femtoparsec (fpc)10-15 parsec
Length of a Blue Whale
43 mHeight of Polaris spacecraft
from Tom Corbett Space Cadet
49 mHeight of Arc de Triomphe, Paris
50 mRule of thumb maximum effective range of slugthower handgun
Effective focus range for a Luke Campbell medium laser pistol
52 mHeight of UK Nelson's Column
56 mHeight of Space Shuttle Stack
72 mLength of a Boeing 747
80 mLength of north-south city block in Manhattan
84 mHeight of Ferry Rocket from Collier's
91 m100 yardsLength of US NFL football field (excluding end zones)
93 mHeight of Statue of Liberty
93 mLength of US DE-51 Destroyer Buckley
96 mHeight of UK Big Ben
100 mRange for full damage of bolt from a Luke Campbell heavy laser pistol
Length of a Canadian football field (including end zones).
US City Block (100 to 200 m)
102 mHeight of NASA Saturn V
102 mLength of Al Rafik
from Attack Vector: Tactical
105 mUK UEFA Champions League football pitch
108.5 mLength of International Space Station
109.728 m120 yardsLength of US NFL football field (including end zones)
112 mHeight of California Redwood Tree
113 mLength of Discovery from 2001 A Space Odyssey
140 mHeight of Great Pyramid of Cheops
150 mMaximum effective range of AK-47 grenade launcher
154 mLength of Russian Oscar class submarine
158 mHeight of UK Blackpool Tower
170 mHeight of Washington Monument
184 mHeight of Seattle Space Needle
228 mLength of Klingon D7 battlecruiser from Star Trek
245 mLength of LZ-129 Passenger airship Hindenburg
250 mEffective focus range for a Luke Campbell assault laser
270 mMaximum effective combat range of M1 carbine
Length of US BB-62 battleship New Jersey
289 mLength of NCC-1701 Starship Enterprise from Star Trek
300 mMaximum average range of infantry engagement
324 mHeight of Eiffel Tower
336 mLength of US CVN-65 aircraft carrier Enterprise
350 mEffective range of AK-47 rifle
Range for full damage of bolt from a Luke Campbell battle laser
365 mRange at which 13mm Gyrojet rounds loses effective velocity
449 mHeight of Empire State building
460 mEffective range of M16A1 rifle
519 mHeight of Sears Tower building
600 mMaximum effective range of M4 carbine
Maximum effective range of M16 rifle (point target)
800 mMaximum effective range of M16 rifle (area target)
31,000 m1 picoparsec(ppc)10-12 parsec
Diameter of Baltimore, Maryland USA
31 kilometers
160,000 m160 kmLower altitude limit of LEO
431,000 m431 kmAverage altitude of International Space Station above Terra's surface
975,000 m975 kmLong diameter of asteroid Ceres
2,000,000 m2,000 kmUpper altitude limit of LEO
Lower altitude limit of MEO
1.2742 × 107 m Mean diameter of Terra
3.0857 × 107 m 1 nanoparsec (npc)10-9 parsec
2.5 times the diameter of Terra
1/13th the distance between Terra and Luna
30,857 km
3.5786 × 107 m Geosynchronus orbit altitude
Upper altitude limit of MEO
Lower altitude limit of HEO
4.0 × 107 m Approximate circumference of Terra
1.3982 × 108 m Mean diameter of Jupiter
2.9979 × 108 m 1 light-second
3.844 × 108 m Distance between Terra and Luna
1 LD = "Lunar Distance"
2.9979 × 108 m 10 light-seconds
9.6600 × 108 m Diameter of Saturn's ring system
1.3920 × 109 m Mean diameter of Sol
1.7988 × 1010 m 1 light-minute
3.0857 × 1010 m 1 microparsec (μpc)10-6 parsec
A bit less than the Sol-Mercury semi-major axis
0.206 AU
1.4960 × 1011 m 1 AUDistance between Terra and Sol
Approximate radius of a Dyson sphere or Ringworld
1.7988 × 1011 m 10 light-minutes
1.0793 × 1012 m 1 light-hour
5.9064 × 1012 m 39.482 AUDistance between Pluto and Sol
5.4 light hours
1.0793 × 1013 m 10 light-hours
2.5902 × 1013 m 1 light-day
3.0857 × 1013 m 1 milliparsec (mpc)10-3 parsec
Approximately four times the Sol-Pluto aphelion
206 AU
8.108 × 1013 m 542 AUFocus point distance of Solar Gravitational Lens
2.5902 × 1014 m 10 light-days
3.0857 × 1014 m 1 centiparsec (cpc)10-2 parsec
Sol to inner boundary of Hills section of the Oort Cloud
2,063 AU
3.0857 × 1015 m 1 deciparsec (dpc)10-1 parsec
Sol to outer boundary of Hills section of the Oort Cloud
20,627 AU
9.4605 × 1015 m 1 light-year63241.1 AU
1.6971 × 1016 m 1.8 light-yearsDistance from Sol where it would have the apparent magnitude of Sirius
3.0857 × 1016 m 1 parsec (pc)100 parsec
74% of the distance between Sol and Proxima Centauri
3.26 light years
4.0132 × 1016 m 4.2421 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Proxima Centauri
4.1295 × 1016 m 4.3650 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Rigil Kentaurus (α Centauri A and B)
5.6413 × 1016 m 5.9630 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Barnard's Star
Medusae Homeworld
6.2345 × 1016 m 6.59 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Luhman 16 (brown dwarf)
6.8116 × 1016 m 7.2 light-yearsDistance between Sol and WISE 0855-0714 (brown dwarf)
7.3626 × 1016 m 7.8 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Wolf 359
7.8432 × 1016 m 8.3 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Lalande 21185
8.1198 × 1016 m 8.6 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Sirius
9.4605 × 1016 m 1 light-decade10 light-years
3.07 parsecs
9.9099 × 1016 m 10.457 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Epsilon Eridani
Babylon 5
1.0794 × 1017 m 11.41 light-yearsDistance between Sol and 61 Cygni
Mesklin
1.0842 × 1017 m 11.46 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Procyon
1.1263 × 1017 m 11.905 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Tau Ceti
Downbelow Station
1.2072 × 1017 m 12.76 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Kapteyn's Star
1.5 × 1017 m 1 million AU1 Siriometer
15.8 light-years
4.8 parsecs
1.5232 × 1017 m 16.1 light-yearsDistance between Sol and HIP 85605
1.5563 × 1017 m 16.45 light-yearsDistance between Sol and 40 Eridani
Vulcan homeworld
1.5686 × 1017 m 16.58 light-yearsDistance between Sol and 70 Ophiuchi
1.6083 × 1017 m 17 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Altair
Forbidden Planet
1.7757 × 1017 m 18.77 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Sigma Draconis
1.8647 × 1017 m 19.71 light-yearsDistance between Sol and 82 Eridani
1.8845 × 1017 m 19.92 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Delta Pavonis
1.8921 × 1017 m 20.00 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Scholz's star
2.3017 × 1017 m 24.33 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Beta Hydri
2.3689 × 1017 m 25.04 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Vega
2.9422 × 1017 m 31.1 light-yearsDistance between Sol and 61 Ursae Majoris
Kzinti Homeworld
3.0857 × 1017 m 1 decaparsec (dapc)10 parsecs
32.6 light-years
3.7047 × 1017 m 39.24 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Zeta Reticuli binary system
5.2765 × 1017 m 55.7 light-yearsMax distance where Sol is naked-eye visible
(apparent magnitude of 6.0)
6.0547 × 1017 m 64 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Gliese 710
6.1493 × 1017 m 65 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Aldebaran
8.7983 × 1017 m 93 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Algol
9.4605 × 1017 m 1 light-century100 light-years
30.67 parsecs
1.4191 × 1018 m 150 light-yearsDistance between Sol and IK Pegasi
Nearest known supernova candidate
1.4285 × 1018 m 151 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Nu Ophiuchi
Tékumel
1.4475 × 1018 m 153 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Hyades star cluster
1.7218 × 1018 m 182 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Alpha Sagittarii
Pern
1.7984 × 1018 m 190.1 light-yearsDistance between Sol and HD 140283
2.3651 × 1018 m 250 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Spica
2.5673 × 1018 m 271 light-yearsMaximum distance where Sirus is naked-eye visible
(apparent magnitude 6.0)
2.9328 × 1018 m 310 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Canopus
Dune
3.0857 × 1018 m 1 hectoparsec (hpc)100 parsecs
326 light-years
4.2005 × 1018 m 444 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Pleiades star cluster
4.6356 × 1018 m 490 light-yearsWidest diameter of Local Bubble
5.2033 × 1018 m 550 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Antares
5.6763 × 1018 m 600 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Coalsack Nebula
9.0821 × 1018 m 960 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Beta Lyrae spiral
9.4605 × 1018 m 1 light-millennium1,000 light-years
306.7 parsecs
1.2714 × 1019 m 1,344 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Orion Nebula
2.1759 × 1019 m 2,300 light-yearsDistance between Sol and WR 104 pre-supernova
Distance between Sol and the Ring Nebula in Lyra
2.4730 × 1019 m 2,600 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Deneb
3.0857 × 1019 m 1 kiloparsec (kpc)1,000 parsecs
3,260 light-years
1.4948 × 1020 m 15,800 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Omega Centauri cluster
2.1002 × 1020 m 22,200 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Hercules Globular Cluster
2.5543 × 1020 m 27,000 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Galactic Center
9.4605 × 1020 m 100,000 light-yearsDiameter of Milky Way galaxy
1.5988 × 1021 m 169,000 light-yearsDistance between Sol and S Doradus
2.4010 × 1022 m 2,538,000 light-yearsDistance between Sol and Andromeda Galaxy
3.0857 × 1022 m 1 megaparsec (Mpc)1,000,000 parsecs
3,260,000 light-years
1.8921 × 1024 m 200 million light-yearsApproximate distance to the Great Attractor
4.4464 × 1026 m 47 billion light-yearsEdge of Observable Universe

Mass Table

Representative masses of various items.

Mass
MassItemNotes
68 kgAverage person
79 kgOrion Pulse UnitUSAF 10 meter Orion, 2.0 × 106 N
141 kgOrion Pulse UnitNASA 10 meter Orion, 3.0 × 106 N
450 kgOrion Pulse Unit20 meter Orion, 1.4 × 107 N
800 kgGPS satellite
1,000 kgCommunication satellite
1,000 kgWeather satellite
1,152 kgOrion Pulse Unit4000 ton Orion, 8.8 × 107 N
3,693 kgPolaris TransHab
habitat module
scaled to 1 crew, 18 months endurance
5,700 kgStandard TransHab
habitat module
scaled to 1 crew, 18 months endurance
11,000 kgHubble Space Telescope
13,000 kgKH-11 spy satellite
22,156 kgPolaris TransHab
habitat module
6 crew, 18 months endurance
24,000 kgStandard
cargo container
Modern-day international shipping.
2,200 kg of container and up to 21,800 kg of cargo
30,500 kgExtra large
cargo container
Modern-day international shipping.
3,800 kg of container and up to 26,700 kg of cargo
34,000 kgStandard TransHab
habitat module
6 crew, 18 months endurance
77,000 kgSkylab
1.24 × 105 kgSpace Station Mir
2.87 × 105 kgInternational
Space Station
3.78 × 105 kgPolaris
1.9 × 106 kgSolar Power Satellite1 gW
2.75 × 106 kgLunar Mass Driver
1.39 × 107 kgRussian
Oscar-II submarine
1.7 × 107 kgLunar Base (150 crew)
1.9 × 107 kgSolar Power Satellite10 gW
3.7 × 107 kgSolar Power Satellite5 gW (Rockwell International estimate)
1.45 × 108 kgStation Vfrom 2001 Space Odyssey
1.9 × 109 kgSolar Power Satellite1 tW
2.8 × 109 kgSolar Power Satellite1.5 tW
1.0 × 1010 kgL5 Colony
6.0 × 1015 kgApproximate mass of Mount Everest
9.47 × 1020 kgAsteroid Ceres

Velocity Table

Alpha
VelocityItemNotes
0.008 m/sSnail
8.9 m/s
(20 mph)
Greater
Roadrunner
19.2 m/s
(43 mph)
Coyote
24.6 m/s
(55 mph)
Speed Limitfor automobiles in the United States
33.5 m/s
(75 mph)
Cheetah
47.0 m/s
(105.1 mph)
BaseballCincinnati Reds left-handed relief pitcher Aroldis Chapman, September 25, 2010
260 m/s.45 ACPColt M1911 slugthrower bullet
<273 m/s
(<Mach 0.8)
Subsonic
273 to
409 m/s
(Mach 0.8-1.2)
Transonic
320 m/s.38 Specialslugthrower bullet
340 m/s.22 Shortslugthrower bullet
341 m/s
(760 mph)
Land Speed
Record
October 15, 1997
343 m/sMach 1Speed of sound
350 m/s9 mmLuger Parabellum slugthrower bullet
380 m/s13 mm StdGyrojet round
410 to
1,702 m/s
(Mach 1.2-5.0)
Supersonic
430 m/s.357 Magnumslugthrower bullet
450 m/s13 mm Std LngGyrojet round
450 m/s.44 MagnumAutoMag slugthrower bullet (almost a rifle bullet)
700 m/s13 mm Hi VelGyrojet round
1,702 to
3,403 m/s
(Mach 5.0-10.0)
Hypersonic
2,305 m/s
(Mach 6.72)
NASA X-43
3,293 m/s
(Mach 9.6)
NASA X-15
3,403 to
8,508 m/s
(Mach 10.0-25.0)
High
hypersonic
NASA X-43
5,748 m/sTerra-Mars ΔVΔV required for Hohmann transfer from Terra orbit to Mars orbit
>8,508 m/s
(>Mach 25.0)
Re-entry
speeds
11,186 m/sTerra
escape velocity
relative to Terra's gravity
100,000 m/sRunaway StarNot fast enough to escape gravitational pull of the galaxy
492,000 to
594,000 m/s
Milky Way
escape velocity
Escape from postion at solar system's galactic radius, relative to the Milky Way's gravity
1,000,000 m/sHypervelocity
Star
Fast enough to escape gravitational pull of the galaxy
299,792,458 m/scSpeed of light in a vacuum. Ultimate speed limit according to Special Relativity
Laser beam
Escape velocity at a black hole's event horizon

Alpha (power-to-weight) Table

"Alpha" (α) is "kilograms per kilowatt" (kg/kW). Multiply by required kilowattage to find the total mass. For instance, a fuel cell that generates 15 kilowatts will have a mass of 9.8 × 15 = 147 kg.

  • kg/Wh is kilogram per watt-hour of electrical power stored
  • kg/kWe is kilogram per kilowatt of electrical power generated
  • kg/kWth is kilogram per kilowatt of (thermal) waste heat radiated away
  • kg/p is kilogram per person
  • kg/pd is kilogram per person-day
  • kg/Mt is kilogram per megaton of nuclear exlosion
Alpha
AlphaItemNotes
0.01 kg/WhBatteryLithium-Ion rechargables
0.029 kg/WhBatteryNickle-Cadmium and Nickle-Hydrogen rechargables
2.3 kg/pdFoodOne day's worth of food for one person
0.033 kg/WhFlywheelNASA prototype
3.7×10-4 kg/WhFlywheelTheoretical maximum
9.8 kg/kWeFuel cell
4,606 kg/pHabitat ModuleTransHab mass per person.
not including food but including air and water
16.3 kg/kWthHeat radiatorLife support type (low temperature)
96 kg/pHeat radiatorTransHab mass per person.
Life support (low temperature)
934 kg/pLife SupportTransHab mass per person.
Air and water supply, plus air and water recycling.
Environmental heat radiator.
0.493 kg/kWeNuclear ReactorLos Alamos heat pipe reactor
18 kg/kWeNuclear reactorCurrent state-of-the-art
500 kg/MtNuclear WarheadUS W87 thermonuclear warhead
100 kg/kWeRTGPossible next generation
200 kg/kWeRTGCurrent state-of-the-art
10 kg/kWeSolar Cell Arraygenerated at Terra Orbit
Flexible deployable array
16 kg/kWeSolar Cell Arraygenerated at Terra Orbit
Rigid body mounted array

Rho (density) Table

"Rho" (ρ) is density or "kilograms per cubic meter" (kg/m3). Multiply it by the volume to find the total mass.

Rho
RhoItemNotes
11 kg/m3Space Shuttle
External Tank
large portion of volume is dedicated to propellant
70.85 kg/m3Liquid Hydrogen
74 kg/m3Space StationAverage for International Space Station
85 kg/m3Inflatable HabitatBigelow Expandable Activity Module
88 kg/m3Space Shuttle Orbiter
135 kg/m3Space StationDestiny lab at the International Space Station
175 kg/m3Space StationMir
194 kg/m3Space StationTranquility module at the International Space Station
206 kg/m3Space Shuttle
Solid Rocket Booster
250 kg/m3WarshipSpacecraft from Attack Vector: Tactical
280 kg/m3Jet Airliner
350 kg/m3Fighter Aircraft
350 kg/m3Average CargoModern day international shipping
600 kg/m3WarshipWet Navy
681.9 kg/m3Liquid Ammonia (NH3)
700 kg/m3BattleshipWorld War 2 wet navy
807 kg/m3Liquid Nitrogen
900 kg/m3SubmarineWet Navy
Has to be less dense than water
917 kg/m3Ice (H2O)
1,000 kg/m3Water (H2O)
1,141 kg/m3Liquid Oxygen (LOX)
1,738 kg/m3Magnesium
2,267 kg/m3Graphite
2,700 kg/m3Aluminum
3,515 kg/m3Diamond
4,506 kg/m3Titanium
11,340 kg/m3Lead
11,340 kg/m3Lead
19,100 kg/m3Uranium
19,300 kg/m3Gold
19,816 kg/m3Plutonium
1 × 109 kg/m3Dwarf Star MatterElectron-degenerate matter
4 × 1017 kg/m3NeutroniumNeutron-degenerate matter

Surface Area Table

Surface Area
AreaItemNotes
0.445 m2Male
cross section
Approximate radiation cross section of a male
with surface area of 1.78 m2 (1/4 surface area)
1.78 m2Male skinSkin surface area of male
68 kg in mass and 168 centimeters tall
232 m2Helipadstandard 50' x 50'
1.6×105 m2Stanford torusHabitable area
5.0×105 m2Deimos
1.6×106 m2Phobos
8.7×107 m2Manhattan islandCities in Flight
3.3×108 m2O'Neill cylinderHabitable area
7.9×108 m2New York City
3.0×109 m2Bishop RingHabitable area
Approximately the size of Argentina or India.
3.2×109 m2Alpha HaloHabitable area
8.67×1011 m2Vesta(0.002 Terra)
2.77×1012 m2Ceres(0.005 Terra)
3.96×1012 m2DioneSaturn IV (0.008 Terra)
4.21×1012 m2ArielUranus I (0.008 Terra)
4.3×1012 m2UmbrielUranus II (0.008 Terra)
4.58×1012 m2CharonPluto I (0.009 Terra)
6.7×1012 m2IapetusSaturn VIII (0.013 Terra)
6.8×1012 m2Haumea(0.013 Terra)
6.9×1012 m2Makemake(0.014 Terra)
7.29×1012 m2OberonUranus IV (0.014 Terra)
7.82×1012 m2TitaniaUranus III (0.015 Terra)
1.7×1013 m2Eris(0.033 Terra)
2.3×1013 m2TritonNeptune I (0.045 Terra)
3.1×1013 m2EuropaJupiter II (0.061 Terra)
3.8×1013 m2LunaTerra I (0.074 Terra)
4.2×1013 m2IoJupiter I (0.082 Terra)
7.3×1013 m2CallistoJupiter IV (0.143 Terra)
7.5×1013 m2Mercury(0.147 Terra)
8.3×1013 m2TitanSaturn VIII (0.163 Terra)
8.7×1013 m2GanymedeJupiter III (0.171 Terra)
1.45×1014 m2Mars(0.284 Terra)
4.6×1014 m2Venus(0.902 Terra)
1.49×1014 m2Terra (land)29.2% of total surface area
3.61×1014 m2Terra (ocean)70.8% of total surface area
5.1×1014 m2Terra (total)100% of total surface area
3.6×1013 m2Culture OrbitalApproximately 70 times surface area of Terra.
Orbital sizes vary from 20 to 120 Terra surface area.
1.6×1018 m2Niven RingworldApproximately 3 million times the surface area of Terra
Approximate surface area of interstellar empire with 3 million planets
2.8×1020 m2Dyson ShellApproximately 550 million times the surface area of Terra
Approximate surface area of interstellar empire with 550 million planets

Volume Table

Volume
VolumeItemNotes
0.0664 m3Average human
body
data based on sample of 521 people,
age range 17-51 years
0.88 m3Person envelopeApproximate Dimension Required to Accommodate
the Body Motion Envelope of the
95th Percentile American Male
71 cm wide × 72 cm long × 172 cm high
2.7 m3Capsule HotelInternal volume of unit of Japanese Capsule Hotel
2.04m long × 1.158m wide × 1.138m tall
13.5 m31 dton1 Displacement Ton from the Traveller RPG.
1.5m wide × 3m long × 3m tall
Volume of 1 metric ton of liquid hydrogen
17 m3Habitat module
vol/crew
Minimum habitat volume per crew member
mission of 6 months or more
33 m3Standard
cargo container
Modern-day international shipping.
Maximum mass of 24 metric tons
(2.2 tons of container and up to 21.8 tons of cargo)
40 m3Standard TransHab
habitat module
scaled to 1 crew, 18 months endurance
67.5 m3Extra large
cargo container
Modern-day international shipping.
Maximum mass of 30.5 metric tons
(3.8 tons of container and up to 26.7 tons of cargo)
240.91 m3Standard TransHab
habitat module
6 crew, 18 months endurance
504 m3Polaris
553 m3Space Shuttle
External Tank
liquid oxygen tankage
1,160 m3Space Shuttle
Payload Bay
24,400 kg to LEO
1,497 m3Space Shuttle
External Tank
liquid hydrogen tankage
15,400 m3Russian
Oscar-II submarine

Temperature Table

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Infographic from BBC

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